Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Veen kan tegen een klimaatstootje
Kleis, Roelof ; Nijp, J.J. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)9. - p. 9 - 9.
klimaatverandering - koolstofvastlegging - koolstofcyclus - veengebieden - climatic change - carbon sequestration - carbon cycle - peatlands
Venen spelen een belangrijke rol in de koolstofcyclus. Een vijfde deel van alle koolstof in de bodem zit in veen. Venen zijn daarmee belangrijke koolstofmagazijnen. Maar blijft die opslagfunctie in stand als het klimaat verandert? Jelmer Nijp promoveerde vorige week op een studie naar het effect van veranderde regenval op venen.
A new role for forests and the forest sector in the EU post-2020 climate targets
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nesbit, Martin ; Ollikainen, Markku ; Savaresi, Annalisa - \ 2015
European Forest Institute (From Science to Policy 2) - ISBN 9789525980202 - 30 p.
forestry - environmental policy - land use - european union - carbon sequestration - forests - biomass production - biobased economy - bosbouw - milieubeleid - landgebruik - europese unie - koolstofvastlegging - bossen - biomassa productie
We are living in a time of accelerated changes and unprecedented global challenges: energy security, natural resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, fossil-resource dependence and climate change. Yet the challenges also demand new solutions and offer new opportunities. The cross-cutting nature of forests and the forest-based sector provides a strong basis to address these interconnected societal challenges, while supporting the development of a European bioeconomy. The |European Forest Institue is an unbiased, science-based international organisation that provides the best forest science knowledge and information for better informed policy making. EFI provides support for decision-takers, policy makers and institutions, bringing together cross-boundery scientific knowledge and expertise to strengthen science-policy dialogue.
A review of blue carbon in the Netherlands
Tamis, J.E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C151/15) - 29
carbon - marine environment - coastal areas - biodiversity - carbon sequestration - climatic change - north sea - wadden sea - netherlands - koolstof - marien milieu - kustgebieden - biodiversiteit - koolstofvastlegging - klimaatverandering - noordzee - waddenzee - nederland
Blue carbon (the carbon stored in marine and coastal ecosystems – in biomass, buried in sediments and sequestered from the atmosphere and ocean) is considered as an issue of interest regarding its potential as a climate change mitigation measure in the OSPAR maritime area (OSPAR, 2015). Because blue carbon has not yet been properly explored in the North East Atlantic, OSPAR requested the Dutch government to provide information about blue carbon in the Netherlands and opportunities to enhance blue carbon in the Netherlands.
Carbon debt : inzichtelijk maken van maatschappelijke risico's van het opnemen van carbon debt vereisten
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Croezen, H. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2525)
koolstof - kooldioxide - koolstofvastlegging - schuld - biomassa - hout - bio-energie - risicobeheersing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - energiecentrales - biobased economy - carbon - carbon dioxide - carbon sequestration - debt - biomass - wood - bioenergy - risk management - sustainability - power industry
In het Energieakkoord is afgesproken dat meestook van biomassa in kolencentrales niet meer wordt dan 25 PetaJoule. Als onderdeel van de totale biomassa is zo’n 3,5 miljoen ton hout nodig. De mee te stoken biomassa zal aanvullend op de NTA8080-eisen moeten voldoen aan ‘duurzaamheidseisen voor koolstofschuld, indirecte landgebruikseffecten (ILUC) en duurzaam bosbeheer (FSC)’. In dit rapport wordt verkend, in hoeverre de duurzaamheidseisen genoemd in het Energieakkoord, risico’s op een carbon debt al uitsluiten en welke biomassa-stromen additioneel uitgesloten worden door een carbon debt eis. Ook zijn mogelijke procesrisico’s geïdentificeerd die discussie over carbon debt kan opleveren voor de verdere uitwerking van de afspraken uit het Energieakkoord.
Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance
Lubbers, I.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lijbert Brussaard, co-promotor(en): Jan-Willem van Groenigen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739315 - 222
aardwormen - oligochaeta - broeikasgassen - bodem - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - koolstofvastlegging - emissie - bodembiologie - earthworms - greenhouse gases - soil - soil carbon sequestration - carbon sequestration - emission - soil biology

Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms stimulating C sequestration on the one hand and increasing GHG emissions on the other has not been investigated. Indeed, much is still unclear about how earthworms interact with agricultural land use and soil management practices, making predictions on their effects in agro-ecosystems difficult. In this thesis, I aimed to determine to what extent GHG mitigation by soil C sequestration as affected by earthworms is offset by earthworm-induced GHG emissions from agro-ecosystems under different types of management. To reach this aim, I combined mesocosm and field studies, as well as meta-analytic methods to quantitatively synthesize the literature.

Using meta-analysis, I showed that, on average, earthworm activity leads to a 24% increase in aboveground biomass, a 33% increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and a 42% increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The magnitude of these effects depends on soil factors (e.g., soil organic matter content), experimental factors (e.g., crop residue addition or fertilizer type and rate) and earthworm factors (e.g., earthworm ecological category and -density).

Conducting both a mesocosm and a field study, I showed that earthworm activity results in increased N2O emissions from fertilized grasslands. Under field conditions I found an increase in earthworm-induced N2O emissions in autumn but not in spring, suggesting that earthworm effects in the field depend on soil physicochemical parameters influenced by meteorological and seasonal dynamics.

In a unique two-year experiment with a simulated no-tillage (NT) system and a simulated conventional tillage (CT) system, I found that earthworm presence increases GHG emissions in an NT system to the same level as in a CT system. This suggests that the GHG mitigation potential of NT agro-ecosystems is limited. When considering the C budget in the simulated NT system, I demonstrated that over the course of the experiment earthworms increase cumulative CO2 emissions by at least 25%, indicating a higher C loss compared to the situation without earthworms. Yet, in the presence of earthworms the incorporation of residue-derived C into all measured soil aggregate fractions also increased, indicating that earthworm activity can simultaneously enhance CO2 emissions and C incorporation into aggregate fractions.

In conclusion, the revealed dominance of GHG emissions over C sequestration as affected by earthworms implies that their presence in agro-ecosystems results in a negative impact on the soil greenhouse gas balance.

The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe
Mujuru, L. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Marcel Hoosbeek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739285 - 209
koolstofvastlegging - klimaatverandering - bossen - agro-ecosystemen - mitigatie - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - koolstofcyclus - koolstof - zimbabwe - carbon sequestration - climatic change - forests - agroecosystems - mitigation - soil carbon sequestration - carbon cycle - carbon

Climate change adversely affects human livelihoods and the environment through alteration of temperatures, rainfall patterns, sea level rise and ecosystem productivity. Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because they directly depend on agriculture and natural ecosystem products for their livelihoods. Mitigation of climate change impacts includes practices that can store carbon (C) in soil and biomass thus, reducing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gasses. In addition, planted and natural forests that store large amounts of C, can become key resources for mitigating and reducing vulnerability to climate change, whilst infertile agricultural soils require large amounts of chemical and/or organic fertilisers to improve productivity. Increasing awareness about climate change mitigation has led to realisation of a need for sustainable land management practices and promoting soil C sequestration to reduce the greenhouse effects.

The C storage potential of agricultural soils is compounded by conventional tillage practices, covering large areas with only small portions of fields dedicated to conservation farming practices. Maintaining soil and crop productivity under these agricultural systems becomes a major challenge especially in rain-fed arid and semi-arid regions, characterised by long annual dry spells. Conservation tillage practices, such as no-till and reduced tillage, have been reported to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural systems as they reduce soil disturbance, whereas conventional tillage has been criticised for causing soil C losses, accelerating soil erosion and displacing of soil nutrients, despite benefits, such as reduced soil compaction, weed control and preparation of favourable seedbed, which have been reported under conventional tillage. The identification of appropriate agricultural management practices is critical for realisation of the benefits of Soil C sequestration and reducing emissions from agricultural activities.

This thesis was planned to improve our understanding on how tillage, fertilisation, tree planting or natural forest conservation can enhance C sequestration and thus mitigate climate change. The main goal was to quantify the influence of tillage, fertilisation and plantation forestry practices on C and N dynamics in bulk soil and density separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions relative natural forest. Tillage treatments under reduced tillage (RP), no tillage (DS) and conventional tillage (CT) were compared with natural forests (NF) in sandy Haplic Arenosols and clayey Rhodic Ferralsols. Impacts of fertilisation were assessed from three fertility treatments; unfertilised control (control), nitrogen fertiliser (N Fert) and nitrogen fertiliser plus cattle manure (N Fert + manure) in conventionally tilled fields on Arenosols (sandy soil) and Luvisols (clayey soil) along two soil fertility gradients. Similarly, C and N storage in tree farming was studied using a Pinus patula chronosequence. Soil sampling followed randomised complete block design with four replications in agricultural systems and two replicates in each plantation age stands and natural forest. Sodium polytungstate (density 1.6 g cm-3) was used to isolate organic matter into free light fraction (fLF), occluded light fraction (oLF) and mineral associated heavy fraction (MaHF). Carbon an N were analysed by dry combustion and C and N stocks calculated using bulk density, depth and C and N concentration. The RothC model was used to match density separated fractions with conceptual model pools for agricultural and natural forest soils.

Findings from tillage studies showed significantly larger C and N stocks in natural forests than tillage systems despite the open access use of the natural forests. The C and N stocks were significantly lower in sandy than clayey soils. At 0–10 cm depth, SOC stocks increased under CT, RP and DS by 0.10, 0.24, 0.36 Mg ha−1yr−1 and 0.76, 0.54, 0.10 Mg ha−1yr−1 on sandy and clayey soils respectively over a four year period while N stocks decreased by 0.55, 0.40, 0.56 Mg ha−1yr−1 and 0.63, 0.65, 0.55 Mg ha−1yr−1 respectively. Under prevailing climatic and management conditions, improvement of residue retention could be a major factor that can distinguish the potential of different management practices for C sequestration.

Among the fertility treatments, there were significantly higher SOC and TON stocks under N Fert and N Fert + manure at 0-10 cm soil depth in Luvisols. Although this effect was not significant at 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm depth. On Arenosols, N Fert had highest C and N at all depths except at 0-10 cm. The storage of C and N on Luvisols, followed: control < N Fert < N Fert + manure whereas Arenosols had control < N Fert + manure < N Fert. Compared with control, N Fert and N Fert + manure enhanced fLF C on homefields and outfields by 19%, 24% and 9%, 22% on Luvisols and 17%, 26% and 26%, 26% respectively on Arenosols. Homefields on Luvisols, under N Fert and N Fert + manure had similar equilibrium levels, which were 2.5 times more than control.

Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric CO2 storing C in soil and biomass although the C storage potential varies with forest type and plant species composition. In this research, storage of C and N were highest in moist forest and lowest in the Miombo woodland. In both natural and planted forests, above ground tree biomass was the major ecosystem C pool followed by forest floor’s humus (H) layer. The mineral soil had 45%, 31% and 24% of SOC stored at the 0–10, 10–30 and 30–60 cm soil depths respectively. Stand age affected C and N storage significantly having an initial decline after establishment recovering rapidly up to 10 years, after which it declined and increased again by 25 years. Average soil C among the Pinus compartments was 12 kg m-2, being highest at 10 years and lowest in the 1 year old stands. Organic N was also highest at 10 years and least at 25 years. The proportional mass of fLF and oLF in Miombo woodlands was similar while the other stands had higher fLF than oLF. The highest LF was in the moist forest. In the Pinus patula stands the fLF C contributed between 22−25%, the oLF C contributed 8−16% and MaHF C contributed between 60−70% to total SOC. Carbon in MaHF and oLF increased with depth while the fLF decreased with depth in all except the 1 and the 10 year old stands. Conversion of depleted Miombo woodlands to pine plantations can yield better C gains in the short and long run whilst moist forests provide both carbon and biodiversity. Where possible moist forests should be conserved and enrichment planting done in degraded areas to sustain them and if possible the forests can be considered as part of future projects on reduced emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). It is believed that REDD+ can promote both conservation and socio economic welfare, including poverty alleviation by bringing together the development of the forest and climate change link in African forests and woodlands. The focus on the monetary valuation and payment for environmental services can contribute to the attraction of political support for soil conservation. Developing countries therefore, need to formulate enabling economic and institutional land management policies that have positive impacts on poverty alleviation, food security and environmental sustainability.

Soil C models are used to predict impacts of land management on C storage. The RothC 2.63 model was used for estimating SOC stock under selected land management practices on the clayey and sandy soils of Zimbabwe. There is greater potential to store more C in clayey soils than sandy soils and in practices that receive more organic inputs. Results show that the RothC model pool of HUM + IOM is related to the measured MaHF from density fractionation and that the model can be used to estimate SOC stock changes on Zimbabwean agricultural and forest soils. The relationship between equilibrium levels estimated by the RothC model and those estimated using the Langmuir equation was good. A 1.5˚ C rise in temperature was found to cause the A and B systems on clayey soils to sequester more C. The results also show that, when holding all the other factors constant, the model is sufficiently sensitive to a rise in temperatures with sandy soils reaching an equilibrium much earlier than clayey soils. The modelling approach represents one of the most promising methods for the estimation of SOC stock changes and allowed us to evaluate the changes in SOC in the past period on the basis of measured data. However, since the data were obtained from short term experiments (4−9 years), further ground validation can be hampered by the lack of long-term experimental trials in the southern African region. The deficiency of adequate experimental sites also limits further work on model uncertainties. The understanding soil quality and dynamics however, helps to design sustainable agricultural systems, while achieving the urgently needed win-win situation in enhancing productivity and sequestering C.

Kosten en baten van terrestrische natuur: methoden en resultaten : achtergronddocument bij Natuurverkenning 2010-2040
Leneman, H. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Schouten, A.D. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 278) - 76
natuurbeheer - natuurgebieden - milieubeleid - depositie - kosten-batenanalyse - verdroging - koolstofvastlegging - biomassa productie - nature management - natural areas - environmental policy - deposition - cost benefit analysis - desiccation - carbon sequestration - biomass production
Dit werkdocument gaat in op de methoden en resultaten van de kosten en baten uit de atuurverkenning 2010- 2040, die met terrestrische natuur samenhangen. De kosten- en batenberekeningen worden getoond voor de vier kijkrichtingen uit de Natuurverkenning. De kostenberekeningen omvatten aankoop en inrichting, beheer en maatregelen om de verdroging en de depositie tegen te gaan. De effecten op houtproductie, biomassaproductie en koolstofvastlegging vormen de batenberekeningen. Ook zijn de secundaire kosten en baten van de kijkrichtingen voor de land- en tuinbouw geschat.
Mogelijkheden voor koolstofvastlegging in de Nederlandse landbouw en natuur
Lesschen, J.P. ; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Verkaik, E. ; Wyngaert, I.J.J. van den; Kuikman, P.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2396) - 61
bodemchemie - kooldioxide - bodemtypen - landbouwgrond - natuurgebieden - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - koolstofvastlegging - soil chemistry - carbon dioxide - soil types - agricultural land - natural areas - soil carbon sequestration - carbon sequestration
Het doel van dit rapport is om meer inzicht en kwantificering te krijgen van potentiële veranderingen in koolstofvoorraden in Nederlandse bodems. Gebaseerd op een nieuwe stratificatie van de Landelijke Steekproef Kartering (LSK) data zijn bodemkoolstofvoorraden voor de voornaamste landgebruikstypen en bodemtypen bepaald. Het resultaat voor de belangrijkste landgebruikveranderingen laat zien dat bodem C emissies elkaar veelal compenseren. Met het MITERRA-model is de potentie voor koolstofvastlegging berekend. Niet-kerende grondbewerking en verbeterde gewasrotaties hebben de grootste potentie voor koolstofvastlegging. De totale realistische koolstofvastlegging in de landbouw wordt geschat op maximaal 1 Mton CO2 per jaar. De voorgestelde verplichte maatregelen voor het vergroenen van de landbouwsubsidies kunnen zorgen voor additionele koolstofvastlegging. Daarnaast laat deze studie zien dat ook andere natuurtypen dan bos grote koolstofvoorraden kunnen vastleggen.
Economics of Forest Carbon Sequestration
Kooten, G.C. van; Johnston, C. ; Xu, Z. - \ 2012
Victoria : University of Victoria, REPA
bossen - koolstofvastlegging - europa - forests - carbon sequestration - europe
Scientific arguments for net carbon increase in soil organic matter in Dutch forests
Mol, J.P. ; Wyngaert, I.J.J. van den; Vries, W. de - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2324) - 32
organisch bodemmateriaal - bosgronden - bossen - koolstofvastlegging - nederland - soil organic matter - forest soils - forests - carbon sequestration - netherlands
If reporting of emissions associated with Forest Management becomes obligatory in the next commitment period, the Netherlands will try to apply the 'not-a-source' principle to carbon emissions from litter and soil in land under Forest Management. To give a scientific basis for the principle of carbon stock change being 'not-a-source', a review is first made of the methods and arguments of other countries and the acceptance or disapproval by UNFCCC experts. Second, we investigated whether available Dutch datasets and literature information confirm the claim that Dutch forest soils are not a carbon source. This review indeed showed convincing arguments for soil being a carbon sink in the Netherlands under forest management, based on a combination of (i) measurements in Loobos, (ii) literature on soil carbon increases based on repeated measurement in comparable areas, (iii) N retention assessments, assuming that the soil C/N ratio stays constant, (iv) European scale modelling approaches on soil carbon changes including the Netherlands and (v) argumentation from expected changes in climate and N deposition in the Netherlands, combined with the results from meta-analysis and modelling.
Towards a carbon balance for forests in Suriname
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Kruijt, B. ; Tjon, K. ; Atmopawiro, V.P. ; Kanten, R.F. ; Crabbe, S. ; Bánki, O.S. ; Ruysschaert, S. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 1977) - 42
suriname - koolstof - koolstofvastlegging - netto ecosysteem koolstofbalans - bossen - monitoring - emissiereductie - gegevens verzamelen - biomassa - carbon - carbon sequestration - net ecosystem carbon balance - forests - emission reduction - data collection - biomass
Currently Suriname is developing systems for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). The goal of the study reported in this report is to support the development of an adequate MRV system for forest carbon in Suriname, with a focus on quantification of monitoring and reporting carbon stocks from field sampling. Based on available existing field data, allometric functions and expansion factors aboveground biomass and carbon stocks are assessed for a number of forest types. Using the data from a long-term logging experiment at the CELOS-Kabo site changes in carbon stocks were quantified over time and under different intensities of selective logging. A review of carbon budget estimates across the Amazon were used to put the results for Suriname in a broader perspective. Finally an overview of methods to quantify and monitor forest carbon stocks at different scales are presented and discussed
Boerennetwerk voor klimaatneutraal ondernemen : project doet beroep op eigen verantwoordelijkheid ondernemers (Interview met Frank Wijnands)
Dubbeldam, R. ; Wijnands, F.G. - \ 2011
Ekoland 31 (2011)1. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 21.
biologische landbouw - energiebesparing - duurzame energie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwbedrijven - broeikasgassen - emissie - koolstofvastlegging - milieubeheer - samenwerking - organic farming - energy saving - sustainable energy - farm management - farms - greenhouse gases - emission - carbon sequestration - environmental management - cooperation
Zestien boeren, biologisch en gangbaar, gaan er de komende twee jaar alles aan doen om hun bedrijf klimaatneutraal te maken. Dit gebeurt in het netwerk dat binnenkort van start gaat.
Duurzaamheidprestaties op het gebied van Klimaat : deelstudie van duurzaamheidprestaties van de Nederlandse biologische landbouw
Sukkel, W. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten
milieubeheer - milieubescherming - biologische landbouw - klimaatverandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - fossiele energie - broeikasgassen - emissie - koolstofvastlegging - environmental management - environmental protection - organic farming - climatic change - sustainability - sustainability indicators - fossil energy - greenhouse gases - emission - carbon sequestration
In 2006 werd de kennis op het gebied van milieueffecten en dierenwelzijn geactualiseerd als aanvulling op de studie uit 2003/2004 (Spruijt - Verkerke et al, 2004). In 2009/2010 worden de gegevens opnieuw geactualiseerd. Op basis van deze actualisatie kan het bedrijfsleven mogelijk beter onderbouwde argumenten voor de promotie van biologische producten en biologische landbouw opstellen. Daarnaast geeft de inventarisatie een verbeterd inzicht in de prestaties van de biologische landbouw op de genoemde duurzaamheidthema’s. In dit rapport worden de onderdelen fossiel energieverbruik, emissie van broeikasgassen, koolstofopslag en adaptatie aan klimaatverandering behandeld.
Mogelijkheden voor koolstofvastlegging in de Nederlandse landbouw en natuur
Lesschen, J.P. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Wyngaert, I.J.J. van den; Verkaik, E. ; Kuikman, P.J. - \ 2010
In: Bodembreed 2010, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 30 November - 1-December 2010. - Gouda : SKB-Duurzame Ontwikkeling Ondergrond - p. 2 - 2.
bodemchemie - koolstofvastlegging - landgebruik - landbouwgrond - natuurgebieden - soil chemistry - carbon sequestration - land use - agricultural land - natural areas
Wetenschappelijke ontwikkelingen in het bodemonderzoek: In het Kyoto Protocol is aangegeven dat CO2 mogelijk ook kan worden vastgelegd via andere vormen van landgebruik. Het is daarom van belang inzicht te hebben in de potentiële koolstofvastlegging en koolstofverliezen als gevolg van landgebruik, de veranderingen in koolstofvoorraad door landgebruikveranderingen, en de potentiële koolstofvastlegging door specifieke maatregelen in landbouw en natuur.
Carbon pools in tropical peat forest : towards a reference value for forest biomass carbon in relatively undisturbed peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia
Verwer, C.C. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2108)
veengebieden - veengronden - tropische bossen - kooldioxide - ontbossing - biomassa - koolstofvastlegging - gegevens verzamelen - ligstro - zuidoost-azië - peatlands - peat soils - tropical forests - carbon dioxide - deforestation - biomass - carbon sequestration - data collection - litter - south east asia
Ecosystem Goods and Services from Plantation Forests
Bauhus, J. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Kanninen, M. - \ 2010
London, Great Brittain : Earthscan (Earthscan forest library ) - ISBN 9781849711685 - 254
bosplantages - bosproducten anders dan hout - meervoudig gebruik - biodiversiteit - koolstofvastlegging - waterbescherming - bosbeleid - ecosysteemdiensten - forest plantations - non-wood forest products - multiple use - biodiversity - carbon sequestration - water conservation - forest policy - ecosystem services
This is the first book to examine explicitly the non-timber goods and services provided by plantation forests, including soil, water and biodiversity conservation, as well as carbon sequestration and the provision of local livelihoods. The authors show that, if we require a higher provision of ecosystem goods and services from both temperate and tropical plantations, new approaches to their management are required. These include policies, methods for valuing the services, the practices of small landholders, landscape approaches to optimise delivery of goods and services, and technical issues about how to achieve suitable solutions at the scale of forest stands. While providing original theoretical insights, the book also gives guidance for plantation managers, policy-makers, conservation practitioners and community advocates, who seek to promote or strengthen the multiple-use of forest plantations for improved benefits for society.
Carbon exchange of a maize (Zea mays L.) crop: Influence of phenology
Jans, W.W.P. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Kruijt, B. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Barendse, S.C.A. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2010
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139 (2010)3. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 316 - 324.
netto ecosysteem uitwisseling - koolstofvastlegging - fenologie - rogge - maïs - zea mays - organische meststoffen - nederland - net ecosystem exchange - carbon sequestration - phenology - rye - maize - organic fertilizers - netherlands - gross primary production - rain-fed maize - ecosystem respiration - dioxide exchange - eddy covariance - soil respiration - growing-season - use efficiency - united-states - phase-change
A study was carried out to quantify the carbon budget of a maize (Zea mays L.) crop followed by a rye cover crop in the Netherlands, and to determine the importance of the phenological phases and the fallow phase when modelling the carbon budget. Measurements were made of carbon fluxes, soil respiration, biomass and Plant Area Index (PAI). On the basis of PAI the annual cycle was subdivided into 5 phases: juvenile-vegetative, adult-vegetative, reproductive, senescence and fallow. To model the annual carbon budget, it should be sufficient to assess the light response in the juvenile-vegetative phase, the growing season and the fallow phase, combined with the length of these phases and the PAI development. We conclude that emphasis should be put on determining off-season fluxes while the growing season can be estimated from radiation only. During the cultivation period (from sowing to harvest) 5.97 tC ha−1 was sequestered by the maize crop. The amount of carbon exported from the field was 7.5 tC ha−1, and the estimated amount of carbon imported by organic fertilizer was 0.51 tC ha−1, resulting in a carbon loss of 1.02 tC ha−1 from the soil. The fallow phase, with a rye cover crop at the field, decreased the amount of carbon fixed in the cultivation period by 2.65 tC ha−1 (44% reduction). To enable determination of the carbon sequestration or emission of croplands, farmers should be required to analyze, apart from the nitrogen content, also the carbon content of organic fertilizers.
A study was carried out to quantify the carbon budget of a maize (Zea mays L) crop followed by a rye cover crop in the Netherlands, and to determine the importance of the phenological phases and the fallow phase when modelling the carbon budget. Measurements were made of carbon fluxes, soil respiration, biomass and Plant Area Index (PAI). On the basis of PAI the annual cycle was subdivided into 5 phases: juvenile-vegetative, adult-vegetative, reproductive, senescence and fallow. To model the annual carbon budget, it should be sufficient to assess the light response in the juvenile-vegetative phase, the growing season and the fallow phase, combined with the length of these phases and the PAI development. We conclude that emphasis should be put on determining off-season fluxes while the growing season can be estimated from radiation only. During the cultivation period (from sowing to harvest) 5.97 tC ha(-1) was sequestered by the maize crop. The amount of carbon exported from the field was 7.5 tC ha(-1), and the estimated amount of carbon imported by organic fertilizer was 0.51 tC ha(-1), resulting in a carbon loss of 1.02 tC ha(-1) from the soil. The fallow phase, with a rye cover crop at the field, decreased the amount of carbon fixed in the cultivation period by 2.65 tC ha(-1) (44% reduction). To enable determination of the carbon sequestration or emission of croplands, farmers should be required to analyze, apart from the nitrogen content, also the carbon content of organic fertilizers. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carbon budgets and carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests
Kaul, M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): V.K. Dadhwal. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858089 - 181
koolstofvastlegging - koolstof - kringlopen - bossen - bio-energie - landgebruik - ontbossing - bebossing - biomassa - india - carbon sequestration - carbon - cycling - forests - bioenergy - land use - deforestation - afforestation - biomass

Keywords: Carbon uptake, Forest biomass, Bioenergy, Land use change, Indian forests, Deforestation, Afforestation, Rotation length, Trees outside forests.

Global climate change is a widespread and growing concern that has led to extensive international discussions and negotiations. Responses to this concern have focused on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, and on measuring carbon absorbed by and stored in forests and soils. Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. The amount of carbon stored, however, changes over time as forests grow and mature. Land use changes, especially afforestation and deforestation may have major impacts on carbon storage. An option for mitigating the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is the enhanced sequestration of carbon by the biosphere through massive reforestation or sustainable afforestation programs. Reducing the rate of deforestation reduces carbon losses from the biosphere. Establishing plantations on former agricultural land may have less of an impact on increasing carbon sequestration than restoring natural forests. The focus of this study was to estimate the carbon budgets and carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests, assessing the possible impacts of land-use changes and climate change on carbon stocks of Indian forests, and the mitigation potential of using forest-based bioenergy for fossil fuel substitution. The results from this study show that over a 10-year period from 1992-2002, Indian forests have acted as a small carbon sink. Thus, India with high population density, low forest cover per capita, high dependence of a large part of human population on forests, and a predominantly agrarian economy, has been able to reduce deforestation rate and increase its forest cover and associated carbon sink in the terrestrial biosphere. Due to fast growth rate and adaptability to a range of environments, short rotation plantations, in addition to carbon storage, rapidly produce biomass for energy and contribute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. India has the potential to create additional carbon sinks using marginal lands, while at the same time balancing economic development and environmental concerns.

Flushing meadows : the influence of management alternatives on the greenhouse gas balance of fen meadow areas
Schrier-Uijl, A.P. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Elmar Veenendaal; Peter Leffelaar. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857181 - 195
graslandbeheer - grondwaterstand - broeikaseffect - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - koolstofcyclus - koolstofvastlegging - nederland - veengronden - veenweiden - verdroging (milieu) - grassland management - groundwater level - greenhouse effect - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - carbon cycle - carbon sequestration - netherlands - peat soils - peat grasslands - groundwater depletion
The degradation of peatlands is a major and growing source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and small changes in the management of peatlands can lead to drastic changes in GHG emissions and changes in carbon storage and in the past have indeed done so. GHG emissions from peatlands and the subsidence of peat soils can both probably be decreased by rewetting peatland and by restoring peatland by reducing the intensity of agricultural land use on peat soils. It might even be possible for these agricultural peatlands to revert to being sinks of GHGs. To test whether agricultural peat areas can be turned into GHG sinks and carbon sinks if they are restored and whether GHG emissions can at least be reduced by reducing management intensity and rewetting, a landscape-scale experiment measuring GHG emissions and carbon releases was started in 2005.
Technology Spillovers and Stability of International Climate Coalitions
Nagashima, M.N. ; Dellink, R.B. - \ 2007
Milano : Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Note di lavora della Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei = Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Working Paper Series 157) - 27
klimaat - klimaatverandering - internationale verdragen - internationale samenwerking - kooldioxide - koolstofvastlegging - milieubescherming - stimulansen - overeenkomsten - climate - climatic change - international agreements - international cooperation - carbon dioxide - carbon sequestration - environmental protection - incentives - agreements
Cooperation in international environmental agreements appears difficult to attain because of strong free-riding incentives. This paper explores how different technology spillover mechanisms among regions can influence the incentive structures to join and stabilise an international agreement. We use an applied modelling framework (STACO) that enables us to investigate stability of partial climate coalitions. Technology spillovers to coalition members increase their incentives to stay in the coalition and reduce abatement costs, which leads to larger global payoffs and a lower global CO2 stock. Several theories on the impact of technology spillovers are evaluated by simulating a range of alternative specifcations. We find that while spillovers are a good instrument to improve stability of bilateral agreements, they cannot overcome the strong free rider incentives that are present in larger coalitions. This conclusion is robust against the specification of technology spillovers.
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