Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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ICES palingkwaliteit Workshop in Brussel
Haenen, O.L.M. ; Belpaire, C. - \ 2015
Aquacultuur 30 (2015)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 25 - 26.
workshops (programma - palingen - palingteelt - protocollen - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - visbestand - workshops (programs) - eels - eel culture - protocols - quality controls - quality management - fishery resources
Van 20 t/m 22 januari 2015 kwam een ICES ad hoc werkgroep van palingexperts bijeen in Brussel, bij het INBO (Instituut voor Natuur en Bosonderzoek). De afkorting ICES staat voor International Council for the Exploration of the Sea en is een wereldwijde organisatie, die op wetenschappelijke basis advies geeft aan overheden voor een duurzaam gebruik van de oceanen. Aan ICES werken meer dan 4000 wetenschappers vanuit meer dan 350 mariene instituten in 20 lidstaten en andere landen mee.
Logistics network design & control : managing product quality in a blooming sector
Keizer, M. de - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Rene Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576025 - 239
logistiek - netwerkanalyse - sierteelt - kwaliteitszorg - kwaliteit - productie - tuinbouw - verse producten - voedselproducten - simulatiemodellen - simulatie - logistics - network analysis - ornamental horticulture - quality management - quality - production - horticulture - fresh products - food products - simulation models - simulation
Quality of models for policy support
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-paper 38) - 4
quality management - policy - quality standards - models - kwaliteitszorg - beleid - kwaliteitsnormen - modellen
The Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT N&M) at Wageningen UR uses models, geodatabases and indicators in its policyoriented research for PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (see Bouwma et al., 2014) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. This research is undertaken for a variety of purposes, for example for the Nature Outlook reports, the review of the National Ecological Network and the evaluation of the policy on fertilisers and crop protection products. WOT N&M operates a quality system to improve and maintain the quality of these models and databases. This WOt-Paper describes this quality system.
Handboek Varkenshouderij 2015
Vermeij, I. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 39 - 39.
varkenshouderij - handboeken - technische informatie - bedrijfsmanagement - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - kwaliteitszorg - communicatie - kennisoverdracht - pig farming - handbooks - technical information - business management - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing - quality management - communication - knowledge transfer
Onlangs verscheen de volledig herziene editie van het Handboek Varkenshouderij. De vorige editie werd in 2010 uitgebracht. Deskundigen van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en enkele externe deskundigen hebben de inhoud volledig geactualiseerd. Ook zijn nieuwe onderwerpen toegevoegd.
Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin
Dabade, D.S. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; D.J. Hounhouigan, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574205 - 158
garnalen - penaeus - penaeus monodon - voedselkwaliteit - voedselveiligheid - bacteriëntelling - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - benin - microbiologie - risicobeheersing - risicoanalyse - kwantitatieve methoden - shrimps - food quality - food safety - bacterial counting - quality controls - quality management - microbiology - risk management - risk analysis - quantitative methods

Abstract

This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The steps of the chain prior to shrimp processing at the freezer plants were critical for shrimp quality and safety because of prevailing temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. Combining culture-dependent (plate counts) and culture independent (DGGE, clone libraries analysis) approaches, it was found that bacterial concentration in shrimps was higher than that of their surrounding water and sediment. Conversely, bacterial diversity was higher in water or sediment than in shrimps. At species level, distinct bacterial communities were associated with sediment, water or shrimp samples. Spoilage evaluation of shrimps showed that during storage at 0ºC, Pseudomonas spp. were dominant, whereas at 7ºC and 28ºC, H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms. An empirical model predicting shrimp shelf-life as a function of constant storage temperature was developed. Isolates producing strong off-odor were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28ºC or 7ºC and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) at 0ºC. The fastest growing isolates namely, Pseudomonas psychrophila and C. maltaromaticum were selected for their spoilage activity and for modeling studies. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and a higher spoilage activity at 0 to 15ºC, while at 28ºC, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. Models predicting the growth of pseudomonads in shrimps as a function of temperature were constructed. These models were validated under dynamic storage temperatures simulating actual temperature fluctuation in the supply chain. Using different risk classification approaches, the main foodborne pathogen risks identified were Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella. The management of the risks posed by the main pathogens was addressed using different scenarios to meet the set food safety objectives. Based on quantitative and ecological studies, this thesis developed tools that can be used in decision-making regarding tropical shrimp quality and safety management.

Het ontwerpen van een nieuw duurzaam bewaar- en verwerkingssysteem voor bloembollen
Gude, H. ; Dam, M.F.N. van; Bulle, A.A.E. ; Vreeburg, P.J.M. ; Wildschut, J. ; Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2014
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 33
bloembollen - cultuurmethoden - duurzame landbouw - innovaties - milieubeheer - opslag - kwaliteitszorg - aangepaste technologie - optimalisatiemethoden - desinfectie - inventarisaties - ornamental bulbs - cultural methods - sustainable agriculture - innovations - environmental management - storage - quality management - appropriate technology - optimization methods - disinfection - inventories
De huidige bewaar-, verwerkings- en ontsmettingssystemen voor bloembollen functioneren verre van optimaal: de bewaring wordt gekenmerkt door een hoog energieverbruik, tijdens het verwerken en ontsmetten treedt verspreiding van ziekten op, en stress en verwonding van de bollen dragen bij aan uitval door ziekten en andere vormen van kwaliteitsverlies. Daarnaast staat het ontsmetten onder grote druk door de risico’s van blootstelling van medewerkers en emissie van middelen naar het milieu. Het sorteren van bollen voorkomt niet dat in de broeierij grote variatie in groeisnelheid en bloemkwaliteit optreedt en de onmogelijkheid om bollen geautomatiseerd rechtop te planten brengt hoge arbeidskosten met zich mee. Dit project had tot doel innovatieve technieken voor de verschillende onderdelen van het verwerken (inclusief ontsmetten) en bewaren te inventariseren en die te integreren tot een totaalsysteem waarin energiezuinig bewaard wordt, blootstelling aan en emissie van middelen tot het verleden behoren, en gezondere en kwalitatief betere bollen geproduceerd worden.
Olaf van Kooten, hoogleraar Wageningen UR en lector InHolland: ‘hoezo slechte markt; we zijn zelf de markt’
Kierkels, T. ; Kooten, O. van - \ 2014
Onder Glas 11 (2014)8. - p. 32 - 33.
glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - kwaliteitszorg - groenten - consumentenaangelegenheden - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - consumenten - relaties - klanttevredenheid - agrarische economie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - quality management - vegetables - consumer affairs - food marketing - consumers - relationships - consumer satisfaction - agricultural economics
Er is iets grondig mis in de afzetketen van met name groente en fruit; de samenwerking komt maar moeilijk van de grond. Als gevolg daarvan liggen er producten van een lage kwaliteit in de winkel en verdient niemand iets. Dat het anders kan bewijzen schaarse voorbeelden. Hoogleraar tuinbouwketens Olaf van Kooten van Wageningen UR vertelt het met duidelijke woorden.
Een professionele schapenhouderij door efficiënter en slimmer gebruik van informatie : Kernpunten uit een inventarisatie in het veld
Holster, H.C. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Vellema, P. ; Verkaik, J. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
schapenhouderij - professionaliteit - professionele erkenning - kwaliteitszorg - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - datacommunicatie - toekomst - sheep farming - professionalism - professional recognition - quality management - management information systems - data communication - future
In de periode 2013-2016 werken bedrijfsleven en schapenhouders (de sector) samen aan de uitdaging de schapenhouderij verder te professionaliseren. Hierbij is het economisch perspectief, met behoud van het goede imago, het uitgangspunt. Deze brochure bevat de populaire samenvatting van een verkennend onderzoek naar kansen voor verbinden en analyseren van datastromen in de schapenhouderij. Hierin stonden de volgende kennisvragen centraal : - Wat vindt de sector? - Welke datasystemen zijn er binnen de schapenhouderij? - Hoe ziet een gewenst toekomstbeeld er uit? - Op welke wijze kan het gewenste toekomstbeeld worden gerealiseerd?
Intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality: a case study on fresh fish
Heising, J.K. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Matthijs Dekker; Paul Bartels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739186 - 171
voedselverpakking - rauwe vis - vis - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteitszorg - tracking en tracing - detectie - food packaging - raw fish - fish - food quality - quality management - tracking and tracing - detection

Background

Foods are prone to quality degradation in the whole supply chain, but the possibilities for monitoring the quality of foods inside the package are limited. When sensors of quality indicators are included into the package of a food, the package can become an intelligent packaging that is able to communicate information about the packed food. An intelligent packaging could be used to monitor quality attributes of the food and translate this into a message about the quality of the packed food that is communicated to all actors in the supply chain. Knowledge of the quality status of the food could lead to improvements in quality based logistic decision making in the food chain and reduce food waste. In this thesis the possibilities and pitfalls to use intelligent packaging to monitor the quality of foods were explored.

Aim of this thesis

The objective of this thesis was to study and develop an intelligent packaging concept that can monitor and predict food quality within the supply chain. Intelligent packaging systems, based on a direct or indirect quality monitoring sensor and combined with mathematical models, were evaluated on their abilities to predict the quality of the packed perishable foods under different conditions that can occur in the supply chain. The development of new non-destructive methods for monitoring changes in the freshness status of packed fresh fish was chosen as a case study for the proof of principle of the application of intelligent packaging for monitoring food quality.

Results

First, a literature study was performed on the possibilities for intelligent packaging for monitoring the quality of foods (chapter 2). One of the conclusions was that foods that benefit the most from intelligent packaging are expensive, highly perishable foods. Foods with a known or low variation in initial quality can benefit from sensors that monitor the environmental conditions surrounding the food that influence the quality of the packed foods. Foods with an unknown or high variation in the initial quality need sensors that directly monitor a quality attribute of the food itself.

The initial quality of fresh fish is highly variable and therefore fresh cod fillets require sensors monitoring compounds correlated with the quality of the fish. Therefore, fresh cod was chosen as case example for the development of a quality sensor for intelligent packaging. The content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds were identified as possible quality indicator compounds to predict the freshness of fish, the most important quality attribute of fresh fish.

Coordination mechanisms for quality improvement and market access in Ethiopian potato value chains
Abebe, G.K. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735713 - 220
ketenmanagement - voedselketens - aardappelen - kwaliteitszorg - verbetering - agro-industriële ketens - solanum tuberosum - boeren - gewasproductie - marketing - ethiopië - supply chain management - food chains - potatoes - quality management - improvement - agro-industrial chains - farmers - crop production - ethiopia

Market access for smallholders in developing countries often requires the improvement of product quality. As products are traded in value chains, quality improvement entails the coordination of activities and decisions by all actors in the chain. Thus, enhancing smallholders’ commercialization requires, for instance, making significant investment in production technologies, availing market oriented varieties, and establishing well-functioning input and output markets. Markets are one form of institutions providing coordination functions. From the perspective of new institutional economics (NIE), there are also other types of institutions (e.g., contract farming, producer organizations, etc.) facilitating economic exchange,

This thesis aims to gain insights into the factors affecting smallholders to improve quality and market access by analyzing their relationship with upstream and downstream actors and generateinformation relevant for the development of sustainable value chains in the potato sector.

The thesis has demonstrated that farmers’ assessment of production- and market-related attributes of local potato varieties strongly influence their decision to adopt improved varieties (IVs). Thus, enhancing the uptake of IVs requires development of varieties with market-related quality attributes, adequate information exchanges, and joint (or delegated) decision-making. Regarding smallholders’ downstream relationship, most transactions are carried out at farmgate. This type of arrangement has provided a better opportunity for buyers to closely monitor quality and for smallholders to minimize the risk of opportunism in the spot market. In farmer-buyer relationships, coordination is largely enforced through reputation effects and repeated interactions.

Although farmgate and trust-based contractual relationships can provide better incentives to improve quality, smallholder commercialization in highly ruminative markers, such as the regional market, needs more integrated type of coordination, such as contract farming arrangement.To this effect, the thesis provides an analytical framework to analyse contractual relations in a contract farming scheme by conceptualizing smallholders’ preferences as a multi-category discrete choice problem, where the choice of a contract is modelled as a set of different contract design attributes. Smallholders’ preferences for specific contract design attributes can largely be explained from the perspective of smallholders’ risk aversion behaviour and entrepreneurship traits. The findings showed that smallholders’ willingness to participate in a contract farming scheme increases if the contractual relationship is based on a written form; inputs, technical assistance, and seed supplied by the buyer firm; and variable output quality and variable price specifications. While the uncertainty in the input market motivates farmers for participation, the risk of underpayment (when accepting a fixed-price contract) and the lack of freedom to make autonomous decisions in the output market tend to refrain them from participation. In this regard, the thesis has provided an argument about the significance of institutional support (for instance, supplying the necessary inputs through farmer organizations) and flexible contracts to ease the tension and thus to stimulate smallholders to participate in contract farming.

Meer flexibiliteit in verpakkingen
Pekkeriet, E.J. - \ 2013
Kennis Online 10 (2013)jan/febr. - p. 9 - 9.
kasgewassen - voedselverwerking - verpakkingen - verpakkingsmaterialen - innovaties - flexibele verpakking - kwaliteitszorg - greenhouse crops - food processing - wrappings - packaging materials - innovations - flexible packaging - quality management
Telers en verpakkers kunnen binnen een paar jaar veel flexibeler vers en bewerkt voedsel automatisch verpakken, met een nog beter gegarandeerde kwaliteit.
Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers
Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156139 - 43
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - europese unie - beleid - landbouwproducten - etiketteren - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - origin - quality management - cost analysis - european union - policy - agricultural products - labelling
By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the other in the framework of EU consumer policy. In one debate, origin labelling is regarded as a trade norm, while the other considers it part of food information which allows consumers to make well-founded choices between foodstuffs.
Herkomstetikettering : Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI rapport : Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086156115 - 46
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
Met het vermelden van de herkomst op een levensmiddel kunnen producenten informatie geven aan consumenten over de plaats waar het voedsel vandaan komt. Herkomstetikettering staat vanuit twee verschillende beleidsterreinen ter discussie. De ene discussie vindt plaats in het kader van het EU-kwaliteitsbeleid voor landbouwproducten; de andere in het kader van het EU-consumentenbeleid. In de ene discussie wordt herkomstetikettering als handelsnorm gezien; in de andere als onderdeel van voedselinformatie waardoor consumenten doordachte keuzes tussen levensmiddelen kunnen maken.
Bijlagen bij rapport Herkomstetikettering; Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
Benninga, J. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota / onderzoeksveld Internationaal Beleid 12-123) - 41
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
De vermelding van het land van herkomst is in de Europese Unie verplicht voor enkele agrarische producten, te weten: rundvlees, honing, verse groenten en fruit en olijfolie. In Nederland wordt het land van herkomst buiten de verplichte etikettering van deze productgroepen nog nauwelijks vermeld. Binnen het Europees Parlement wordt gedacht over uitbreiding van de verplichte herkomstetikettering naar andere productgroepen. Aanleiding voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) om onderzoek te laten doen naar de waarde van de land-van-herkomstaanduiding op het etiket van voedselproducten vanuit consumentenperspectief. Daarbij is ook gekeken naar de rol die herkomstetikettering bij de aanschaf van een voedselproduct speelt.
Energierekening omlaag en betere kwaliteit bloembollen door gelijkmatige bewaring
Promes, E.J.O. ; Wildschut, J. - \ 2012
BloembollenVisie 2012 (2012)257. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 20.
bloembollen - opslag - kwaliteitszorg - energiebehoud - luchtstroming - palletkisten - muren - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental bulbs - storage - quality management - energy conservation - air flow - pallet boxes - walls - agricultural research
In de praktijk blijkt dat systeemwanden voor de bewaring van bloembollen niet optimaal afgesteld zijn. Gevolg: de lucht per laag kuubkisten wordt vaak niet gelijkmatig verdeeld. Dit kan kwaliteitsproblemen tot gevolg hebben en het leidt tot een te hoge energierekening.
Fisheries products export training Vietnam: On Risk assessment, HACCP auditing and EU legislation & monitoring
Schelvis, R. ; Poelman, M. - \ 2012
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C104/12) - 17
visserijbeheer - kwaliteitszorg - risicoschatting - haccp - eu regelingen - monitoring - inspectie - scholingscursussen - evaluatie - vietnam - nederland - europese unie - fishery management - quality management - risk assessment - eu regulations - inspection - training courses - evaluation - netherlands - european union
IMARES and RIKILT developed a training program for fisheries inspectors and private sector quality controllers in Vietnam, in close cooperation with the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (buza) and the Vietnamese fish inspection NAFIQAD. The training was held in the period 20-24 August 2012 in Nha Trang, Vietnam. The topics discussed in the training were: Risk Assessment, HACCP auditing and EU legislation & monitoring. In total 31 trainees followed the training. The training was positively evaluated by the participants, and characterised as ’very good and valuable’, especially in relation to gaining more knowledge on the topic Risk Assessment. The training will on the longer term benefit to the export of safe seafood products to Europe, and enhance understanding between European and Vietnamese inspection services as well as cooperation in the case of emerging risk situations. This training was financed by the Ministry of EL&I, and was given by Joop van der Roest (RIKILT), Marnix Poelman and Rian Schelvis (IMARES).
Moderne rassen assimileren beter: Kwart van productiestijging door beter presterende rassen
Heuvelink, E. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2012
Onder Glas 9 (2012)9. - p. 20 - 21.
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - rassen (planten) - selectie - cultivars - kwaliteitszorg - gewasopbrengst - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - groenten - tomatoes - varieties - selection - quality management - crop yield - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - vegetables
Lange tijd is gedacht dat de snelheid van de fotosynthese een gegeven is. Iets waaraan weinig meer te verbeteren valt. Maar analyse van de productiestijging bij vruchtgroenten laat zien dat moderne rassen beter presteren. Ook bij chrysant zijn daar aanwijzingen voor.
Transport van perkplanten kan in details nog beter
Harkema, H. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2012
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 67 (2012)9. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 38 - 39.
sierplanten - transport - kwaliteitszorg - gewaskwaliteit - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - optimalisatie - licht - vochtigheid - ornamental plants - quality management - crop quality - keeping quality - optimization - light - humidity
De perkgoedsector pakt veel zaken die de kwaliteit betreffen goed aan. Er zijn alleen nog wat details die beter kunnen. Te denken valt aan licht geven tijdens tranport en lage luchtvochtigheid voorkomen.
Impacts of cross compliance measures on environmental indicators : an assessment tool to evaluate environmental impacts at the European scale
Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Follador, M. ; Velde, M. van der; Leip, A. ; Kempen, M. ; Elbersen, B.S. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2323) - 86
milieubeheersing - voedselveiligheid - landbouw - kwaliteitszorg - betaling - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - bodemverontreiniging - nitraten - fosfaten - environmental control - food safety - agriculture - quality management - payment - farm income - soil pollution - nitrates - phosphates
The EU cross-compliance (CC) instrument implies that farmers receive payments subject to meeting Statutory Management Requirements (SMRs) related to environment, food safety, animal and plant health and animal welfare, as well as standards of good agricultural and environmental conditions (GAECs). This report describes the approach and application methodology of an environmental impact tool to evaluate cross compliance measures on environmental effect indicators. It consists of a selection of the effect indicators to be applied and assessment tools to be used with a review of the CC measures to be evaluated in assessing the environmental impacts. Furthermore, it includes an evaluation of CC measures related to the Nitrates Directive and selected GAECs with the coupled CAPRI-MITERRA model for the prototype of the environmental impact tool.
Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments
Sanny, M.A.I. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731432 - 199
patates frites - acrylamiden - frituren - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - voedselbereiding - chips (french fries) - acrylamides - deep fat frying - quality controls - quality management - food preparation

The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE). The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations. The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different. The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants. Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC. Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed. The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.

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