Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Probing the bacterial cell wall with chemical biology tools
Sminia, Tjerk J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Han Zuilhof; Willem de Vos, co-promotor(en): Tom Wennekes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437080 - 196
bioengineering - sugars - labelling - synthesis - biochemical techniques - akkermansia muciniphila - gastrointestinal microbiota - carbohydrates - suikers - etiketteren - synthese - biochemische technieken - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - koolhydraten

After DNA and proteins, carbohydrates are the third language of life. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to this class of biomolecules, also called sugars or glycans, that can be found on the outer surface of almost all cells and plays a critical role as the social messengers of a cell. Although our knowledge about the role of glycans in eukaryotic cells has increased considerably in recent decades, our understanding of the glycan layer on bacterial cells is still very limited. Besides the carbohydrates that are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes an additional wide range of unique (e.g. microbial sialic acid), often very complex (e.g. pseudaminic acid), carbohydrates is present in prokaryotes. This chapter briefly introduces two research fields, carbohydrate chemistry and chemical biology, that when combined provide a powerful way to investigate the biological role of these unique bacterial carbohydrates at the molecular level. This chemistry-based approach, termed chemical microbiology, often starts with the development of a chemical synthesis for a target bacterial carbohydrate. Subsequently, the synthetic route towards this target allows for the introduction of unnatural functional groups, like chemical reporters, that result in the molecular tools needed to study their biological function. The studies described in this thesis, focus on developing such molecular tools to study the role of glycans and glycoconjugates in human gut bacteria and human-associated bacteria.

Chapter 2 provides an overview of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) a popular chemical biology technique to label glycans in living cells. In MOE, carbohydrates derivatives are synthesised with unnatural chemical reporters and used to study their incorporation in glycans of eukaryote to prokaryote species. The progress in this field over the last 6 years is reviewed in detail with a special emphasis on the synthesis of the unnatural carbohydrates from commercially available sources. The principle behind MOE is that these unnatural carbohydrates with e.g. azide, alkyne, cyclopropene, or isonitrile chemical reporter groups, are still recognised by the endogenous enzymes in the cell that salvage this new carbohydrate. In this way they can enter the associated biochemical pathways and end up in newly biosynthesised cellular glycans. Subsequent labelling techniques, such as strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition or tetrazine ligation, enable the visualisation of these incorporated unnatural carbohydrates with for instance fluorescence microscopy.

Metabolic labelling is further explored in chapter 3. Key cell envelope glycoconjugates in the mucin-degrading gut microbiota member, Akkermansia muciniphila, were subjected to chemistry-based functional analysis, with Escherichia coli being used as a control species. Two novel non-toxic peptidoglycan (PG) probes were designed and synthesised to investigate the presence of PG in this species. Their design was based on the natural d-alanine dipeptide motif found in PG. Inspired by the fact that d-alanine dipeptide-derivatives were previously reported to be incorporated in newly synthesised PG, we synthesised a cyclopropene and isonitrile d-alanine dipeptide. Our probes proved to be non-toxic, as shown by growth and viable count analysis, and were therefore superior over existing PG probes. Another beneficial property was that the probes also did not influence the specific growth rate of A. muciniphila or E. coli. The PG probes were successfully incorporated into the peptidoglycan layer of A. muciniphila and visualised using a tetrazine click-ligation with a fluorophore. Our analysis proved for the first time that A. muciniphila has a PG layer. Besides PG labelling, we also investigated metabolic labelling of other glycoconjugates on the outer surface of A. muciniphila. This part of the study showed that azido-monosaccharide derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, and fucose are successfully processed by A. muciniphila salvage pathways and incorporated into its surface glycoconjugates. Especially 6-azido-fucose was readily processed by the recently discovered l-fucose salvage pathway of A. muciniphila. The two compatible labelling techniques were next combined in a dual labelling experiment. Our isonitrile dipeptide peptidoglycan probe and 6-azido-fucose were successfully incorporated into A. muciniphila. Subsequent fluorescent labelling with bio-orthogonal techniques resulted in dual labelling of peptidoglycan and fucose-containing glycans in live A. muciniphila cells.

With the positive results of MOE in A. muciniphila in hand, chapter 4 describes the further investigation of MOE. After successful validation of our Ac4FucAz probe for MOE in Bacteroides fragilis we continued their application in other human gut microbiota members, including the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans, Intestimonas butyriciproducens, and Eubacterium hallii. Labelling of these human gut microbes proved to be rather challenging with a-specific cellular labelling with the fluorophore being the major problem. Initial results, however, did show that a 6-azido-l-rhamnose probe resulted in fluorescent labelling of A. rhamnosivorans, which provides initial evidence for the existence of an as of yet undocumented salvage pathway. In this species the 6-azido-fucose probe was not salvaged. Via confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis we observed that the 6-azido-rhamnose probe was selective for A. rhamnosivorans in the presence of A. muciniphila. Such a co-culture experiment is a first step in mimicking the complex human gut microbiome. For E. hallii Ac4GalNAz gave clear metabolic labelling and the majority of the cell population could be labelled with the fluorescent dye after a strain-promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition. Other glycan probes (Ac4GlcNAz, Ac4FucAz, and Neu5Az) also resulted in labelling, but not as prominent as Ac4GalNAz. Surprisingly, MOE has never been reported for the common lab strain Escherichia coli MG1655. Curious to investigate this in more detail we started MOE in E. coli. However, no labelling was obtained when Ac4GlcNAz probe was added to E. coli, most likely due to the fast growth, metabolism and turnover. Only, when fresh Ac4GlcNAz probe was added every 30 minutes, metabolic labelling in E. coli was observed. To further investigate the influence of GlcNAc metabolism in E. coli on MOE, single-gene knock-outs of E. coli GlcNAc metabolism from the Keio collection were investigated. Labelling was observed for NagA (N-acetyl glucosamine 6 P deacetylase) and NagK (N-acetyl-d-glucosamine kinase) E. coli mutants. Both enzymes are involved in the last step of the biosynthesis towards UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. When the overall E. coli metabolism was inhibited, after addition of the respiration inhibitor sodium azide, no metabolic labelling was observed. These results indicate that MOE in E. coli is possible, but challenging and can only be performed under specific circumstances.

An investigation into the total synthesis of pseudaminic acid, a sialic acid produced by specific human-associated prokaryotes, is described in chapter 5. Sialic acids are typically found at the terminal positions of surface glycoconjugates in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Other related microbial sialic acids are legionaminic and acinetaminic acid. The total synthesis of these microbial sialic acids is notoriously difficult, as exemplified by the fact that only a few chemical synthesis routes towards them are currently known. Our total synthesis of pseudaminic acid started from the readily available amino acid l-threonine that was transformed into a key versatile Garner aldehyde derivative intermediate. With this aldehyde in hand, the Henry nitro-aldol condensation reaction was investigated. After studying numerous conditions, such as asymmetric catalysis or elongated reaction times, and extensive optimisation efforts we were never able to obtain the Henry reaction product to continue with this route. As an alternative, a tethered aminohydroxylation was investigated for its ability to introduce the key functional group and stereochemistry onto an intermediate obtained from the Garner aldehyde derivative. This reaction indeed gave the desired amino-alcohol motif in the correct stereochemistry, but another diastereomer proved very difficult to separate from the desired product. After some additional transformations and protection steps we obtained a derivative in which the primary alcohol could be oxidised to provide a hexose intermediate that resembles the hexose intermediate present in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis. This key hexose intermediate will likely enable a subsequent Barbier reaction, a chain elongation step, in future studies. With most of the key transformations accomplished, the completion of a pseudaminic total synthesis based on l-threonine should soon be possible. Besides finishing the total synthesis, future work should also focus on adapting this synthesis route to allow installation of chemical reporter groups on pseudaminic acid for its application in MOE.

Chapter 6 is the general discussion about all the work mentioned in the other chapters. It also contains additional information and suggestions for further research in the field of chemical microbiology.

Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Dusan Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven

This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.

The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.

The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.

Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.

In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.

The citizen goes shopping : a framework for the assessment and optimization of production from the perspective of society
Michalopoulos, Tassos - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579828 - 207
food production - food ethics - labelling - consumer behaviour - consumer preferences - optimization - consumer information - philosophy - political attitudes - animal production - animal ethics - cattle - dairy cattle - voedselproductie - voedselethiek - etiketteren - consumentengedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - optimalisatie - consumenteninformatie - filosofie - politieke houding - dierlijke productie - dierethiek - rundvee - melkvee

Nowadays, product labels are often used to enable consumers choose products that are friendly to the environment and to animals, natural, healthful and socially responsible. However, certain features of commonly used labels limit their usefulness. This thesis identifies a number of these limitations and presents an innovative labeling approach designed to address them.

More specifically, the following features limit the usefulness of the commonly used “endorsement” labels: they (1) offer a single certification grade, the requirements for which (2) are ‘static’ in the sense that certification standards do not depend on the evolution of the market, (3) are voluntary, and (4) are defined by stakeholders. Consequently, common labels fail to remove information asymmetry regarding the ethical performance of non-certified products; limit the opportunities for moderately –yet positively– concerned consumers to reveal ethical preferences; fail to motivate product improvement beyond certification standard; allow the emergence of a confusing variety of overlapping labels; and allow production stakeholders to resist socially desirable certification requirements when these are unfavorable to their business. In shoft, ethical labels currently fail to unleash on ethical aspects of production the inherently ‘free-market’ dynamics according to which products and firms must continuously innovate and improve, or else become obsolete and vanish.

As an alternative, this thesis proposes and works out an innovative “comparative” labeling approach that is designed to address these limitations. The proposed type of label is (1) multi-grade or continuous, (2) dynamic, (3) mandatory, and (4) society-defined. An example of this type of label is given at Figure 1.

Figure 1: Two variations of an example intuitive color-coded label format. The variations depict different sets of product attributes, and also different aggregation levels of the Environmental Impact attribute.

This type of labeling could motivate the creation of a ‘vitruous cyrcle’ or ‘race to the top’, in which the ethical performance of products moves to the direction that society at large regards as ‘positive’. This process is outlined at Figure 2.

Figure 2: Expected effects on the environmental performance of marketed product substitutes from the introduction of the proposed labeling system, in three phases. In Phase 1, the label is introduced on product substitutes available in the market (supply). In Phase 2, the supply evolves. To the standard (negative) incentives for cost minimization, are now added (positive) incentives to avoid negative reputation and to improve further the environmental frontiers of production through innovation. In Phase 3, the label is adjusted (updated) to the evolved supply. Products that failed to improve since last update might become downgraded (blue arrows).

It is argued that the proposed labeling approach has the potential to boost ethical consumerism as a force for the ethical optimization of the market. This can be directly relevant to issues about which society is concerned, and democratically elected goverments have limited ability to regulate. Among possible uses of the method developed to assess the relative performance of substitute products, are the comparative ranking of presently available labels (so as to inform consumers on the relative impact of different certified products), the justification of the allocation of incentives and discincentives in state policy, and also the ethical optimization and promotion of own production by socially responsible suppliers. Overall, the described approach aspires to transform markets into instruments that work to the direction willed by society, so as to bring market-driven and continuous improvement for production aspects of societal concern, such as environmental and socioeconomic aspects of the real economy.

Negatief keurmerk werkt beter
Dam, Ynte van - \ 2016
food consumption - consumer behaviour - consumer attitudes - certification - labelling - sustainability - choice behaviour
Coffee certification in East Africa: Impact on farms, families and cooperatives
Ruben, R. ; Hoebink, Paul - \ 2015
Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862559 - 264 p.
certification - coffee - small farms - labelling - sustainability - farming systems - east africa - certificering - koffie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - etiketteren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - oost-afrika
Certification of coffee producers is frequently suggested as a promising strategy for improving the position of smallholder farmers in the market. After the launch of the first Fairtrade label in 1988, several other standards have been promoted either by voluntary agencies (Utz-certified) or by private coffee companies. Each coffee label relies on different strategies for enhancing sustainable production and responsible trade. Coffee certification in East Africa is of a rather recent nature but has been rapidly expanding, representing currently 26 percent of the world's sustainable certified coffee supply. Marketing channels, cooperative organisation and household structures show notable differences between Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Empirical studies on the effects of standards for smallholders are scarce. This book intends to deepen our understanding on the role and functions of coffee certification regimes, based on three innovative approaches: (1) longitudinal field survey data capturing changes in coffee farming systems and effects on household welfare; (2) in-depth interviews and behavioural experiments regarding risk attitudes, trust and investments at cooperative level; and (3) detailed discourse analyses regarding gender roles and female bargaining power within coffee households. The chapters included in this book provide new and original evidence about the impact of coffee certification based on large-scale field surveys and in-depth interviews.
Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel 2014 : consumentenbestedingen
Logatcheva, K. - \ 2015
[Den Haag] : LEI Wageningen UR - 13
duurzame ontwikkeling - voedsel - consumenten - consumentenonderzoeken - bestedingen - certificering - etiketteren - biologische voedingsmiddelen - monitoring - sustainable development - food - consumers - consumer surveys - expenditure - certification - labelling - organic foods
De Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel 2014 geeft een overzicht van de consumentenbestedingen aan duurzaam voedsel1 in Nederland over het jaar 2014. De gegevens zijn gebaseerd op de omzet van producten die zijn voorzien van een keurmerk met onafhankelijke controle2 . Het gaat om de in Nederland geconsumeerde producten in de belangrijkste afzetkanalen. In dit verslag zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek weergegeven; meer informatie staat op de site van de Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel:
Study on mandatory origin labelling for milk, milk used as an ingredient in dairy products, and unprocessed meat other than beef, pig, poultry, and sheep and goat meat AGRI-2013-EVAL-03 Study Report : Part B – Minor Meats
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Christodoulou, Maria ; Maréchal, Anne ; Roest, Kees De; Corradini, E. ; Grochowska, Renata - \ 2014
European Commission (EC) - 53 p.
labelling - provenance - milk - milk products - milk production - horse meat - rabbit meat - game meat - cost benefit analysis - consumer information - eu regulations - international trade - european union - etiketteren - herkomst - melk - melkproducten - melkproductie - paardenvlees - konijnenvlees - wild (vlees) - kosten-batenanalyse - consumenteninformatie - eu regelingen - internationale handel - europese unie
EU Food Law Handbook
Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086862467 - 692
voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - internationaal recht - voedselbesmetting - etiketteren - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - voedsel - voer - voedingsmiddelen - europese unie - food legislation - international law - food contamination - labelling - nutrition labeling - food - feeds - foods - european union
The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and practitioners. Their analysis is based on a shared vision of the structure and content of EU food law. The book takes the perspective of food law embedded within general EU law. It highlights the consequences of this combination and provides insights into both substantive and procedural food law. Taking the General Food Law as a focal point, this handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food to consumers through labelling. These rules define requirements on subjects like market authorisation for food additives, novel foods and genetically modified foods, food hygiene, tracking & tracing, withdrawal & recall. The powers of public authorities to enforce food law and to deal with incidents are outlined. Attention is given to the international context (WTO, Codex Alimentarius) as well as to private standards. In addition to the systematic analysis, the book includes selected topics such as nutrition and health policy, special foods, food import requirements, food contact materials, intellectual property and animal feed.
Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers
Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156139 - 43
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - europese unie - beleid - landbouwproducten - etiketteren - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - origin - quality management - cost analysis - european union - policy - agricultural products - labelling
By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the other in the framework of EU consumer policy. In one debate, origin labelling is regarded as a trade norm, while the other considers it part of food information which allows consumers to make well-founded choices between foodstuffs.
Herkomstetikettering : Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI rapport : Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086156115 - 46
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
Met het vermelden van de herkomst op een levensmiddel kunnen producenten informatie geven aan consumenten over de plaats waar het voedsel vandaan komt. Herkomstetikettering staat vanuit twee verschillende beleidsterreinen ter discussie. De ene discussie vindt plaats in het kader van het EU-kwaliteitsbeleid voor landbouwproducten; de andere in het kader van het EU-consumentenbeleid. In de ene discussie wordt herkomstetikettering als handelsnorm gezien; in de andere als onderdeel van voedselinformatie waardoor consumenten doordachte keuzes tussen levensmiddelen kunnen maken.
Bijlagen bij rapport Herkomstetikettering; Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
Benninga, J. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota / onderzoeksveld Internationaal Beleid 12-123) - 41
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
De vermelding van het land van herkomst is in de Europese Unie verplicht voor enkele agrarische producten, te weten: rundvlees, honing, verse groenten en fruit en olijfolie. In Nederland wordt het land van herkomst buiten de verplichte etikettering van deze productgroepen nog nauwelijks vermeld. Binnen het Europees Parlement wordt gedacht over uitbreiding van de verplichte herkomstetikettering naar andere productgroepen. Aanleiding voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) om onderzoek te laten doen naar de waarde van de land-van-herkomstaanduiding op het etiket van voedselproducten vanuit consumentenperspectief. Daarbij is ook gekeken naar de rol die herkomstetikettering bij de aanschaf van een voedselproduct speelt.
Behavioural change as a key to sustainable agriculture
Lauwere, C.C. de; Pierick, E. ten; Beekman, V. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van - \ 2010
In: Global food security: ethical and legal challenges, EurSafe 2010, 16-18 September 2010. - Bilbao : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861545 - p. 91 - 96.
voedselzekerheid - recht - klimaatverandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouwbeleid - wereld - aquacultuur - biotechnologie - octrooien - volksgezondheid - voeding - etiketteren - bescherming van de consument - ethiek - dierenwelzijn - beleid inzake voedsel - sociale ethiek - Nederland - food security - law - climatic change - sustainability - agricultural policy - world - aquaculture - biotechnology - patents - public health - nutrition - labelling - consumer protection - ethics - animal welfare - food policy - social ethics - Netherlands
Food security will exist when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (as stated in the Rome Declaration in 1996). Given the dimension of the current global food crisis, food security means adopting effective and specific actions at individual, household, national, regional and global levels. Food security invites us to reflect upon ethical principles like human equity, justice between current and future generations, respect for human dignity and sustainable food production. We strive to maintain our basic ethical convictions and engage in societal debates about other important values. While we do this, we may have to change our ways of life and learn to create new priorities in the face of global responsibility. Science and technology are key tools to reach the Millennium Goals, providing both society and decision makers alike with relevant information and new options within an ethical framework. The contributions found in this publication bring together the perspectives of a diverse group of authors. Coming from the academic world, the public sector and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), they provide the latest views on 'Global food security: ethical and legal challenges'.
Smaak creëert meerwaarde bij glasgroenten: Pieter Boekestijn: "Toon met label dat jouw product beter is dan de bulk"(interview met o.a. Wouter Verkerke)
Arkesteijn, M. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2009
Onder Glas 6 (2009)11. - p. 66 - 67.
tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - teelt onder bescherming - groenteteelt - capsicum annuum - spaanse pepers - smaak - etiketteren - paprika - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - groenten - market gardens - greenhouses - protected cultivation - vegetable growing - chillies - taste - labelling - sweet peppers - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables
Smaak is een meerwaarde die glasgroenten verheft van een bulkproduct tot een speciaal product waarvoor een vraagmarkt bestaat. Westland Peppers veranderde met hulp van Syntens van een bedrijf met een bulkproduct naar een 'one-stop-shopping'-bedrijf voor allerlei soorten pepers en paprika's. Tijdens een van de Horti Fair Breakfast meetings vertelde Ted van Heijningen van Eminent Seeds, hoe hun bedrijf de stap al veertien jaar geleden maakte. Zijn boodschap : zorg voor een private label en een geborgde kwaliteit
Nieuw etiket crime voor telers
Vries, M. de; Blok, J.J. de; Brouwer, J. - \ 2008
Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 2008 (2008)27-9-2009. - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 4 - 5.
plantenkwekerijen - overblijvende planten - boomteelt - onkruidbestrijding - etiketteren - lozing - nurseries - perennials - arboriculture - weed control - labelling - disposal
European food law handbook
Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Velde, M. van der; Szajkowska, A. ; Verbruggen, R. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series no. 2) - ISBN 9789086860821 - 632
voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselproducten - etiketteren - voedseladditieven - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voedselhygiëne - eu regelingen - handboeken - europese unie - europa - tracking en tracing - food - food legislation - food products - labelling - food additives - novel foods - food hygiene - eu regulations - handbooks - european union - europe - tracking and tracing
This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through labelling. These rules define requirements on subjects like market approval for food additives, novel foods and genetically modified foods; food hygiene, tracking & tracing, withdrawal & recall.
Wat lagere dosering kan geen kwaad. (Interview)
Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2007
Boerderij/Akkerbouw 92 (2007)7. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. 16 - 18.
akkerbouw - dosering - fungiciden - etiketteren - merken - halfwaardetijd - gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - gerst - arable farming - dosage - fungicides - labelling - marking - half life - plant protection - plant diseases - barley
Het Britse onderzoeksinstutuut SAC onderzocht de werking van fungiciden in gerst. Hieruit blijkt dat er veel speelruimte is in de etiketdosering. Maar wel onder goede spuitomstandigheden. Een verslag over doseren bij het spuiten van fungiciden
Global Governance of Food Production and Consumption. Issues and Challenges
Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2007
Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing - ISBN 9781845429386 - 294
milieubeleid - voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - globalisering - regering - genetische modificatie - risico - etiketteren - milieu - voedselveiligheid - governance - risicobeheersing - environmental policy - food production - food consumption - globalization - government - genetic engineering - risk - labelling - environment - food safety - risk management
The provision of food is undergoing radical transformations throughout the global community. Peter Oosterveer argues that, as a consequence, conventional national governmental regulations can no longer adequately respond to existing and emerging food risks and to environmental concerns. This book examines these challenges. Translating recent innovative thinking in the social sciences - as seen in the work of Manuel Castells and John Urry amongst others - to the world of food, this book reviews the challenges facing global food governance and the innovative regulatory arrangements that are being introduced by different governments, NGOs and private companies. The analysis includes case-studies on the European BSE crisis, GM-food regulation, salmon and shrimp farming and food labelling. The author highlights how contemporary governance arrangements also have to acknowledge increasing consumer demand for food produced with care for the environment, animal welfare and social justice. Developing and implementing adequate global food governance arrangements therefore demands the active involvement of private firms, consumers, and civil society organisations with national governments.
Herkomstaanduiding van vlees: nationaal of Europees?
Horne, P.L.M. van; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Hoste, R. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. ; Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 6, Beleid ) - ISBN 9086150985 - 91
agrarische economie - etiketteren - dierlijke producten - vlees - herkomst - agrarische handel - nederland - europese unie - kennis - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - labelling - animal products - meat - provenance - agricultural trade - netherlands - european union - knowledge - supply chain management
Etikettering in de vorm van herkomstaanduiding naar land van oorsprong wordt bij rundvlees al enige jaren toegepast. In de studie wordt deze regeling geëvalueerd. Vervolgen worden de voor- en nadelen van een nationale of een EU-herkomstaanduiding voor de varkens- en pluimveevleessector in kaart gebracht. Geconcludeerd kan worden dat er in de sterk internationaal georiënteerde Nederlandse vleessector vooralsnog beperkt draagvlak is voor enige vorm van nationale herkomstaanduiding. Labelling in the form of indications of countries of origin has been in use for beef for several years already. This labelling scheme has been evaluated. All the aspects of the labelling of pork and poultry meat are mapped out. It was concluded that most Dutch industry members do not desire a national origin label.
Governance through information: environmental monitoring from a citizen-consumer perspective
Burg, S.W.K. van den - \ 2006
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Gert Spaargaren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9085044251 - 211
milieubeleid - monitoring - milieubeheer - consumenten - overheidsbeleid - energiegebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - vs - europa - etiketteren - brandstoffen - informatieverspreiding - environmental policy - environmental management - labelling - fuels - diffusion of information - consumers - government policy - energy consumption - sustainability - netherlands - usa - europe
Product differentiation under the WTO; An analysis of labelling and tariff or tax measures concerning farm animal welfare
Eaton, D.J.F. ; Bourgeois, J. ; Achterbosch, T.J. - \ 2005
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domain 6, Policy ) - ISBN 9086150039 - 71
landbouwbeleid - wereldhandelsorganisatie - import - vlees - vleesproductie - dierenwelzijn - etiketteren - voorkeurtarieven - belastingen - differentiatie - europese unie - agricultural policy - world trade organization - imports - meat - meat production - animal welfare - labelling - preferential tariffs - taxes - differentiation - european union
This report examines the possibility of giving preferential treatment to imports of meat products that meet improved standards in terms of animal welfare in production. Three specific forms of preferential treatment are considered here as possible measures for increasing levels of animal welfare in meat production in the EU and its exporting partners: labelling of products (either voluntary or compulsory), differentiated import tariffs and differentiated consumer taxes. The likely admissibility of such measures under WTO rules is assessed by means of an analysis of previous decisions by WTO dispute settlement panels. It is concluded that all of the measures analysed have a possibility of being upheld, based on a defence relying on Article XX of the GATT and perhaps also the TBT Agreement. While the incentives offered by labelling could be reinforced with differentiated tariffs or taxes, these financial instruments involve various additional complications. They could best be considered after the possibilities of regulated labelling schemes have been exhausted.
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