Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==land classification
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A high-resolution bioclimate map of the world: a unifying framework for global biodiversity research and monitoring
Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Sayre, R. ; Trabucco, A. ; Zomer, R. - \ 2013
Global Ecology and Biogeography 22 (2013)5. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 630 - 638.
conterminous united-states - climate-change - land classification - observing system - europe - stratification - ecoregions - impacts - regions - trends
Aim To develop a novel global spatial framework for the integration and analysis of ecological and environmental data. Location The global land surface excluding Antarctica. Methods A broad set of climate-related variables were considered for inclusion in a quantitative model, which partitions geographic space into bioclimate regions. Statistical screening produced a subset of relevant bioclimate variables, which were further compacted into fewer independent dimensions using principal components analysis (PCA). An ISODATA clustering routine was then used to classify the principal components into relatively homogeneous environmental strata. The strata were aggregated into global environmental zones based on the attribute distances between strata to provide structure and support a consistent nomenclature. Results The global environmental stratification (GEnS) consists of 125 strata, which have been aggregated into 18 global environmental zones. The stratification has a 30 arcsec resolution (equivalent to 0.86 km2 at the equator). Aggregations of the strata were compared with nine existing global, continental and national bioclimate and ecosystem classifications using the Kappa statistic. Values range between 0.54 and 0.72, indicating good agreement in bioclimate and ecosystem patterns between existing maps and the GEnS. Main conclusions The GEnS provides a robust spatial analytical framework for the aggregation of local observations, identification of gaps in current monitoring efforts and systematic design of complementary and new monitoring and research. The dataset is available for non-commercial use through the GEO portal (
Sampling efficiency of national, EU and global stratifications : exploring by using CL2000
Metzger, M.J. ; Brus, D.J. ; Ortega, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra report 2279) - 26
bemonsteren - statistiek - landclassificatie - terrestrische ecosystemen - sampling - statistics - land classification - terrestrial ecosystems
Stratification, dividing the statistical population into less heterogeneous subgroups before sampling, can help improve sampling efficiency by improving representativeness and reducing sampling error. This report explores the added sampling efficiency that is achieved by using the European Environmental stratification for estimating the area covered by the 25 Corine Land Cover (CLC) categories occurring in the semi-natural and managed terrestrial habitats of the wider-countryside. Although the dataset is not ideally suited to assess stratification efficiency for EBONE, the results give some encouragement. The analysis indicates that the pan-European stratification improves sampling efficiency for several land cover categories and performs similar to four more detailed national stratifications, supporting their use as a basis for designing a pan-European biodiversity observation network.
The potential for integration of environmental data from regional stratifications into a European monitoring framework
Ortega, M. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Wrbka, T. ; Allard, A. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Rosselló, R.E. - \ 2012
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 55 (2012)1. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 39 - 57.
strategic ecological survey - land classification - great-britain - climate-change - biodiversity - kappa - agreement - habitats - trends - cover
The development of a co-ordinated system for monitoring European biodiversity that can provide policy makers with information to underpin the management of ecological resources requires an appropriate environmental stratification to facilitate sampling and data analysis. This paper quantifies the similarities between the European Environmental Stratification (EnS) and four regional stratifications to test whether the EnS is able to distinguish locally important environmental gradients. The results show that in general the EnS is comparable with regional stratifications, and resolves border effects where divergent environmental conditions are combined into dominant strata. However, some regional gradients are not discerned, illustrating the value of national stratifications to provide local detail within continental monitoring strata.
European environmental stratifications and typologies: an overview
Hazeu, G.W. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Pérez-Soba, M. ; Renetzeder, C. ; Andersen, E. - \ 2011
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 142 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 29 - 39.
land classification - climate-change - great-britain - landscapes - biodiversity - framework - productivity - scenarios - models - earth
A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial Regional Reference Framework (SRRF), the Agri-Environmental Zonation (SEAMzones), and the Foresight Analysis for Rural Areas Of Europe (FARO-EU) Rural Typology. For each classification the objective, background, and construction of the dataset are described, followed by a discussion of its robustness. Finally, applications of each dataset are summarized. The five stratifications and typologies presented here give an overview of different research objectives for constructing such classifications. In addition they illustrate the most up to date methods for classifying the European environment, including their limitations and challenges. As such, they provide a sound basis for describing the factors affecting the robustness of such datasets. The latter is especially relevant, since there is likely to be further interest in European environmental assessment. In addition, advances in data availability and analysis techniques, will probably lead to the construction of other typologies in the future.
Analysis of land change with parameterised multi-level class sets : exploring the semantic dimension
Jansen, L.J.M. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858287 - 229
landclassificatie - landdegradatie - landevaluatie - landgebruik - landhervorming - remote sensing - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - dynamisch modelleren - land classification - land degradation - land evaluation - land use - land reform - land use dynamics - dynamic modeling
Een veelvoorkomend probleem in de landdynamiek is dat na verloop van tijd kennis vordert, technologie ontwikkelt en beleidsdoelstellingen veranderen. Dit betekent dat met elke kartering die wordt uitgevoerd, met een voor dat doel specifiek ontworpen classificatie, een nieuwe basis dataset wordt gemaakt in plaats van een continue gegevensreeks. Verschillen in de naamgeving van klassen, veranderingen in de definitie van de klasse, en de toevoeging of verwijdering van de klassen in de datasets over hetzelfde gebied in verschillende periodes leveren problemen op in de scheiding van de feitelijke veranderingen in de tijd van klaarblijkelijke veranderingen in de definities van categorieën. In de praktijk zullen de resultaten van verschillende onderzoeken echter moeten worden geharmoniseerd in tijd en ruimte.
Farmland features in the European Union : a description and pilot inventory of their distribution
Jongman, R.H.G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1936) - 75
landbouwgrond - landclassificatie - landgebruik - habitats - biodiversiteit - databanken - europese unie - biodiversiteitsbepaling - ruimtelijke databases - milieu-analyse - agricultural land - land classification - land use - biodiversity - databases - european union - biodiversity assessment - spatial databases - environmental analysis
National and regional datasets on landscape features can be used to analyse the stock and change of farmland features. However, these landscape datasets are not categorised according to farmland features, farmed features or unfarmed features. The available national level datasets are used to obtain information on the extent and distribution of farmland features within the major Member States of the European Union. Data on farmland features is extracted from nationally-focused projects and datasets. These projects have been carried out for governments to analyse stock and change in the country for policy purposes, and have been carried out in Great Britain, Sweden and Spain. Extra datasets exist that also plot stock and change in a country, and have been carried out in the Netherlands and in Austria, but these studies do not have a national policy objective. The lack of universal definitions of landscape features means that comparisons between national datasets in not always reliable. There is particularly sparse data on the lengths of linear features and point features, as these surveys established set rules on what should be recorded, and what should not. This has caused differences in data available from different projects. In addition, the presence of solitary trees and small patches of natural grasslands are not collected in all of these surveys. Alterra developed a typology suitable for use with the available data. This typology proposes eight main classes of farmed and unfarmed features. Among these classes, two (class 5 and 6) fulfil the definition of a ‘farmland feature on EU farmland’, as defined for this study, as follows: - Linear or point features on, or adjacent to, farmland, that are managed directly e.g. hedges on farmland or terrace walls in managed vineyards. - Linear or point features on, or adjacent to, farmland, that are indirectly influenced by agriculture but are not managed actively e.g. field corners and small woodlands surrounded by agricultural land. During the analysis of the datasets we have harmonised and refined this typology as far as possible given the different structures, designs and underlying methodologies of the various datasets. However, examining the entire landscape matrix is essential to obtain a clear perception of the relative proportion of farmland features across the entire land surface. As national datasets do not discern between farmland and forest, it is important in this project to make such a distinction. This distinction sets the baseline between (currently) farmed land and land out of farming, such as land abandoned in the past and now under forest.
The relative dependence of Spanish landscape pattern on environmental and geographical variables over time
Ortega, M. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Barrio, J.M.G. del; Elena-Rossello, R. - \ 2008
Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 17 (2008)2. - ISSN 1131-7965 - p. 114 - 129.
land classification - species-diversity - great-britain - richness - europe
The analysis of the dependence of landscape patterns on environment was carried out in order to investigate the landscape structure evolution of Spain. The underlying concept was that the dependence between landscape spatial structure and environmental factors could be gradually decreasing over time. Land cover data were recorded from aerial photo interpretation of 206 4 x 4 km(2) samples from three different years: 1956, 1984 and 1998. Geographical variables were taken into consideration together with the purely environmental ones. General Linear Models of repeated measures were then used to segregate environmental from geographical effects on the pattern of the land cover patches of the samples. Aridity, lithology and topography were the environmental factors used to analyse structural indices of landscape. Landscape composition has a higher dependence on environment than configuration. Environmental variables showed higher correlations with landscape composition and configuration than geographical variables. Ail-long them, overall the climatic aridity and topography significantly accounted for more variation than did lithology. There was a high degree of stability in land cover composition over time, with some significant exceptions. Nevertheless, the registered increase of fragmentation over time has demonstrated that configuration measures are needed to fully assess landscape change.
Towards a spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of environmental change in Europe
Metzger, M.J. ; Schröter, D. - \ 2006
Regional Environmental Change 6 (2006)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 201 - 216.
sustainability science - land classification - future scenarios - climate-change - global change - ecosystems - impacts - stratification - framework - systems
Over the next century, society will increasingly be confronted with the impacts of global change (e.g. pollution, land use changes, and climate change). Multiple scenarios provide us with a range of possible changes in socio-economic trends, land uses and climate (i.e. exposure) and allow us to assess the response of ecosystems and changes in the services they provide (i.e. potential impacts). Since vulnerability to global change is less when society is able to adapt, it is important to provide decision makers with tools that will allow them to assess and compare the vulnerability of different sectors and regions to global change, taking into account exposure and sensitivity, as well as adaptive capacity. This paper presents a method that allows quantitative spatial analyses of the vulnerability of the human-environment system on a European scale. It is a first step towards providing stakeholders and policy makers with a spatially explicit portfolio of comparable projections of ecosystem services, providing a basis for discussion on the sustainable management of Europe's natural resources
Modeling and visualizing dynamic landscape objects and their qualities
Vlag, D.E. van de - \ 2006
University. Promotor(en): A. Stein; M.J. Kraak. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9085043840 - 181
landschap - landschapsecologie - landclassificatie - classificatie - ruimtelijke variatie - variatie in de tijd - kustgebieden - statistiek - classificatiesystemen - landscape - landscape ecology - land classification - classification - spatial variation - temporal variation - coastal areas - statistics - classification systems
Deze studie richt zich op het modeleren en visualiseren van dynamische landschapsobjecten en hun kwaliteitsaspecten. Het bevat expertise voor het karakteriseren en modeleren van dynamische landschapseigenschappen aan de hand van ruimtelijke gegevens. Het toepassingsgebied is kustbeheer en strandbeheer, als gevolg van suppletie na kusterosie
A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe
Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Watkins, J.W. - \ 2005
Global Ecology and Biogeography 14 (2005)6. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 549 - 563.
strategic ecological survey - land classification - great-britain - biodiversity - vegetation - life - ecoregions - cover
Aim To produce a statistical stratification of the European environment, suitable for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, the selection of sites for representative studies across the continent, and to provide strata for modelling exercises and reporting. Location A 'Greater European Window' with the following boundaries: 11 degrees W, 32 degrees E, 34 degrees N, 72 degrees N. Methods Twenty of the most relevant available environmental variables were selected, based on experience from previous studies. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to explain 88% of the variation into three dimensions, which were subsequently clustered using an ISODATA clustering routine. The mean first principal component values of the classification variables were used to aggregate the strata into Environmental Zones and to provide a basis for consistent nomenclature. Results The Environmental Stratification of Europe (EnS) consists of 84 strata, which have been aggregated into 13 Environmental Zones. The stratification has a 1 km(2) resolution. Aggregations of the strata have been compared to other European classifications using the Kappa statistic, and show 'good' comparisons. The individual strata have been described using data from available environmental databases. The EnS is available for noncommercial use by applying to the corresponding author. Main conclusions The Environmental Stratification of Europe has been constructed using tried and tested statistical procedures. It forms an appropriate stratification for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, the selection of sites for representative studies across the continent and for the provision of strata for modelling exercises and reporting at the European scale.
Evaluatie van methoden voor het karakteriseren van gronden die in aanmerking komen voor reparatiebemesting
Schoumans, O.F. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Chardon, W.J. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 730.3) - 80
landclassificatie - dosering - mestbehoeftebepaling - bodemtypen - bodemclassificatie - karakterisering - methodologie - evaluatie - bemesting - land classification - dosage - fertilizer requirement determination - soil types - soil classification - characterization - methodology - evaluation - fertilizer application
In de mestwetgeving zal voor het gebruik van fosfaatkunstmest mogelijk een uitzondering worden gemaakt voor gronden die vanwege hun fosfaattoestand in aanmerking komen voor reparatiebemesting. Het betreft hier gronden met een lage fosfaattoestand en wellicht als verbijzondering daarvan fosfaatfixerende gronden. In dit rapport worden dergelijke gronden gedefinieerd en zijn verschillende analysemethoden voor de karakterisering geëvalueerd. Ongeveer 2-7% van het landbouwareaal heeft een fosfaattoestand die als laag wordt gekarakteriseerd. Slechts een deel hiervan (50%) komt in aanmerking voor reparatiebemesting (20 000-60 000 ha). Het areaal landbouwgronden dat in potentie in staat is om relatief veel fosfaat te binden bedaagt ca. 100.000 ha (geschat op basis van de fosfaatbindingseigenschappen van de bodem). Onduidelijk is welk deel van deze potentieel fosfaatfixerende gronden momenteel nog fosfaatfixerend zijn. Zowel de landbouwkundige als milieukundige implicaties worden beschreven van het al of niet toepassen van reparatiebemesting. De agronomische gevolgen zijn over het algemeen beperkt voor gronden die in aanmerking komen voor reparatiebemesting, terwijl de milieukundige gevolgen groot kunnen zijn indien reparatiebemesting niet aan een maximum wordt gebonden dan wel geen rekening wordt gehouden met de resterende fosfaatbindingscapaciteit van de bodem.
Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America
Sgrenzaroli, M. - \ 2004
University. Promotor(en): Reinder Feddes, co-promotor(en): Dirk Hoekman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9058089959 - 260
tropische bossen - cartografie - regionale verkenningen - amazonas - remote sensing - landclassificatie - landsat - radar - wavelets - tropical forests - mapping - regional surveys - land classification
A hierarchical object-based approach for urban land-use classification from remote sensing data
Zhan, Q. - \ 2003
University. Promotor(en): M. Molenaar, co-promotor(en): K. Tempfli. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9058089177 - 271
landclassificatie - landgebruik - stedelijke gebieden - remote sensing - satellietkarteringen - gegevensverwerking - beeldverwerking - geografische informatiesystemen - land classification - land use - urban areas - satellite surveys - data processing - image processing - geographical information systems
CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000
Hazeu, G.W. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 775) - 107
landclassificatie - landgebruik - landbouwgrond - databanken - remote sensing - satellietbeelden - monitoring - nederland - land classification - land use - agricultural land - databases - satellite imagery - netherlands
The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production methodology was applied. Thirty land cover classes were discerned. Most extended land cover types were pastures (231), arable land (211) and complex cultivation patterns (242). Between 1986 and 2000 around 4.76% of land changed its land cover. Most typical change was the conversion of agricultural land into artificial areas. The thematic accuracy of CLC2000 was almost 95% and 88% of the changes were correctly classified as changes.
Historisch grondgebruik Nederland: grondgebruik rond 1970 in 500 meter grids
Kramer, H. ; Knol, W.C. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 717.doc) - 29
landgebruik - historische verslagen - geschiedenis - landevaluatie - landclassificatie - geografische informatiesystemen - nederland - kaarten - land use - historical records - history - land evaluation - land classification - geographical information systems - netherlands - maps
Voor toepassing in landelijke modellen bij het Milieuplanbureau is voor de periode rond 1970 een GIS-bestand met grondgebruik ontwikkeld met een resolutie van 500-metergrids. De basisgegevens hiervoor zijn ontleend aan de topografische kaarten die rond 1970 zijn verschenen. Met een automatische classificatie zijn kaartkleuren omgezet naar tien legenda-eenheden. Onderscheiden zijn akker, gras, heide en hoogveen, bos, bebouwd gebied en wegen, zoet en zout water, kassen, vliegvelden en kale grond. Het resultaat is een landsdekkend bestand van Nederland met dominant grondgebruik rond 1970. Validatie laat zien dat de nauwkeurigheid van het bestand circa 98¿edraagt. Het bestand HGN 1970 sluit aan bij een reeks gegevensbestanden met historisch grondgebruik vanaf 1800 en een 50-meterresolutie.
ENVISAT forest monitoring Indonesia
Hoekman, D.H. ; Vissers, M.A.M. ; Sugardiman, R.A. ; Vargas, J. - \ 2002
The RADARSAT International (RSI) RADARSAT-2 e-Newsletter 2 (2002)7. - p. 68 - 68.
remote sensing - radar - tropische regenbossen - geografische informatiesystemen - landclassificatie - vegetatie - bosbranden - monitoring - kalimantan - indonesië - tropical rain forests - geographical information systems - land classification - vegetation - forest fires - indonesia
To support the introduction of operational radar forest monitoring systems in Indonesian a demonstration is executed at the Tropenbos study area in East-Kalimantan. Interest focuses on fulfilling information needs relating to land cover change, fire risk and fire damage monitoring, with main emphasis on early detection.
Neder-landschap internationaal: bouwstenen voor een selectie van gebieden landschapsbehoud
Farjon, J.M.J. ; Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Koomen, A.J.M. ; Vervloet, J.A.J. ; Lammers, G.W. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 358) - 81
landschap - landschapsbescherming - selectie - classificatie - landclassificatie - overheidsbeleid - cultureel erfgoed - kwaliteit - nederland - aardkunde - archeologie - cultuurhistorie - cultuurlandschap - historische geografie - landschapsecologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landscape - landscape conservation - selection - classification - land classification - government policy - cultural heritage - quality - netherlands
In de Eerste nota voor de ruimtelijke ordening werd het instellen van bufferstroken of bufferzones tussen stadsagglomeraties in de Randstad aangekondigd met als doel de openheid daartussen te handhaven. Bereikbaarheid van het buitengebied voor recreatie was ook een belangrijk motief. Strategische grondaankopen hoorden erbij. Later groeide het besef om in deze bufferzones ook nutsfuncties te realiseren om de kwaliteit te vergroten, zoals bos, natuur, recreatiegebieden en bedrijfsvergroting van landbouwbedrijven met het oog op het landschapsbehoud. Veel gronden werden aangekocht door BBL. Herinrichting vindt plaats in landinrichtingsprojecten en strategische groenprojecten. In de Vijfde nota ruimtelijke ordening wordt aangekondigd het fenomeen bufferzone op te heffen en om te vormen naar regionale parken. Daarom moet de balans opgemaakt worden. De geschiedenis van de rijksbufferzones, de huidige stand van zaken en een inschatting van de consequenties van de beleidswijziging zijn in beeld en in kaart gebracht.
Fuzzy sets voor zachte klassegrenzen: Toepassing op het landevaluatiesysteem BODEGA
Gruijter, J.J. de; Boogaard, H.L. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 346) - 91
landevaluatie - landclassificatie - vage logica - modellen - nederland - land evaluation - land classification - fuzzy logic - models - netherlands
In dit toepasbaarheidsonderzoek is nagegaan of en hoe de wiskundige theorie van vage verzamelingen (fuzzy sets), en de daarop geënte meerwaardige logica (fuzzy logic), toegepast kan worden in de landevaluatie. Daarbij is speciale aandacht besteed aan inpassing in het bestaande systeem BODEGA. Met methoden gebaseerd op vage verzamelingen kan rekening worden gehouden met onzekerheid over klassengrenzen door geleidelijke in plaats van scherpe grenzen te vormen. Dat leidt tot een intensiever gebruik van beschikbare gegevens en achtergrondkennis en tot meer gedifferentieerde beoordelingen. Als test is in een proefgebied in Noord-Brabant de geschiktheid voor weidebouw geëvalueerd met een fuzzy variant van BODEGA.
Meriland-2: MERIS multiscale land applications study
Addink, E.A. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Meer, F.D. van der; Jong, S.M. de; Epema, G.F. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Bakker, W.H. - \ 2001
Delft : Netherlands Remote Sensing Board (BCRS), Programme Bureau, Rijkswaterstaat Survey Department - ISBN 9789054113515 - 49
landclassificatie - satellietbeelden - remote sensing - beeldverwerking - sensors - monitoring - land classification - satellite imagery - image processing
Land cover monitoring; an approach towards pan European land cover classification and change detection
Boer, M.E. de; Vente, J. de; Mücher, C.A. ; Nijenhuis, W.A.S. ; Thunnissen, H.A.M. - \ 2000
Delft : BCRS (NRSP-2 Report 00-18) - 110
remote sensing - landevaluatie - grondbedekking - verandering - detectie - landclassificatie - terreinclassificatie - europa - land evaluation - ground cover - change - detection - land classification - terrain classification - europe
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