Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Planned development interventions and contested development in the Casamance Region, Senegal: an enquiry into the ongoing struggles for autonomy and progres by the Casamance peasantry
Ndiame, Fadel - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436779 - 180
peasant farming - peasantry - farming - farmers - agricultural development - development projects - development studies - history - social change - senegal - west africa - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven - boeren - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsstudies - geschiedenis - sociale verandering - west-afrika

This thesis analyses the relationships between i) planned development interventions which took place in the Casamance over the last 100 years; ii) the advent and co-existence of different forms of endogenous responses to state interventions, and iii) the conflictive outcomes which emanated from the interplay of i) and ii). The ultimate goal is to provide a critical and situated understanding of the ‘Casamance crises’.

The thesis is anchored on and actor oriented conceptual framework. This approach positions the agency of different categories of actors and their ability to engage, accommodate, resist and co-determine the outcome of the development processes. The processes observed in the Casamance are interpreted as ‘a structural feature of agrarian development’, as “arenas where different actors interact, compete and cooperate, based on their own objectives’ (Long, 2001). In light of this framework, the peasantry is seen to be able to strive for autonomy by relying on own resources to survive in an increasingly globalising economy. However, their potentials can be blocked by unfavourable socio- economic conditions, such as those that deprive them the fruits of their labour, thus leading to an agrarian crisis as defined by Van der Ploeg (2008). From this angle, the thesis explores the extent to which the long-term configurations of relationships between external interventions and local responses have accelerated the disarticulation of the traditional production systems, and contributed to compromising the livelihood position and the emancipation trajectories of youth and women within the traditional domestic units in the Casamance.

The methodology adopted described in chapter 2, thus focussed on unpacking interplay and mutual determination between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ factors and relationships. This entailed a historical contextualization of processes of planned state interventions and distancing from development activities in the Casamance over a long period of time. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the various consequent responses shown by different segments of the Casamance society at different historical junctures, in pursuit of a differentiated set of emancipatory trajectories. Data collection involved multiple times and locations, combining field observations, data collected through interviews and surveys and consulting research reports.

Chapter 3 reviews the key physical, socioeconomic and political features of the Casamance region, from the colonial era until the present day’s developments which culminated in the protracted conflict opposing the Government of Senegal and the Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de la Casamance (MFDC). The land reform programmes initiated during the colonial era brought a number of provisions which made it easier for the Colonial government to control local people’s holdings. When Senegal became independent in 1960, the colonial concept of land tenure also played an important role in the “Loi sur le Domaine National”, considered as a means of achieving both economic and social objectives. In addition, the country maintained a policy of specialisation on groundnut and the development of an import- substitution industry funded by foreign donors. During the 1980-2000s, changes in government policy and the drought contributed to significant changes in the production systems. These changes triggered multifaceted responses: collaboration, resistance, rejection as well as conflict- the most dramatic of which was the launch of an armed campaign for the independence of the Casamance region during the 1980s.

Chapter 4 analyses the state-administered agricultural programmes and the consequent local people’s responses which took place in the Casamance between the 1960s and the 1980s. These typically revolved around land and agrarian reform programmes supplying agricultural equipment and technology, rural development projects and farming systems research. They enabled significant sections of rural people to access animal traction equipment and complementary inputs through agricultural credit. Later during the 1980s, the state withdrew form direct involvement in production and marketing activities as part of the structural adjustment programme. This chapter also showed that State hegemony and locally driven development dynamics are related both historically and conceptually: During the first phase of State hegemony, a number of rural institutions were controlled and managed by the State. During the 1970s and 1980s when the state withdrew, an autonomous farmer movement (FONGS) emerged outside the official state extension and structuring system- defining a new farmer-centered political and economic agenda.

Chapter 5 provides an in-depth analysis of the two types of responses that the Casamance peasantry brought to planned development interventions. First, the incentives provided through State policies for groundnuts production analysed in chapter 4 led to a widespread adoption of labour-saving and scale-enlarging technologies, which facilitated a significant increase in the male-dominated production of cash crops- groundnuts especially- as a source for rural livelihoods in the region. This however happened at the expense of food crops whose production was dominated by women and youth. It also accelerated the gradual disconnections between crop production, livestock management at the household and village levels. Moreover, subsequent changes in State policies, which was no longer providing favourable conditions for entrepreneurial farming, combined with the negative consequences of a long drought, led to devastating impacts on local production systems. This situation triggered a significant out-migration of the Casamance youth to the country’s capital city and other metropolitan areas, in search of alternative employment and livelihood opportunities.

With the evolution of time, the Casamance farmers developed a second set of responses. As discussed in chapters 5 and 6, the rural youth and women explored new livelihood and emancipation opportunities- such as producing rice for family consumption and diversifying production activities to include seasonal cultivation of fruits and vegetables for sale. Many young people also embarked on seasonal out-migration to enable them to accumulate the resources necessary to start their own households.

Chapters 6 further analyzes the development and growth of FOs, and how they managed to use funding from donors to develop new technical and organisational capabilities to support the activities of the Casamance family farms. They succeeded in fulfilling the technical and advisory roles previously provided by state institutions, and facilitated rural people’s access to agricultural finance. They were also able to integrate and play a bigger role in the activities of their local government-with a more emboldened voice and power to influence change. The Chapter also shows the development of other forms of private rural business development actors from the Casamance and other regions of Senegal- mainly premised on the participation of smallholder farmers in the agricultural value chain.

Chapter 7 analyses the Casamance crisis as a major conflict of articulation between a region and the rest of country; epitomising a violent contestation of a dominant state- driven modernisation scenario which does not conform to the emancipation trajectories of the educated youth, aspiring to the benefits of sovereignty. In this respect the conflict conforms to the definitions of a governance and agrarian crisis as articulated in this thesis. However while significant, the actions of the MFDC do not represent the sole and unique responses of the Casamance rural youth to the prevailing crisis. The agrarian interpretation of the conflict adopted in this thesis enable us to illustrate other types of development dynamics associated with the interplay between planned interventions and local people responses. Building on the lessons learned in conducting this study, it appears that finding practical answers to the question of local people’s access to decent resources and living conditions could be a prerequisite to overcoming the current political and agrarian crisis prevailing in the Casamance.

The concluding chapter 8 explores the links between ‘peace’, ‘autonomy’ and ‘development’ in the Casamance. I examine the extent to which more autonomy, associated with peasant-centred development, can lead to ‘peace’ and development in the southern region of Senegal. It links the successful resolution of the Casamance crisis to the advent of a governance revolution, which permits a re-alignment of the resources, activities and personal agendas of the different family members around a shared goal for transformation and progress. Building on the lessons learned as part of this study, the approaches considered here are based on new principles of the valorisation of local resources, as well as the redefinition of the format and content of relationships with other development actors. This approach requires the revision of the relationships between local actors and the wider set of actors; it also implies a reconciliation of diverse strategies deployed by the different protagonists over different geographic boundaries.

These principles inform the final recommendations of this study which aim at creating the necessary conditions for the advent of lasting peace linked to the capacity of the local people to rebuild a more viable livelihood for the inhabitants of the Casamance region.

Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

‘Force of Nature’ : climate shocks, food crises and conflict in Colonial Africa and Asia, 1880-1960
Papaioannou, Kostadis J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ewout Frankema; Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431668 - 238
climatic change - environmental degradation - environmental impact - agricultural development - agriculture - agriculture and environment - historical ecology - history - colonialism - colonization - africa - asia - nigeria - rainfed agriculture - rain - klimaatverandering - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - landbouw en milieu - historische ecologie - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - kolonisatie - afrika - azië - regenafhankelijke landbouw - regen

“Global climate change poses one of the most urgent challenges of our age. The increasing frequency and intensity of weather shocks, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and hurricanes, are all anticipated to adversely affect conditions of agricultural production, and jeopardize efforts to achieve global food security. In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing body of literature across multiple disciplines aiming to quantify and assess the adverse consequences of climate on relatively poor rural societies. Building entirely on original primary sources, this dissertation provides evidence that weather shocks raised property crime, triggered civil conflict and shaped patterns of human settlement in British colonial Africa and Asia during the first half of the twentieth century (~1880-1960). By merging the theoretical and empirical insights of several strands of literature (e.g. economics, history, geography), this dissertation has both academic and social merit. Its academic merit lies in its promise to disentangle the net effect of climate on societies from the many other contextual factors that may affect them. And its social merit lies in its capacity to reveal key factors that can mitigate the adverse consequences of weather shocks, enabling tailor-made policy interventions. In sum, the present dissertation contributes to a better understanding of long-term agrarian development in tropical Africa and Asia, offering fresh input to academic debates on how to mitigate the effects of weather extremes”

Behind the veil of agricultural modernization : gendered dynamics of rural change in the Saïss, Morocco
Bossenbroek, L. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578982 - 171 p.
agricultural development - modernization - gender relations - women - social change - rural areas - family farms - morocco - north africa - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - sociale verandering - platteland - familiebedrijven, landbouw - marokko - noord-afrika

The Moroccan countryside is marked by rapidly changing rural realities. The Moroccan government frames and promotes these changes as linear development towards modernity and progress for all thereby only focusing on the experiences of some audacious men – ‘entrepreneurs’ and ‘modernizing farmers’. The aim of the study is to unveil Morocco’s agricultural modernization plan by illustrating how agrarian processes in the agricultural plain of the Saïss are not a logical, self-evident or smooth transition to a higher stage of development or modernity. They are a form of globalizing capitalist development which is messy and contradictory, and which is marked by, and re-produces existing gender social hierarchies. By putting the experiences that often “fall away” from agrarian analysis at the heart of my study I am to explore how gender and social differences come to matter in process of agrarian change and are intimately linked.

Economische betekenis van de grondgebonden landbouw in Zuid-Holland in 2016
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Smit, J. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Vader, J. ; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-066) - ISBN 9789462578449 - 27 p.
landbouw - landgebruik - tuinbouw - landbouw bedrijven - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwregio's - nederland - zuid-holland - agriculture - land use - horticulture - farming - agricultural development - agricultural regions - netherlands
The socio-economic future of agriculture in the Dutch province of Zuid-Holland is partly linked to the perspectives of the agrocluster, the combination of agricultural and horticultural firms, fishery, food and luxury industry and the firms that supply these sectors. The importance of this cluster for Zuid- Holland is described, with a focus on the primary sectors, and especially on the agricultural firms. The current situation of these firms is presented, including the developments in the recent decade and the perspectives for the next decade. Attention is also paid to the (economic) perspectives of short supply chains and innovation for agriculture in Zuid-Holland.
Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile
Carter Leal, L.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Helmut Saatkamp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578173 - 171 p.
business economics - rural development - development policy - agricultural development - regional development - livestock farming - farmers - chile - south america - bedrijfseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - veehouderij - boeren - chili - zuid-amerika
Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali
Falconnier, G.N. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Katrien Descheemaeker; T.A. van Mourik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577596 - 209 p.
agriculture - agricultural development - farms - classification - self sufficiency - food - income - intensification - farming systems - intensive production - mali - landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwbedrijven - classificatie - zelfvoorziening - voedsel - inkomen - intensivering - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve productie

Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario.

Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rainfall and unstable institutional support. This study integrates a diversity of approaches (household typology and understanding of farm trajectories, on-farm trials, participatory ex-ante trade-off analysis) to design innovative farming systems to confront these challenges. We explored farm trajectories during two decades (1994 to 2010) in the Koutiala district in southern Mali, an area experiencing the land constraints that exert pressure in many other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We classified farms into four types differing in land and labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status. During the past two decades, 17% of the farms stepped up to a farm type with greater productivity, while 70% of the farms remained in the same type, and only 13% of the farms experienced deteriorating farming conditions. Crop yields did not change significantly over time for any farm type and labour productivity decreased. Together with 132 farmers in the Koutiala district, we tested a range of options for sustainable intensification, including intensification of cereal (maize and sorghum) and legume (groundnut, soyabean and cowpea) sole crops and cereal-legume intercropping over three years and cropping seasons (2012-2014) through on-farm trials. Experiments were located across three soil types that farmers identified – namely black, sandy and gravelly soils. Enhanced agronomic performance was achieved when targeting legumes to a given soil type and/or place in the rotation: the biomass production of the cowpea fodder variety was doubled on black soils compared with gravelly soils and the additive maize/cowpea intercropping option after cotton or maize resulted in no maize grain penalty, and 1.38 t ha−1 more cowpea fodder production compared with sole maize. Farm systems were re-designed together with the farmers involved in the trials. A cyclical learning model combining the on-farm testing and participatory ex-ante analysis was used during four years (2012-2015). In the first cycle of 2012-2014, farmers were disappointed by the results of the ex-ante trade-off analysis, i.e marginal improvement in gross margin when replacing sorghum with soybean and food self-sufficiency trade-offs when intercropping maize with cowpea. In a second cycle in 2014-2015 the farm systems were re-designed using the niche-specific (soil type/previous crop combinations) information on yield and gross margin, which solved the concerns voiced by farmers during the first cycle. Farmers highlighted the saliency of the niches and the re-designed farm systems that increased farm gross margin by 9 to 29% (depending on farm type and options considered) without compromising food self-sufficiency. The involvement of farmers in the co-learning cycles allowed establishment of legitimate, credible and salient farm reconfiguration guidelines that could be scaled-out to other communities within the “old cotton basin”. Five medium-term contrasting socio-economic scenarios were built towards the year 2027, including hypothetical trends in policy interventions and change towards agricultural intensification. A simulation framework was built to account for household demographic dynamics and crop/livestock production variability. In the current situation, 45% of the 99 households of the study village were food self-sufficient and above the 1.25 US$ day-1 poverty line. Without change in farmer practices and additional policy intervention, only 16% of the farms would be both food self-sufficient and above the poverty line in 2027. In the case of diversification with legumes combined with intensification of livestock production and support to the milk sector, 27% of farms would be food self-sufficient and above the poverty line. Additional broader policy interventions to favour out-migration would be needed to lift 69% of the farms out of poverty. Other additional subsidies to favour yield gap narrowing of the main crops would lift 92% of the farm population out of poverty. Whilst sustainable intensification of farming clearly has a key role to play in ensuring food self-sufficiency, and is of great interest to local farmers, in the face of increasing population pressure other approaches are required to address rural poverty. These require strategic and multi-sectoral approaches that address employment within and beyond agriculture, in both rural and urban areas.

Under the lens of embeddedness : socio-cultural perspective on home-grown school feeding in Ghana
Sulemana, N. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Millar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577800 - 201 p.
rural areas - schools - school food service - rural development - agricultural development - ghana - west africa - platteland - scholen - maaltijdverzorging op scholen - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - west-afrika
Putting food on the table : the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security
Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Gerard Breeman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576841 - 280 p.
food security - european union - governance - agricultural policy - agricultural development - food policy - policy - policy evaluation - voedselzekerheid - europese unie - landbouwbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - beleid inzake voedsel - beleid - beleidsevaluatie
Investment opportunities in the Ethiopian Vegetables & Potatoes Seed sub-sector
Broek, J.A. van den; Ayana, Amsalu ; Desalegn, Lemma ; Hassena, Mohammed ; Blomne Sopov, M. ; Becx, G.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
agricultural economics - agricultural sector - business economics - vegetables - potatoes - seeds - trade - investment - agricultural development - ethiopia - east africa - agrarische economie - landbouwsector - bedrijfseconomie - groenten - aardappelen - zaden - handel - investering - landbouwontwikkeling - ethiopië - oost-afrika
The opportunities for vegetable seed sales in Ethiopia are derived from the size and type of the product market. The product market for vegetables in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly, both in terms of crop portfolio, as well as size.
Meer doen met mest
Didde, R. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Andeweg, K. ; Teenstra, E.D. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
mestverwerking - ontwikkelingslanden - mestvergisting - biogas - bemesting - kringlopen - vietnam - landbouwontwikkeling - manure treatment - developing countries - manure fermentation - fertilizer application - cycling - agricultural development
Wageningen UR probeert boeren in ontwikkelingslanden ervan te overtuigen meer te doen met de mest van hun vee. Dat kan bijdragen aan de energievoorziening, de conditie van de bodem en vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen. In Vietnam worden de eerste resultaten geboekt.
De kunst van het doorzetten : Leerervaringen uit Het Nieuwe Veehouden
Bremmer, B. ; Oosterhoff, Wiggele ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Boezem, Ernest van den - \ 2015
CAH Vilentum, Kenniscentrum Agrofood en Ondernemen - 21 p.
veehouderijbedrijven - veehouderij - innovaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzame veehouderij - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - economie van de veehouderij - livestock enterprises - livestock farming - innovations - farm management - sustainable animal husbandry - farm development - agricultural development - livestock economics
Deze publicatie is een verslag van ondernemers, onderzoekers, medewerkers van maatschappelijke instellingen en belangenbehartigers en studenten van een reis naar Het Nieuwe Veehouden. Naar de toekomst van de veehouderij in Nederland, zonder precies te weten hoe die er uitziet. De reisbagage bestaat vooral uit innoverend vermogen en doorzettingsvermogen. In drie projecten (Het Nieuwe Veehouden 1, 2 en 3) is deze reis gemaakt, die bestond uit workshops, interviews, studies, bijeenkomsten, enz. De drie projecten “Het Nieuwe Veehouden” laten zien hoe moeilijk het echte innoveren soms is en hoeveel doorzettingsvermogen ervoor nodig is. Tegelijkertijd is duidelijk geworden dat er aan de basis van de veehouderij in Nederland voldoende innovatief vermogen is voor een toekomst van diezelfde veehouderij in Nederland.
Getting partnerships to work : a technography of the selection, making and distribution of improved planting material in the Kenyan Central Highlands
Ndubi, J.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571150 - 153
plantenveredeling - voedselzekerheid - bananen - aardappelen - technologie - innovaties - landbouwontwikkeling - vennootschappen - samenwerking - kenya - oost-afrika - afrika - plant breeding - food security - bananas - potatoes - technology - innovations - agricultural development - partnerships - cooperation - east africa - africa

In Kenya, bananas and Irish potatoes are important staple crops. In the early 1990s, the crops were devastated by plant diseases resulting in immensely declined productivity and vulnerability of smallholder farmers. To address this problem, disease resistant varieties and tissue culture technology were introduced through partnerships. This thesis examines the working of these partnerships in the process of selecting, multiplying and disseminating improved planting materials under changeable and sometimes unanticipated social and material conditions, and whether this enabled technical change. The study describes how partnerships shape and manage technical change and how distributed task groups coordinate their actions. Partnerships organise and set in motion an evolving chain of sequential socio-technical practices, which incrementally generate technical change. Hence, partnerships are more than just an organisational tool for resource augmentation. Making partnerships work requires constant handling of the politics of selection procedures, the unanticipated consequences of material and technical problems, and the governance and control dimensions of team and group work. The study highlights the often hidden processes coordinating distributed skills and competences and the micro-politics of selection and performance as core elements for making partnerships work. The technographic approach made this visible in the performance of research teams, laboratories and collectively managed nurseries of multiplication sites. The study concludes that partnerships, as an organisational fix, are not a panacea for complicated problems, and a more thorough debate about the conditions under which partnerships may work – and for whom – is needed.

ADAA end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-030) - 70
agricultural development - development projects - civil society - society - empowerment - ethiopia - east africa - africa - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the African Development Aid Organisation (ADAA) that is a partner of Stichting Kinderpostzegels Nederland (SKN). It assesses ADAA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia and it uses the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ADAA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain OSSA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Local institutions and rural development : evidence from Liberia
Beekman, G. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Lonneke Nillesen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575080 - 200
plattelandsontwikkeling - gezinnen - netwerken - lokale netwerken - sociale netwerken - instellingen - micro-economische analyse - micro-economie - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - liberia - west-afrika - rural development - families - networks - local area networks - social networks - institutions - microeconomic analysis - microeconomics - economic development - agricultural development - west africa

Local institutions and rural development: Evidence from Liberia

This thesis focusses on the role of local (informal) institutions for development, based on data from Liberia. I show that dense family networks can be an obstacle for economic decision making, due to strict income sharing obligations that often belong to them. I also demonstrate the importance of local governance quality: corrupt village leaders negatively affect daily investment decisions by villagers. Finally, I evaluate the impact of a rural development project that aims to strengthen food security and social cohesion between villagers. The results indicate that the impact is marginal at most, and local institutions again do play a role.

Institutions are difficult to change, as they are rooted in an historical context. However, policy makers could support the emergence of alternative institutions. Either way, a deeper understanding of the far-going impact of local institutions is important: this research contributes to that.

Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

Mequanint Biset Melesse

Abstract

Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security
Khoury, C.K. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): A. Jarvis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574427 - 302
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - germplasm - landbouwontwikkeling - klimaatadaptatie - wilde verwanten - ex-situ conservering - voedselzekerheid - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - agricultural development - climate adaptation - wild relatives - ex situ conservation - food security - cum laude
Cum laude graduation
Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps are needed to improve the ability for researchers to access genetic resources critical for present and future crop improvement? This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge required to answer these questions through an exploration of the need for, potential of, challenges and constraints regarding, and necessary steps to enhance the conservation and use of crop genetic diversity.
Towards food autonomy: connectivity and self-help groups in Hisar, India
Singh, S. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574922 - 228
landbouw bedrijven in het klein - voedsel - autonomie - voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - zelfhulp - samenwerking - boerenstand - plattelandsgemeenschappen - netwerken - ondernemerschap - mungbonen - landbouwontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - india - peasant farming - food - autonomy - food production - food consumption - self help - cooperation - peasantry - rural communities - networks - entrepreneurship - mung beans - agricultural development - rural sociology

Keywords: self-help groups, connectivity, food autonomy, peasants, micro-enterprise

Towards Food Autonomy: Connectivity and Self-help Groups in Hisar, India

PhD Thesis

Shweta Singh

Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands

Abstract Food autonomy requires consideration of the various connectivity and self-help action organizing by the peasants’ communities. The socio-spatial organization of mung-bean production, household processing and consumption practices in Hisar district of Haryana-India are studied. The socio-spatial organization of food connects agriculture to its local environment, the regionally tied agriculture produce to local consumption patterns, and food production and consumption to livelihood and health, which are enabled by the abilities and practices of peasants and stimulate food autonomy. The connections are related to mung-bean food qualities at various levels of production, processing and consumption. Local mung-bean preferences of producers, processors, consumers and the market conditions are studied. It showed that local mung-bean food qualities related to suitability in the local cropping system, processing requirement (short cooking-time, better consistency and appearance) and consumption choice (easy to cook, healthy food). Mung-bean market conditions indicated that the market works against peasants (traders and urban processors are winners). However, the producers’ viewpoint on mung-bean processing at the community level is linked to the creation of new social relations in the mung-bean food network to strengthen the territorial connectivity of mung-bean for reinforcing mung-bean food autonomy. The possibilities of Self-Help Group (SHG) and SHG-based (food) Micro-Enterprise (ME) developments were discussed. In reviewing the literature on SHGs and previous empirical studies, various factors were identified that contribute to a success or failure of a functioning of SHG. These include full participation from and homogeneity among members, and clear group goals and transparency in group operations and functioning. The SHG mung-bean food-based ME initiated in Mangali village of Hisar was studied, to investigate ways in which this group functions. Results revealed three identifiable roles of the self-help peasants’ group: i) it consolidates local mung-bean food production, local resources and motivations of the peasants; ii) it develops another perspective of development based upon a more localized choice for processing, distributing, marketing and accessing local mung-bean food; and iii) it empowers local people (especially peasants and the poor rural community) and strengthens the connectivity between local mung-bean production and consumption. The need remains for technological efforts to address the specific location of peasant resources while in the SHG there is clearly a need to restore or redefine collective responsibility.

Visions on dairy capacity building for East Africa
Vernooij, A.G. ; Wals, A.E.J. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 867) - 82
dairy farming - agricultural development - support measures - east africa - melkveehouderij - landbouwontwikkeling - ondersteunende maatregelen - oost-afrika
For a long time the Netherlands has provided support to dairy development in the East African countries Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Most of this support has been provided through non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the successive development departments of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The support in most cases was aiming at a propoor approach, with a focus on supporting smallholder farmers.
Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) Year Report 2014
Nijhoff, G.H. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 48
agribusiness - agricultural development - agriculture - policy - agricultural policy - farms - farming - east africa - africa - landbouwindustrie - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - beleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika - afrika
The Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) supports African SME agrifood companies in growing their business. An AAA member companies can enhance knowledge, skills and expertise, and get support in accessing finance and markets. By the end of 2014, AAA had 200 members in five countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. These members are in the business of sourcing from or supplying to farmers. AAA’s goal is that by stimulating business growth of the SMEs it indirectly supports business growth of the farmers that are linked to these companies.
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