Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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De singel als klimaatadaptieve drager
Lenzholzer, S. ; Cortesão, J. ; Knuijt, M. ; Kersten, Paul ; Manen, Willemijn van; Immerseel, Ronald van; Wijsbek, Nina - \ 2018
- 100 p.
climate adaptation - urban planning - climatic change - water harvesting - landscape architecture
Towards a taxonomy of design approaches in landscape architecture
Raaphorst, Kevin - \ 2018
design theory - landscape architecture
RTD in landscape architecture: a first State of the Art
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2018
research through design - landscape architecture - review
Regional designing : A strategic design approach in landscape architecture
Kempenaar, Annet ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2018
Design Studies 54 (2018). - ISSN 0142-694X - p. 80 - 95.
collaborative design - landscape architecture - regional design - strategic design
Regional designing is a strategic design approach in landscape architecture that envisions desirable future situations for regions in which the spatial situation is under pressure. This paper studies the principles that regional designers use to structure and organize their design process. The regional design principles highlight the extremely ill-defined, unstructured and volatile design situations that regional designing engages with. Moreover, the study reveals that the design process is an inextricable part of the broader process of change it aims to contribute to. This draws attention to a dynamic perspective in designing, to the interaction with stakeholders, to the position of the designer in the design process, and it calls for a (re)new(ed) culture in design.
Design in the planning arena : how regional designing influences strategic spatial planning
Kempenaar, Annet - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436335 - 178
physical planning - landscape architecture - regional planning - regional development - ruimtelijke ordening - landschapsarchitectuur - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling

Regional designing is a form of spatial design that engages with the future physical form and arrangement of regions, including its aesthetic appearances and how it can come about. As such it is closely entangled with spatial planning. This thesis studies the influence of regional designing on strategic spatial planning and how this influence is realized. From the case studies, four categories of influence emerge: regional designing influences 1) the aims, 2) the process and 3) the conditions of spatial planning, and it can impact 4) the planning and design disciplines. However, not every regional design effort has similar effects. Regional designing is highly responsive to its context. The expertise of the designer, the interaction with stakeholders, and the context in which regional designing is embedded, are critical factors, making the design process the breeding ground for the influence of regional designing.

'Deconstructing' the Rotterdam roof park : Multiplicity of design representations
Raaphorst, K.M.C. - \ 2017
In: Integral design of multifunctional flood defenses / Kothuis, Baukje, Kok, Matthijs, Delft : Delft University Publishers TU Delft Library - ISBN 9789461868084 - p. 174 - 177.
climate change - visual rhetoric - semiotics - flood defense - landscape architecture
Probing the power of Apollo : methodological challenges and opportunities of the Delphi methods for developing rankings
Meijering, Jurian V. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink, co-promotor(en): Hilde Tobi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579187 - 184
delphi method - methodology - ranking - landscape architecture - delphimethode - methodologie - rangordening - landschapsarchitectuur

The Delphi method is a structured data-collection process aimed at facilitating experts to achieve a certain level of agreement on a complex problem. In several subsequent rounds experts give their opinion on the problem of interest, usually by means of a standardized questionnaire. After each round experts receive controlled opinion feedback in the form of a summary of the findings. Based on this feedback experts are allowed to reconsider their opinion in the next round.

Although the Delphi method seems to provide opportunities for developing rankings, research into its application to the development of rankings seems to be non-existent. Furthermore, the Delphi method has several unresolved methodological issues, in particular regarding the measurement of agreement and the provision of controlled opinion feedback. Therefore, the general objective of this PhD project was to find out what the methodological challenges and opportunities are of the Delphi method for developing rankings.

To achieve this objective, four studies were conducted. In the first study, simulations were performed to find out how various agreement indices behave within and across the rounds of a Delphi study. In the second study, the Delphi method was applied to develop a ranking of research domains in landscape architecture. An experiment within the study investigated the effect of two types of controlled opinion feedback on the drop-out rate, experts’ degree of opinion change, and the level of agreement among experts. The third study investigated the methodological characteristics of six urban sustainability rankings, which resulted in a recommendation to define and operationalize the concept ‘urban sustainability’ using the Delphi method. Therefore, in the fourth and final study the Delphi method was applied to find out which components experts find most relevant for defining and measuring urban sustainability. An experiment within this study provided insight into the effect of feeding back experts’ initial ratings on the degree of opinion change and the level of agreement.

Overall, this PhD project showed how the Delphi method may be used to: (1) obtain a ranking of objects on a ranking attribute and (2) obtain a definition and operationalization of a complex ranking attribute. It was also shown that these applications of the Delphi method do not come without challenges. First, selection criteria and search strategies need to be developed by which sufficient numbers of different types of experts may be found. Second, for the first Delphi questionnaire a parsimonious list of items (e.g. ranking objects or components of a ranking attribute) needs to be drawn up that largely covers the potentially great diversity of existing items. Third, careful considerations need to be made about which types of information (i.e. summary statistics, rationales, experts’ own initial ratings) to feed back to experts after every round as this may influence various Delphi outcome measures. Fourth, the choice for a particular consensus, agreement, or association index needs to be carefully made and justified as it determines the level of agreement among experts that is obtained. Finally, this project showed that by means of a simulation study and two real-world Delphi experiments new knowledge about the functioning of the Delphi method could be acquired. More of these studies are needed to establish evidence-based guidelines and to uncover the full potential of the Delphi method for developing rankings.

Beyond the visible : prolegomenon to an aesthetics of designed landscapes
Etteger, Rudi van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Bart Gremmen, co-promotor(en): R.C.H.M. van Gerwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578586 - 249
landscape architecture - landscape - design - evaluation - aesthetic value - phenomenology - philosophy - landscape experience - landschapsarchitectuur - landschap - ontwerp - evaluatie - esthetische waarde - fenomenologie - filosofie - landschapsbeleving

In this thesis the appropriate aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes is explored. The overarching research question for this thesis is: What is an appropriate appreciation of a designed landscape as a designed landscape?

This overarching research question is split into sub-questions. The first sub-question is: What is the current theoretical basis for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes and does it provide appropriate arguments for aesthetic evaluations? Two important points about the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes were found in the existing literature on environmental aesthetics and in critical evaluations of designed landscapes. Modern environmental aesthetics is focussed on natural environments as it has been shaped in response to early 20th century aesthetics, which was dominated by questions on art. The designed landscape phenomenologically related more to environments, but is ontologically closely related to artworks. Designed landscapes thus fall between two fields. The designed landscape has gone largely unacknowledged by philosophers and geographers. The lack of a specific theory for the appropriate appreciation of designed landscapes has made it easier for landscape architects and critics to miss out on the current insights of environmental aesthetics, leading to the inconsistent belief among landscape architects and landscape architecture critics that landscapes are scenic entities. Actual design criticism as offered in the Landscape Architecture Europe books is shown to be based on the inconsistent belief that aesthetic experiences of works of landscape architecture are mostly visual.

To explore what an appropriate appreciation should be based in, first the ontology and phenomenology of one example, the post-war design for the landscape of Walcheren, is described and discussed. To explore its ontology, a literature research has revealed the design process and decisions. To explore the phenomenology, the descriptions of two walks on the island made by the author were analysed. The descriptions of ontology and phenomenology of Walcheren offer insights into the relevance for the aesthetic evaluation of this landscape of being designed and of the sensorial richness of this designed landscape. In both fields of ontology and phenomenology insights into aesthetic value go beyond the visible.

The second and third part of the research answers the sub-questions about appropriate appreciation regarding respectively ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in general. The literature on topics adjacent to the field of landscape architecture, such as design and architecture aesthetics, was surveyed for aspects that might also be relevant for the aesthetic evaluation of landscape architecture. These aspects were then weighed according to a philosophical method of reasoning from first principles. Starting from a principle of appropriate appreciation, different cues were tested to see whether or not they have to be considered in such an appropriate appreciation. Following descriptions of the True Appreciation Principle (TAP) as provided by Lopes, cues were tested against the Appropriate Appreciation Principle for Designed Landscapes (AAP-DL):

An appreciation of landscape L as a designed landscape is appropriate only as far as it does not depend counterfactually on any belief that is inconsistent with the truth about the nature of designed landscapes.

Examples are provided where cues can influence one’s evaluation, and evaluation thus depends counterfactually on those taking those cues into account. If something might influence one’s evaluation one should consider it. The exploration has provided important cues for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes. The findings are the base of an evaluative framework that takes into account the ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in order to evaluate designed landscapes according the AAP-DL. A discussion is provided on the importance of such an appropriate appreciation for different audiences.

Making a difference : boundary management in spatial governance
Westerink, Judith - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578685 - 216
spatial analysis - governance - landscape architecture - space - space utilization - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape planning - urban planning - land use planning - land policy - government policy - netherlands - european union - ruimtelijke analyse - landschapsarchitectuur - ruimte - gebruik van ruimte - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsplanning - stedelijke planning - landgebruiksplanning - grondbeleid - overheidsbeleid - nederland - europese unie

In trying to influence spatial development, people engage in discussions about distinctions between places or areas, and the roles of government and society, while they need to relate to other groups of stakeholders. In other words, boundaries (between meanings of places, between government and society, and between different groups of people) are omnipresent in spatial governance. Does the peri-urban area belong to the city or to the countryside? Can nature be integrated into farming? What should be the role of governments in relation to bottom-up initiatives? And how can people collaborate in spite of their differences in background, culture and knowledge? People have devised various tools and strategies to deal with boundaries. This study investigates those boundary arrangements in practices of spatial governance, such as boundary concepts, boundary organisations and social learning. This is done by analysing a number of case studies of spatial governance practices, mainly in the Netherlands.

Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical concepts, research question and aims and the research design. The study distinguishes physical (between meanings of places), institutional (between social institutions) and social boundaries (between groups of people). Such boundaries are socially constructed, not only through their delineation, but also through their contestation and change. In other words, people take actions towards boundaries. For such actions they make use of boundary arrangements. In this thesis, boundary management is performing boundary actions by means of boundary arrangements in order to influence a governance process. The research question is: what is the role of boundary arrangements in the management of physical, social and institutional boundaries in spatial governance?

Chapter 2 analyses how the compact city concept is applied in four urban regions across Europe, how this concept yields trade-offs among dimensions of sustainability. In addition, it analyses strategies that have been developed by planners in the four regions to deal with those trade-offs. The urban – rural boundary is important in this chapter. Chapter 3 compares and analyses two overlapping and competing place concepts for peri-urban areas in The Hague Region, the Netherlands. The urban - rural boundary is central. Chapter 4 reveals discourses of collaborative planning in an urban region characterised by population growth and in a region characterised by population decline, both in the south of the Netherlands. One alternative discourse envisions a leading role for governmental actors in spatial planning, while another discourse envisions a leading role for societal actors. This chapter is mainly concerned with the boundary between government and non-government.

Chapter 5 analyses two Dutch approaches to more effective agri-environmental management: one landscape approach and one farming system approach, both with increased self-governance by farmers. This chapter is about the nature – agriculture boundary as well as the boundary between government and non-government. Chapter 6 tells the story of a collaborative project with farmers’ organisations and regional governments for a rural landscape with more landscape services. Social boundaries among different groups are important, as are the boundary between government and non-government, and the one between nature and agriculture. Chapter 7 analyses three cases in which a landscape concept supported mutual understanding and learning leading to collective action. Dealing with social boundaries in trans-disciplinary landscape planning is the main issue.

Chapter 8 answers the research question, specifies the contribution to scientific debate and provides suggestions for further research. In addition, it gives reflections on the usefulness of the theoretical lens, the research design and the role of the researcher, and specifies societal relevance of the research and policy implications. The chapter includes a typology of boundary arrangements and yields a number of insights for the study of boundaries as well as for the study of spatial governance.

Aesthetic creation theory and landscape architecture
Etteger, Rudi Van; Thompson, I.H. ; Vicenzotti, Vera - \ 2016
Jola : Journal of Landscape Architecture 11 (2016)1. - ISSN 1862-6033 - p. 80 - 91.
Aesthetic Creation Theory - criticism - landscape architecture - philosophical aesthetics - theory

In recent decades the landscape architectural discourse has tended to eschew ideas of aesthetics while focusing instead on notions of functional and sustainable design. We offer the view that Aesthetic Creation Theory, whose principal exponent is the philosopher Nick Zangwill, has the potential to redress this imbalance by interpreting landscape architecture as art. Zangwill's account of art differs, however, from many other definitions found in philosophical aesthetics: it holds that works of art have aesthetic functions that are essential to them, but also allows that they have other, non-aesthetic functions, for example practical or ecological ones. It thus removes the strict distinction between fine art and the useful arts. After introducing Zangwill's theory, we discuss some rival theories of art and then explore the virtues of Aesthetic Creation Theory for the theory, practice, and pedagogy of landscape architecture.

Productieve functies van het landschapsontwerp : themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
Duineveld, M. ; Cate, B. ten; Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 142 - 149.
participatie - landschapsarchitectuur - landschapsplanning - landschapsbeheer - ontwerp - nuttig gebruik - samenwerking - participation - landscape architecture - landscape planning - landscape management - design - utilization - cooperation
Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
Wonen, studeren en werken op het Binnengasthuisterrein: op weg naar een ontwerp op basis van gedeelde belangen
Kruit, J. ; Jonge, F.H. de; Bijlsma, T. ; Kruizinga, C. ; Brouwer, S.M. ; Galli, G. ; Tian, L. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 315) - 63
stadsomgeving - openbaar groen - ontwerp - gebruik van ruimte - tuinen - bewonersparticipatie - welzijn - amsterdam - universiteiten - openluchtrecreatie - landschapsarchitectuur - urban environment - public green areas - design - space utilization - gardens - community participation - well-being - universities - outdoor recreation - landscape architecture
Het Binnengasthuisterrein wordt intensief gebruikt door bewoners, studenten en medewerkers van de UvA, toeleveringsbedrijven, passanten en toeristen. Het ziet er naar uit dat het aantal gebruikers de komende jaren zal toenemen. Tegengestelde belangen en visies tussen bewoners, diverse andere partijen en de UvA hebben in de loop van de tijd tot botsingen geleid. De wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR, is om advies gevraagd hoe zoveel verschillende wensen en belangen samen te brengen in een integraal ontwerp. De doelstelling van de VOL-BG is erop gericht te komen tot een internationaal tot de verbeelding sprekende toekomstige inrichting van het Binnengasthuisterrein, met behoud van het rustige, groene en monumentale karakter van het terrein, waarin wonen, leren, spelen, werken en recreëren door elkaar heen gebeurt door jonge en oude mensen, buurtbewoners, bezoekers, studenten en UvA medewerkers. In dit rapport beschrijft de wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR het onderzoek dat zij heeft uitgevoerd om de Vereniging Openbaar en leefbaar Binnengasthuisterrein (VOL-BG) bij het bereiken van dit doel te ondersteunen.
Geleid door het landschap
Koedoot, M. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2014
Velp : Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein, Lectoraaat Geïntegreerd Natuur en Landschapsbeheer - ISBN 9789082119510 - 64
landschap - omgevingspsychologie - landschapsarchitectuur - planning - landgebruik - ontwerp - vegetatie - nederland - landscape - environmental psychology - landscape architecture - land use - design - vegetation - netherlands
Op een toegankelijke manier worden de verschillende methoden van landschapsanalyse en landschapswaardering beschreven die in de Velpse Van Hall Larenstein opleidingen Bos- en Natuurbeheer, Land- en Watermanagement en Tuin- en Landschapsinrichting onderwezen worden. Het doel van het boekje is de breedte van de Velpse benaderingen te laten zien. Een VHL uitgave, bestemd voor iedereen die met landschap werkt, bijvoorbeeld in de tuin- en landschapsarchitectuur of de planvorming
Green-Blue infrastructure for a resilient and healthy city
Etteger Ma, R. van; Haan, H.J. de; Buizer, I.M. ; Stremke, S. ; Klemm, W. ; Schrijver, R. ; Hetem, V. ; Takeda, M.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 164
regionale planning - landschapsarchitectuur - groene zones - klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - utrecht - openbaar groen - regional planning - landscape architecture - green belts - climatic change - urban areas - public green areas
This book, Atelier 2014-Utrecht, is a perspective on sensible use and optimisation of the green-blue structures in the City of Utrecht.
Stadsgroen maakt warmte draaglijker
Klemm, Wiebke - \ 2014
public green areas - urban parks - temperature - heat tolerance - urban areas - landscape architecture - climate
250 jaar Copijn in het groen : tentoonstelling 4 april 2014 t/m 1 augustus 2014
Dijkstra, A.G. ; Karssen-Schüürmann, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Library, Speciale Collecties - 43
tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - publieke tuinen - landschapsarchitectuur - geschiedenis - bibliotheken - wetenschappelijke bibliotheken - tentoonstellingen - gardens - domestic gardens - public gardens - landscape architecture - history - libraries - scientific libraries - exhibitions
Twee en een halve eeuw al zijn de leden van de familie Copijn werkzaam in het groen. Een onafgebroken traditie die begon toen Hendrik Copijn zich in 1763 in Groenekan vestigde. Nog steeds is hier Copijn Groenekan boomkwekerij en tuinarchitectuur gevestigd, alsmede ontwerp- en adviesbureau Copijn Bruine Beuk en een paar kilometer ten zuidwesten van Groenekan aan de Gageldijk bevindt zich het bedrijf Copijn Tuin- en Landschapsarchitecten / Boomspecialisten / Groenaanleg en beheer. Deze tentoonstelling is gebaseerd op het boek ‘Met levend materiaal’ : Copijn 1763-2013 tweehonderdvijftig jaar tuinlieden, boomkwekers, boomverzorgers en tuin- en landschapsarchitecten
De waarden van de groene stad
Timmermans, W. ; Cilliers, J. ; Slijkhuis, J. - \ 2014
Velp : Hogeschool van Hall Larenstein (Planning by surprise ) - ISBN 9789068240351 - 48
planning - landschapsarchitectuur - openbaar groen - volksgezondheid - stedelijke gebieden - economische evaluatie - groenbeheer - utrecht - landscape architecture - public green areas - public health - urban areas - economic evaluation - management of urban green areas
Groen zorgt voor een gezonde, leefbare, rendabele, schone en mooie stad, maar is ook economisch interessant voor de stad als vestigingsklimaat van bedrijven. In het Europese project Value (Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy) hebben tien partners van 2008 tot 2012 samengewerkt om bewijs te verzamelen van de economische meerwaarde die groen heeft voor steden. VHL op zijn beurt, onderzocht planningsmethoden over economische meerwaarde van het stadsgroen. In samenwerking met de gemeente Amersfoort is dit via experimenten in praktijk gebracht.
Het verhaal van de plek : placemaking en storytelling
Timmermans, W. ; Goorbergh, F. van den; Slijkhuis, J. ; Cilliers, J. - \ 2013
Velp : Hogeschool van Hall Larenstein (Planning by surprise ) - 52
ruimtelijke ordening - stedelijke gebieden - groene zones - landschapsarchitectuur - volksgezondheid - groenbeheer - parken - omgevingspsychologie - publieke participatie - openbaar groen - physical planning - urban areas - green belts - landscape architecture - public health - management of urban green areas - parks - environmental psychology - public participation - public green areas
Het besef groeit dat het stedelijk groen meer is dan ecologie en biodiversiteit. Dat besef is in het hedendaagse groenbeheer nog geen gewoon-goed. Daarom willen we vanuit de praktijk van Hogeschool Van Hall Larenstein in dit boek proberen aan te geven wat er in het groenbeheer mogelijk is met strategische inzet van groen in de stad, en welke competenties groenbeheerders hiervoor nodig hebben.
The story behind the place : placemaking and storytelling
Timmermans, W. ; Goorbergh, F. van den; Slijkhuis, J. ; Cilliers, J. - \ 2013
Velp : Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences (Planning by surprise ) - 52
ruimtelijke ordening - stedelijke gebieden - groene zones - landschapsarchitectuur - volksgezondheid - groenbeheer - parken - omgevingspsychologie - publieke participatie - physical planning - urban areas - green belts - landscape architecture - public health - management of urban green areas - parks - environmental psychology - public participation
The values of green spaces in towns and cities
Timmermans, W. ; Cilliers, J. ; Slijkhuis, J. - \ 2013
Velp : Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences (Planning by surprise ) - ISBN 9789068240368
ruimtelijke ordening - groene zones - landschapsarchitectuur - openbaar groen - volksgezondheid - economische evaluatie - groenbeheer - physical planning - green belts - landscape architecture - public green areas - public health - economic evaluation - management of urban green areas
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