Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Omgevingskwaliteit als provinciale missie
Roncken, P.A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2017
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 34 (2017)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 161 - 167.
ruimtelijke kwaliteit, landschap, decentralisatie, juridisering, integraliteit - landschap - ruimtelijke ordening - juridisering - provincies
De provincie als innovator
Veen, Mark P. van; Veenenbos, Harm ; Roncken, P.A. - \ 2017
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 34 (2017)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 198 - 203.
transities, ruimtelijke kwaliteit, participatie, Omgevingswet - landschap - ecologie - omgevingswet - transities
Utrecht Science Park : Landschap als podium voor de kenniseconomie
Roncken, P.A. ; Cornelissen, Bertus ; Caalders, J. - \ 2017
In: Spot On Vereniging Deltametropool - p. 50 - 55.
landschap, metropool, ruimtelijke ordening - landschap - vestigingsvoorwaarde - regionaal ontwerp - Design
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde (Journal)
Roncken, Paul - \ 2017
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde (2017). - ISSN 0169-6300
landschap - ecologie - ruimtelijke ordening
guest editorial 04/2017
Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Bas Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

Research questions

The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

Erfgoedconstructies in landschapspraktijken van burgers
Braaksma, Patricia - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Joks Janssen, co-promotor(en): A.N. van der Zande; Maarten Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571549 - 231
landschap - erfgoed - cultureel erfgoed - cultuurgeschiedenis - nederland - landscape - heritage areas - cultural heritage - cultural history - netherlands

Decisions to cut down monumental trees or demolish historic buildings can always count on civilian protests. Every year, the Dutch tradition of Zwarte Piet (‘Black Pete’) is heavily debated, the protests almost a tradition themselves. There are regular reports about concerned people protesting the disappearance of heritage or the damage about to be done to it. People value traditions, narratives or historic objects, and these are called heritage. Not everyone values these in the same way, though. Where to one person Zwarte Piet is inextricably bound up with the Sinterklaas festivities, to another he is nothing less than an expression of racism. What constitutes heritage depends on the meaning people assign to objects, events, stories and traditions. In the past, experts usually decided what was considered to be heritage. The examples show that civilians also assign heritage meaning and thus construct heritage as well. Policy-makers have expressed a wish to cooperate with citizens to come to a concerted and widely supported valuation of heritage. Since heritage is not an objective and static given, but a product of dynamic assignment of meaning, groups of people can produce multiform heritage values. Insights into what meanings people assign to heritage in their everyday environments could on the one hand help preserve the existing values regarding heritage, sites and landscapes and respect these. On the other hand they can be helpful in the development of policies for heritage and the efforts of the government for more cooperation with citizens. The aim of this study is to obtain these insights.

Theoretical perspective and research questions

In science, the concept of heritage is the subject of lively discussions. Traditionally, heritage was presented as a collection of artefacts, of which the historic characteristics and the ways in which they could be shown were studied. Later, the attention shifted to heritage as a construction of meaning. The study focused primarily on representations; the way old things were linguistically represented by different groups of people. The material artefacts thus disappeared from view. More recently, heritage researchers propose an integrated approach: no longer an exclusive focus on either the artefacts or the representations thereof, but rather the relations between these should be the object of study. This study is consistent with the latter conceptualisation, and departs from the matching theoretical perspective of landscape practices. These are routines shared by groups of interacting people who are involved with landscapes. In these landscape practices, motives, actions, material objects and the meanings assigned to them form a coherent whole. This theoretical approach is ideally suited to study heritage as meaning construction on a micro-level (the level of people's daily lives), and to understand this assignment of meaning against the background of routines in which actions and material objects are also important. In addition to the characterisation of different landscape practices in which heritage is constructed, this research is meant to make four additional contributions to heritage literature. First, heritage studies so far focused on explicit meanings, i.e. meanings in which historical artefacts are explicitly presented as heritage. From practice theory, however, it follows that there can also be implied meanings and that these can be just as relevant. These are meanings assigned to historical artefacts, without presenting these as heritage. Secondly, I focused on the ways experts and people in practices exchange knowledge. In literature, this exchange has mostly been studied as a conflict, but other forms, such as cooperation, are equally conceivable. Thirdly, I looked for changes in heritage constructions resulting from recent or upcoming spatial changes in the surroundings. Studies on the assignment of meaning to places show that these meanings may shift when change is about to come to a place; whether and how this is the case for heritage meanings is still a largely open question. Fourthly, I looked at the willingness of people to cooperate in heritage management. It is because of this perspective of practice theory that this study can add to the studies on representations of heritage, in which the emphasis is often on conflicts between governments and citizens.

On the basis of these considerations, the following research questions were leading for the empirical research:

Which motives, activities, and scenic elements play a role in landscape practices, and what meanings do people in these practices assign to historic artefacts?

To what extent is the distinction between implicit and explicit meanings relevant for understanding the construction of heritage in landscape practices?

What are the roles of external expert knowledge in the construction of scenic heritage in landscape practices?

To what extent do spatial changes influence the heritage constructions in landscape practices?

To what extent are citizens in landscape practices willing to participate with the government in taking care of heritage?

Research design

To answer the research questions, a qualitative research design was chosen. I have collected information about motives, activities and meanings by conducting [aantal] semi-structured interviews with people who are active in landscape practices. These interviews were conducted in four study areas: the Tjongervallei, the Roerstreek, the Amstelland and the IJsselvallei. In two of these areas spatial changes play a prominent role (Amstelland and IJsselvallei), and in the other two they do not. Moreover, historical experts highly value two of these areas (Roerstreek and Amstelland) and not the other two. This combination of study areas was chosen with the research questions about the influence of spatial changes and the roles of expert knowledge in mind. In the phase of qualitative data analysis, the information from the interviews was processed by systematically coding quotes from the interviews, based on similarities and differences in these quotes, and on the concepts that gave direction to the research.

Findings

Seven distinctive types of landscape practices were found in the different study areas. In practices centring around the collection of historical information, the activities for the most part consist of visiting archives and libraries, and organising the obtained information. The focus is on the social aspects of history, what the life of our ancestors was like. Within these practices, historic landscape features are assigned meaning as signs of this social history. An old turf hut, for instance, reflects the hard life of peat workers in the past.

Within practices focused on the education of local history, people organise exhibitions and tours and develop teaching materials for schools. These people like to make a contribution to society, to be active and to provide younger generations with knowledge about history. Landscape elements that show an area's history are valuable to these people.

The people in conservation practices focus on legislation, for which they administer and collect data on species and their habitat. They also go out to work on small projects to contribute to nature. That is what they love to do most. Historical elements and features that also have a high ecological value have a special meaning within these practices.

Being active in the landscape characterises the practices of landscape maintenance, activities such as pruning, pollarding and digging. What motivates these people are the social contacts they have during these activities and that these are outdoor activities. The objects of their activities are central to the assignment of meaning to the surroundings. The aesthetic meaning is paramount here, while the historical dimension hardly plays a role.

In practices focused on monument conservation, getting other local residents involved is an important activity. Being active for the community and preserving something for future generations are important motivations for participants. It is not the larger landscape structures, but specific historical objects that are of interest. If there are spatial changes, these historical meanings are strongly articulated and defended, even in court, if necessary.

In the practice of landscape development, found only in the Tjongervallei, people make plans for the area and organise consultations. It is about improving the landscape and using history to this end. Therefore, there is special emphasis on historical artefacts, which become meaningful in new plans such as the development of tourist routes.


Depending on the study area, protest activities or support activities are at the heart of landscape development practices. When protesting proposed plans, this means taking part in participation procedures and court procedures. Support activities involve persuading other locals of their perspectives on the future, in order to prevent administrators of making decisions that are not in line with those perspectives. Historical landscape structures, rather than specific objects, are assigned meaning from the desire to steer spatial developments.

Throughout the practices and study areas, different dominant modes of production of meaning were found, within which heritage is constructed: on the basis of landscape aesthetics, in response to upcoming or recent spatial changes, from the perspective of people's own family history, the wish to make a social contribution, and on the basis of utility value.

This research shows that assigning meanings to historic landscape features and structures is diverse. This diversity does not only exist between study areas but also between practices within an area. Heritage is therefore a social construct. At the same time, heritage is not a completely random construct. Some historical artefacts easily get assigned meaning, and therefore play an important role in different practices. Also, these heritage meanings are often understandable seeing the activities, motives and knowledge in the relevant practices.

The theoretically assumed distinction between explicit and implicit meanings does indeed turn out to be relevant. Some people assign meaning to historical objects in a landscape, while there is not any actual historical connotation. In their view, for instance, the objects are valuable in relation to the aesthetics of the landscape, or as elements with value for nature.

Different ways of knowledge exchange with experts were found in this research. Sometimes participants in practices worked together with experts to gain knowledge. Especially in practices that revolve around collecting historical information amateur archaeologists and professional archaeologists work together to increase historical knowledge. In conservation practices, people consult experts to become familiar with statutory frameworks that are relevant to their activities.

Practice members and experts appreciate each other's work. Within some practices, such as that of monument conservation, expert knowledge and consultation are actively sought out to strengthen the legitimacy of arguments. People think, for example, that the likelihood of success in court cases increases when an expert agrees with them.

The extent to which upcoming and recent spatial changes are of influence varies greatly between landscape practices. In some practices, activities and the assignment of meaning explicitly address these spatial changes. People protest against changes using various means, such as public inquiries and lawsuits, and by accentuating or even newly constructing historical meanings of objects as a strategy to influence changes. Other practices do not react to spatial changes, because the historical artefacts that are important within these practices remain untouched by these changes.

This research shows that many people are prepared to take care of heritage in their own way. We also see cooperation with the government. Sometimes practices execute public tasks through volunteer work, and vice versa the government facilitates some practices through grants and by organising public inquiries. However, this does not mean that we can already see joint assignment of heritage meanings and values. In its wake, a broad willingness to participate in public policies for heritage was not found. The way in which the government frames interaction can be a major obstacle. In the IJsselvallei, there is discontent among citizens about the small extent to which they can share their perspectives within the planning procedures as established by the government.

Conclusion and discussion

Heritage literature often emphasises the importance of heritage for people. This research shows that it is indeed important, but also that we should not exaggerate this importance. The interest in history is usually fragmented and often limited to a specific object that is of interest in a landscape practice. Moreover, this study looked at people who are actively involved in the landscape, and landscape heritage is probably even less important to people that are not actively involved. Heritage researchers also often emphasise that heritage is important for people's identity formation. Although this issue has not been examined directly empirically, the findings do necessitate a nuancing of this idea. The interviewees hardly indicate that historical artefacts are important to their sense of identity. Some measure of identity contribution does seem plausible though, because, for example, people find some objects typical for the region to which they feel connected. The main attraction of landscape practices for the participants lies in the social relations. That is what it is really about for most people, and that is what makes them feel good. In this sense, historical artefacts are often, but not always, a reason for doing things together, and that is what the participants enjoy the most.

Social Relevance

The current heritage policy focuses increasingly on citizens. Policymakers think that shared values ​​should be established in the collaboration between heritage professionals and citizens. This study provides insights into both the conflicts that arise in practice and the current cooperation between citizens and heritage professionals.

A striking finding in the studied landscape practices is that there are no conflicts between practices themselves. Many meanings assigned to heritage, although different, are not inherently conflicting in the sense that they are mutually exclusive. The importance of social relations for those involved in a landscape practice means that they do not easily start a conflict. While conflicts between practices were not found in this study, there are many conflicts between landscape practices and governments. Spatial change is a major driver of conflict. Especially in those situations, governments should therefore focus on interactive participation processes in a planning context.

In addition to the negatively oriented cooperation between citizens and governments, this research also identified a positively oriented cooperation. These forms of cooperation are not very interactive yet. It is therefore questionable whether they will lead to shared heritage values. For governments and other heritage professionals, landscape practices are interesting contacts. They are organized and often already actively involved in heritage, so they are easier to approach than individual citizens. To give new meaning to heritage policy with the shared values ​​of governments and citizens at the centre, a change is required in the way professionals work. More than they do now, participatory processes should focus on the actions of people and the diversity of the meanings they assign to heritage. If they do, the results from this study indicate that it might well be possible to share the care for heritage.

Dis-locating innovation : amphibious geographies of creative reuse and alternative value production
Barba Latta, Iulian I.V. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Claudio Minca, co-promotor(en): Martijn Duineveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430135 - 131
landscape - cultural landscape - innovations - creativity - imagination - urban sites - urban development - waste land - rural areas - topology - landschap - cultuurlandschap - innovaties - creativiteit - verbeelding - stedelijke terreinen - stadsontwikkeling - woeste grond - platteland - topologie

This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common feature of any practice, this research seeks to expand the understanding of innovation beyond canonical interpretations of the subject matter. This opens up a bewildering matrix of potentialities to tackle the emergence of alternatives, often to be recovered from the very dynamics of mainstream innovations that branch out beyond their original purpose. Moreover, the contingent character of mainstream and alternative innovations connotes processes of varying dynamics and rhythmic qualities, which appear to escape the sole grip of linear or cyclical interpretations. Instructed by this preliminary set of assumptions, this investigation belongs to an amphibious domain of enquiry, one that takes shape at the interface between presumably grounded and more fluid readings of innovation processes. Aligned to the amphibious conceptual imaginary, there is also the thematic repertoire and empirical ambit of case studies explored within the dissertation. As such, the evoked conceptual liminality dictated the particular focus on amphibious practices, as the referents of material and affective dispositions, as well as of narratives of belonging scored across land-water interfaces.

The main case studies presented in chapters IV and V were the result of an exploratory phase, with its point of departure in a pilot study conducted on the emergence of floating urbanization solutions in the Netherlands. The surveyed modalities of inhabiting land-water interfaces led me to wonder on the existence of alternative conditions of possibility to what otherwise appeared and were also tagged as very innovative attempts to reimagine urban dwelling. This struck me as a thorny task: where do you start in qualifying something as innovative or not? It took another survey of historical practices and some lengthy reflection sessions to realize that beyond the shifts and turns it has supposedly informed, innovation is much more performative than I initially thought. Thus, I started conducting ethnographic fieldwork by focusing on a pretty unusual case – floating churches, in Volgograd, Russia, more rural than urban, and definitely not the kind of instance you would run across in the mainstream innovation literature. The second case selection followed more or less the same oddly-informed pattern, this time – an on-land harbour, the brainchild of an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Speaking from the field of Cultural Geography such an endeavour appears to be an opportune exercise, particularly for better understanding the underlying conditions of the current innovation ethos and the ways it (potentially) shapes future trajectories. The investigation draws on three main research questions, which address the meanings (1), workings (2) and expectations (3) connected to various innovation imaginaries, as follows:

In what ways do different amphibious practices acknowledge the spatiotemporal and material conditions of innovation?

How do those conditions enable the emergence of alternative innovations?

To what extent are emergent alternatives influencing incumbent political repertoires as part of the current innovation ethos?

To answer these research questions, the dissertation brings into dialogue multiple disciplinary filiations and, as a secondary and more subtle objective, it reflects upon a new set of spatial (and temporal) imaginaries that would add up to the emergent spatial grammars currently animating geographical thought. Within the broader ambit of unpacking the workings of innovation processes, the theoretical and empirical exploration weaves contributions to the burgeoning strands of work on topological thinking, geographies of religion and secularism, archival practices and knowledge mobilities, urban progressive movements, and particularly, to the ongoing debates on new materialism. Consequently, the methodological sway of this study covers a spectrum ranging from grand theory to ethnographic accounts of micro-societal shifts.

The dissertation is structured into seven chapters and its red thread could be envisioned as describing a loop between chapters II and VI, accordingly entitled The Magic Mirror I and The Magic Mirror II. The second chapter provides a critical overview of grand innovation narratives and their diverse filiations across Western thought, to outline the conceptual imaginary that drives this investigation. The thematic focus of The Magic Mirror I concerns the normative distinction between innovation and imitation, which arguably deters an ampler understanding of innovation processes. Chapter III, The surface and the abyss, expands on this preliminary vision by resorting to an extensive genealogical exercise. Through a critical deployment of the surface/depth metaphor, it explores the catalytic potential of topological thinking to establish points of articulation between apparently opposed notions and canons of thought. Starting from a genealogy of mathematical developments and philosophical mediations toward the end point of geography, it addresses the interplay between the formal (axiomatic) and conceptual (problematic) dimensions of topology in suggesting some potentially alternative ways of re-imagining the role of topological thinking for spatial theory and human geography, and connecting these to the empirical exploration presented in chapter IV.

Chapter IV explores the concept of creative reuse as an alternative modality to interrogate the materiality of things and their documentary sway beyond the immediate affordances dictated by circumstances of disposal or dissolution. Drawing on an ethnographic study of the Volga and Don riverscapes, it evokes the case of the floating churches built to support the revival of faith practices in the Volgograd oblast after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In attending to their impact in warping various temporal and geographical proximities, it suggests that their workings rely on topologies of fixed points and shifting spatialities, animated by forms of religious ritual and related creative manifestations. Through recourse to questions of materiality, mobility and affect it argues that creative reuse interventions provide productive ways of exposing and altering the residual surplus on which both things and processes of place-making rest upon.

Chapter V examines the role of creative reuse as an alternative imaginary specifically concerned with the residual surplus that results along dominant processes of accumulation and value production. In moving beyond circumstances of disposal or dissolution, it argues that creative reuse interventions provide inventive ways to exploit the productive latencies scored across incumbent sociotechnical arrangements. Building upon an ethnographic study of De Ceuvel’s on-land harbour, an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, it shows how things that were otherwise redundant/disposed/forgotten can stimulate new material and affective dispositions that call into question established practices around sustainable, creative and inclusive city-making. Based on the findings, it goes on to suggest that creative reuse interventions enable new conditions of possibility for the enactment of alternative urban futures.

Chapter VI, The Magic Mirror II, closes the loop by connecting the findings to the introductory discussion from The Magic Mirror I, and elaborating further upon a more generous imaginary to tackle the workings of innovations, as well as the emergence of related alternatives. Thus, from the genealogical interrogation of topology to the unconventional interventions discussed in the empirical sections, creative reuse emerges as the vehicle of surprising returns. These enable a more generous reading that transcends the immediate affordances of mere imitation or circumstances of disposal – one that pivots on the key role of variation through mimesis or the potent afterlives of things and affects in animating alternative forms of innovation. The reference to alternatives should be understood both in relation to the dominant narrative of creative destruction, as well as to how various imaginaries – whether digested as secular, religious or otherwise – become entangled and mirror each other in intriguing ways. Consequently, even when proceeding from the fairly basic distinction that things envisioned as fixed end up afloat and travelling around, as much as things expected to float and travel around become stranded, the idea of surprising returns opens a broad spectrum of meanings and potentialities. As such, the resulting instances expose realities that are much more turbulent than commonly asserted.

Chapter VII answers the main research questions and also grants recognition to creative reuse imaginaries as the inescapable complement to dominant processes of accumulation and value production. As such, the material and affective dispositions cultivated through the emergence of alternatives, within and between various practices, signal the dislocation work occasioned by processes of variation through mimesis. These emergent imaginaries rely on a logic of aspiration and differentiation, which allows them to interfere with, and shape each other, or even morph into new narratives of belonging and creative action. And this is usually achieved through a rather twisted symbiosis, one of peculiar association. The latter pertains to the loose/labile character of creative reuse imaginaries explored in the empirical chapters, which enables them to contract and expand under various readings. Somewhat paradoxically, their dynamics seems to mirror that of mainstream innovations through the performative re-enactment of conditions for success. However, they excel through the disposition for multiple entanglements that often defy the normative distinctions between formal and informal domains. This gives rise to broad fields of resonance in recasting all sorts of anamorphic reflections across the resulting amphibious domains of contingency. In other words, the more imaginaries they interfere with or even subsume, the higher chances become for innovative spin-offs. For a more synthetic overview of the findings, the last section of the chapter packs a final reflection in the form of some tentative corollaries inspired by this exploratory journey.

Resultaten van 10 jaar daarmoetikzijn voor de provincie Zuid-Holland
Goossen, C.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2781) - 27
landschap - perceptie - natuur - omgevingspsychologie - zuid-holland - landscape - perception - nature - environmental psychology
Op basis van 8.935 bezoekers van de websites www.daarmoetikzijn.nl en myplacetobe.eu uit de provincie Zuid-Holland is een analyse gemaakt naar de aantrekkelijkheid van het landschap. Het gemiddelde rapportcijfer van het landschap in Zuid-Holland is de afgelopen tien jaar een zes en de laatste jaren dalend. Vooral bebouwing draagt negatief bij aan het rapportcijfer, maar ook bedrijventerreinen, industriegebieden en geluid van auto’s, treinen, vliegverkeer en bossen. Heide-, zand- en duingebieden leveren daarentegen een positieve bijdrage aan het rapportcijfer, evenals hoogteverschillen. Deze zes, van de vijftien, gebruikte indicatoren verklaren voor 8 procent het rapportcijfer. Circa een derde van de bezoekers (32 procent) uit Zuid-Holland geeft een onvoldoende aan het landschap rond de eigen woonplaats. Ruimtelijk gezien krijgt echter het grootste deel van het landschap in Zuid-Holland een voldoende. Bos is het meest gewilde landschapstype. Twee derde van de bezoekers wil bezienswaardigheden hebben in het ideale landschap en geluidbelasting, horizonvervuiling en drukte door recreatieve fietsers worden als storend ervaren.
Van heidebebossing naar heidelandschap : onderzoek naar herstel van de Noordelijke Manderheide (Natura 2000-gebied Springendal & Dal van de Mosbeek)
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bevaart, K. ; Geraedts, W.H.K.M. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2759) - 51
heidegebieden - bebossing - landschap - ecologisch herstel - twente - heathlands - afforestation - landscape - ecological restoration
De Manderheide in Noordoost-Twente is onderdeel van het Natura 2000-gebied Springendal – Dal van de Mosbeek. Dit rapport presenteert een plan voor het herstel van de Manderheide in het kader van het Programma Aanpak Stikstof, met name gericht op habitattype Droge heiden (H4030) in de context van een goed functionerend heidelandschap. Als uitgangspunten gelden: 1) herstel op landschapsschaal door koppeling van voedselarme en voedselrijkere terreindelen, 2) ontsnippering van leefgebieden, 3) inpassing van cultuurhistorische elementen en 3) vorming van een robuust en beheerbaar heideareaal. Deze punten worden nader uitgewerkt tot zes randvoorwaarden: reserveren van bufferzones, instellen van integrale begrazing, plaatselijk ontwikkelen van eikenbos, betrekken van cultuurhistorische waarden, omvormen van bos naar heide op relatief rijke bodem en ontsnipperen van oude en nieuwe heide, inclusief extensieve akkers, tot een open heidelandschap. De beschouwde oppervlakte is ca. 220 ha, waarvan ca. 75 ha volgens plan zou moeten worden omgevormd. Hierdoor ontstaat ca. 145 ha aaneengesloten heidelandschap.
Ideaaltypen en analysekader van groene burgerinitiatieven : bijlage bij het rapport ‘De betekenis van groene burgerinitiatieven: analyse van kenmerken en effecten van 264 initiatieven in Nederland’
Mattijssen, T.J.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 85) - 64
burgers - participatie - natuur - landschap - governance - citizens - participation - nature - landscape
This technical report is an appendix to the report The significance of green citizens’ initiatives: analysis of thecharacteristics and effects of 264 initiatives in the Netherlands (Mattijssen et al., 2016). It starts with severalremarks concerning the method described in the main report. These are followed by an explanation of theconceptual framework used in the main report, with additional arguments for and descriptions of the criteriaused to analyse green citizens’ initiatives. It also contains supplementary information on the ideal typespresented in the main report and a discussion of two ideal types, ‘social entrepreneurship’ and ‘financialsupport’, both of which were not included in the main report because of the limited scale and relevance ofthese initiatives. Finally, the report concludes with a stepwise description of all the ideal types based on thedimensions of the conceptual framework.
Samen naar een registratie van groene en blauwe landschapselementen : een haalbaarheidsstudie
Doorn, Anne van; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Meijer, Marcel ; Snepvangers, Judith ; Herwaarden, Gerrit Jan van; Kamerling, Annemarie - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2733) - 59
landschapselementen - landschap - geografische informatiesystemen - registratie - technieken - landscape elements - landscape - geographical information systems - registration - techniques
Landschapselementen zijn zeer waardevol in het landelijk gebied, toch ontbreekt een consistente registratie ervan. Door de vergroening van het GLB wordt een goede registratie extra relevant. Er zijn verschillende manieren om hiertoe te komen, al dan niet met inzet van reeds bestaande gegevensbestanden en nieuwe technieken. Door het hanteren van het kader dat is vastgelegd in EUregelgeving zijn deze bestanden en technieken getoetst op bruikbaarheid en worden de verschillende manieren om te komen tot een registratie van landschapselementen beschreven.
Beyond the visible : prolegomenon to an aesthetics of designed landscapes
Etteger, Rudi van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Bart Gremmen, co-promotor(en): R.C.H.M. van Gerwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578586 - 249
landscape architecture - landscape - design - evaluation - aesthetic value - phenomenology - philosophy - landscape experience - landschapsarchitectuur - landschap - ontwerp - evaluatie - esthetische waarde - fenomenologie - filosofie - landschapsbeleving

In this thesis the appropriate aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes is explored. The overarching research question for this thesis is: What is an appropriate appreciation of a designed landscape as a designed landscape?

This overarching research question is split into sub-questions. The first sub-question is: What is the current theoretical basis for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes and does it provide appropriate arguments for aesthetic evaluations? Two important points about the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes were found in the existing literature on environmental aesthetics and in critical evaluations of designed landscapes. Modern environmental aesthetics is focussed on natural environments as it has been shaped in response to early 20th century aesthetics, which was dominated by questions on art. The designed landscape phenomenologically related more to environments, but is ontologically closely related to artworks. Designed landscapes thus fall between two fields. The designed landscape has gone largely unacknowledged by philosophers and geographers. The lack of a specific theory for the appropriate appreciation of designed landscapes has made it easier for landscape architects and critics to miss out on the current insights of environmental aesthetics, leading to the inconsistent belief among landscape architects and landscape architecture critics that landscapes are scenic entities. Actual design criticism as offered in the Landscape Architecture Europe books is shown to be based on the inconsistent belief that aesthetic experiences of works of landscape architecture are mostly visual.

To explore what an appropriate appreciation should be based in, first the ontology and phenomenology of one example, the post-war design for the landscape of Walcheren, is described and discussed. To explore its ontology, a literature research has revealed the design process and decisions. To explore the phenomenology, the descriptions of two walks on the island made by the author were analysed. The descriptions of ontology and phenomenology of Walcheren offer insights into the relevance for the aesthetic evaluation of this landscape of being designed and of the sensorial richness of this designed landscape. In both fields of ontology and phenomenology insights into aesthetic value go beyond the visible.

The second and third part of the research answers the sub-questions about appropriate appreciation regarding respectively ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in general. The literature on topics adjacent to the field of landscape architecture, such as design and architecture aesthetics, was surveyed for aspects that might also be relevant for the aesthetic evaluation of landscape architecture. These aspects were then weighed according to a philosophical method of reasoning from first principles. Starting from a principle of appropriate appreciation, different cues were tested to see whether or not they have to be considered in such an appropriate appreciation. Following descriptions of the True Appreciation Principle (TAP) as provided by Lopes, cues were tested against the Appropriate Appreciation Principle for Designed Landscapes (AAP-DL):

An appreciation of landscape L as a designed landscape is appropriate only as far as it does not depend counterfactually on any belief that is inconsistent with the truth about the nature of designed landscapes.

Examples are provided where cues can influence one’s evaluation, and evaluation thus depends counterfactually on those taking those cues into account. If something might influence one’s evaluation one should consider it. The exploration has provided important cues for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes. The findings are the base of an evaluative framework that takes into account the ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in order to evaluate designed landscapes according the AAP-DL. A discussion is provided on the importance of such an appropriate appreciation for different audiences.

Inspiring natural landscapes in a crowded country : five examples of nature-based solutions in Dutch landscapes
Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Braat, Chris ; Hoedt, André ten; Janssen, John ; Rossenaar, Arnout-Jan ; Sanders, Marlies ; Schipper, Piet ; Vegter, Uko ; Winter, Erwin - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra) report 2754) - 17
landschap - landschapsecologie - nederland - landscape - landscape ecology - netherlands
Kennisontwikkeling samen met stakeholders : ecosysteemdiensten in agrolandschappen
Geertsema, W. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Pulleman, M.M. ; Rijn, P.C.J. van; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 63 - 65.
zuidhollandse eilanden - ecosystem services - fields - sustainable agriculture - landscape - farmers - public authorities - projects - workshops (programs) - ecosysteemdiensten - velden - duurzame landbouw - landschap - boeren - overheid - projecten - workshops (programma's)
Ecosysteemdiensten spelen een belangrijke rol bij het verduurzamen van de landbouw. Maatregelen voor het versterken van ecosysteemdiensten kunnen genomen worden op verschillende ruimtelijke schaalniveaus, van perceel tot landschap. Voor maatregelen op landschapsschaal is samenwerking tussen boeren en andere belanghebbenden onmisbaar. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe onderzoekers via samenwerking met verschillende belanghebbenden kennis ontwikkelen voor versterking van ecosysteemdiensten voor een duurzamere landbouw.
Een bij-zonder kleurrijk landschap in Land van Wijk en Wouden : handreiking 2.0 voor inrichting en beheer voor bestuivende insecten
Rooij, S.A.M. van; Cormont, A. ; Geertsema, W. ; Haag, Martijn ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Reemer, M. ; Spijker, J.H. ; Snep, R.P.H. ; Steingröver, E.G. ; Stip, Anthonie - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2720) - 41 p.
biodiversiteit - insect-plant relaties - regionale planning - ecologische hoofdstructuur - landschap - zuid-holland - bestuivers (dieren) - apidae - lepidoptera - biodiversity - insect plant relations - regional planning - ecological network - landscape - pollinators
Het programma Groene Cirkels (van Heineken) heeft het initiatief genomen tot het realiseren van een duurzaam bijenlandschap in het land van Wijk en Wouden. Deze handreiking wil een impuls geven aan het realiseren daarvan. In Nederland hebben we zo’n 350 verschillende wilde bestuivende insectensoorten. Door variatie in onder andere bloemvormen en kelkdiepte en bloeiseizoen zijn er gespecialiseerde insecten nodig, aangepast op bloeivorm en het bloeiseizoen. Ook moet bestuiving plaats kunnen vinden onder verschillende omstandigheden: bij goed en slecht weer, in vroege en late voorjaren. Nu eens doet de ene soort het goed, dan is er weer een andere die het meeste werk verzet. Diversiteit aan bijen, hommels en zweefvliegen geeft zekerheid voor bestuiving door de jaren heen.
In beweging : intermediaire organisaties, private initiatieven en nieuwe kansen voor natuur en landschap
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Dagevos, H. ; Noortwijk, R. van - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 42) - 4 p.
natuur - landschap - nature - landscape
Provincies willen vaker met burgers en bedrijven bijdragen aan natuur en landschap realiseren. Natuurorganisaties en andere maatschappelijke organisaties kunnen private initiatieven helpen door deze uit te lokken, met elkaar te verbinden of te ondersteunen met kennis en ervaring. atuurorganisaties die voorheen vooral vanuit de overheid publieke initiatieven stimuleerden, zoeken nog naar nieuwe werkwijzen om als intermediaire organisatie bottom-up private initiatieven te faciliteren. In deze WOt-paper belichten we dit zoekproces op basis van een voorstudie naar intermediaire (natuur)organisaties (Overbeek et al., 2015).
Effecten van landschapselementen op de ammoniakdepositie in Natura 2000- gebieden
Kros, J. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Voogd, J.C.H. ; Vries, Wilco de; Aben, Jan ; Pul, Addo - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2689) - 37 p.
landschapselementen - landschap - ammoniak - depositie - overijssel - landscape elements - landscape - ammonia - deposition
Om het mogelijke effect van het aanbrengen van landschapselementen op de NHx (NH3 + NH4 +) depositie op Natura 2000-gebieden in te schatten, is door Alterra een aantal indicatieve berekeningen uitgevoerd voor de gehele provincie Overijssel. De berekeningen zijn uitgevoerd met het OPS-model van het RIVM. Het aanbrengen van een landschapselement van 50m breed rondom bedrijven, lijkt van de doorgerekende scenario’s het meestbelovend.
Naar een groene planologie: planologie in Wageningen
Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2015
Rooilijn 48 (2015)1. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 62 - 69.
landschap - landgebruiksplanning - besluitvorming - regionale planning - klimaatverandering - hydrologie - platteland - landscape - land use planning - decision making - regional planning - climatic change - hydrology - rural areas
In Wageningen heeft de planologie van meet af aan haar plaats tussen de technische wetenschappen moeten vinden en hervinden. Naast aansprekende resultaten, zoals de lagenbenadering die in Wageningen is ontwikkeld, heeft dat geleid tot permanent theoretiseren van de complexe wederzijdse inwerking tussen menselijk handelen en bodem, water en klimaat. Groene planologie en het landschap als centraal onderzoeksobject bepalen de huidige positie en theorievorming van de planologie.
Openheid van het landschap : berekeningen met het model ViewScape
Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Jochem, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 44) - 89
landschap - open ruimten - modellen - zichtbaarheid - berekening - methodologie - landscape - open spaces - models - visibility - calculation - methodology
Op verzoek van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) heeft Alterra de methode om de openheid van het landschap te berekenen vernieuwd. Het model Viewscape dat op basis van zichtlijnen de oppervlakte zichtbaar landschap berekent, is daartoe aangepast, getest en gevalideerd. Er is een methode ontwikkeld die topografische informatie bewerkt tot een basiskaart voor het model dat rekening houdt met reliëf. In de basiskaart worden bomenrijen als ondoorzichtige elementen meegenomen, maar een toekomstige nuancering op dit punt is wenselijk. Bij het reliëf lag de uitdaging in het negeren van flauwe hellingen. Uit de validatie bleek dat de oppervlaktes van grotere open ruimten goed konden worden berekend, maar structureel iets worden onderschat. De oppervlakte van het zichtbare deel van het landschap blijkt een goede maat te zijn voor de openheid ervan. De verbeterde versie van ViewScape is gebruikt om met een resolutie van 100 meter die oppervlakte landsdekkend te berekenen. Het resultaat voldoet aan de verwachtingen van het PBL. Het is nog wel de vraag of de topografische informatie betrouwbaar genoeg is om de openheid te kunnen monitoren aangezien een onbekend deel van de veranderingen op de kaart niet voortkomt uit veranderingen in het veld, maar uit verbeterde kartering.
Kwaliteit van modellen voor wettelijke onderzoekstaken
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu - Wageningen UR (WOt-paper 38) - 4
kwaliteitsnormen - modellen - recht - natuur - milieu - landbouwwetenschappen - landschap - evaluatie - quality standards - models - law - nature - environment - agricultural sciences - landscape - evaluation
De unit Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu van Wageningen UR (WOT N&M) zet modellen, (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden en graadmeters in bij het beleidsgericht onderzoek voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Het gaat daarbij bijvoorbeeld om onderzoek voor de Natuurverkenningen, de Herijking van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur of de Evaluatie van het Mest- en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid. Om de kwaliteit van deze modellen en (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden te verbeteren en te borgen maakt de WOT N&M gebruik van een kwaliteitssysteem. In deze WOtpaper wordt dit kwaliteitssysteem toegelicht.
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