Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials – trend analysis of monitoring results
Adamse, Paulien ; Fels, Ine van der; Jong, Jacob de - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1298 - 1311.
arsenic - cadmium - chemical contaminant - element - feed material - Heavy metals - lead - mercury - monitoring programme - trends

This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007–13 were used. Data covered a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in the Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML) set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90th percentile concentrations of each of these elements were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae, as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (1) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (2) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed (lower ML). Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programmes, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands
Dijk, C.J. van; Doorn, W. van; Alfen, A.J. van - \ 2015
Chemosphere 122 (2015). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 45 - 51.
refuse incinerator - heavy-metals - dioxins - health - bioindicators - cadmium - lead
Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the possible impact on human health and the environment still exists. Multiple year (2004–2013) biomonitoring programs were set up around three waste incinerators for early detection of possible effects of stack emissions on the quality of crops and agricultural products. The results showed that the emissions did not affect the quality of crops and cow milk. Concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs and dioxins/PCBs were generally similar to background levels and did not exceed standards for maximum allowable concentrations in foodstuffs (e.g. vegetables and cow milk). Some exceedances of the fluoride standard for cattle feed were found almost every year in the maximum deposition areas of two incinerators. Biomonitoring with leafy vegetables can be used to monitor the real impact of these emissions on agricultural crops and to communicate with all stakeholders.
Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation
Braakhekke, M.C. ; Wutzler, T. ; Beer, C. ; Kattge, J. ; Schrumpf, M. ; Ahrens, B. ; Schoning, I. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Kruijt, B. ; Kabat, P. ; Reichstein, M. - \ 2013
Biogeosciences 10 (2013)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 399 - 420.
terrestrial ecosystem model - scots pine forest - carbon dynamics - radioactive isotopes - temperate soils - lead - pb-210 - stabilization - transport - turnover
The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands), and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany). Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope Pb-210(ex) as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution). With the addition of Pb-210(ex) data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The Pb-210(ex) measurements added only slight additional constraint on the estimated parameters. However, with sufficient replicate measurements and possibly in combination with other tracers, this isotope may still hold value as tracer for SOM transport.
Modeling the cadmium balance in Australian agricultural systems in view of possible impacts on food quality
Vries, W. de; McLaughlin, M.J. - \ 2013
Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 240 - 257.
heavy-metal balances - new-zealand - potato-tubers - phosphate fertilizers - soil concentrations - trace-elements - grazed-pasture - united-states - wheat-grain - lead
The historical build up and future cadmium (Cd) concentrations in top soils and in crops of four Australian agricultural systems are predicted with a mass balance model, focusing on the period 1900–2100. The systems include a rotation of dryland cereals, a rotation of sugarcane and peanuts/soybean, intensive dairy production and intensive horticulture. The input of Cd to soil is calculated from fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition and also examines options including biosolid and animal manure application in the sugarcane rotation and dryland cereal production systems. Cadmium output from the soil is calculated from leaching to deeper horizons and removal with the harvested crop or with livestock products. Parameter values for all Cd fluxes were based on a number of measurements on Australian soil–plant systems. In the period 1900–2000, soil Cd concentrations were predicted to increase on average between 0.21 mg kg-1 in dryland cereals, 0.42 mg kg-1 in intensive agriculture and 0.68 mg kg-1 in dairy production, which are within the range of measured increases in soils in these systems. Predicted soil concentrations exceed critical soil Cd concentrations, based on food quality criteria for Cd in crops during the simulation period in clay-rich soils under dairy production and intensive horticulture. Predicted dissolved Cd concentrations in soil pore water exceed a ground water quality criterion of 2 µg l-1 in light textured soils, except for the sugarcane rotation due to large water leaching fluxes. Results suggest that the present fertilizer Cd inputs in Australia are in excess of the long-term critical loads in heavy-textured soils for dryland cereals and that all other systems are at low risk. Calculated critical Cd/P ratios in P fertilizers vary from b50 to >1000 mg Cd kg P-1 for the different soil, crop and environmental conditions applied.
Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries
Jakubus, M. ; Dach, J. ; Starmans, D.A.J. - \ 2013
Fressenius Environmental Bulletin 22 (2013)4. - ISSN 1018-4619 - p. 995 - 1002.
sequential extraction procedures - heavy-metals - soils - fractionation - speciation - sediments - manganese - sludge - nickel - lead
Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig and cattle slurries). The bioavailability of copper and zinc was estimated on the basis of amounts of the metals in isolated fractions using the sequential extraction method. Sequential techniques identify fractions which describe different connections of metals with the compost solid phase beginning with those that are easiest soluble up to those that dissolve with the greatest difficulties.Pig slurry was characterized by 2-fold higher amounts of copper and zinc in comparison to the levels detected in cattle slurries. Quantitative changes of the elements in the sequentially isolated fractions of analyzed slurries differed. First of all, this was dependent on the chemical character of a given metal, followed by the animal species, or the type of management. Irrespective of the type of slurry, 40-56% of the total amounts of copper were found in hardly available combinations, while available copper forms accounted for only 6.6–10.9%. Zinc was found predominantly in com-binations with iron and manganese oxides which, irrespective of the tested slurry, ranged from 130.64 mg·kg-1 to 293.60 mg·kg-1. Bioavailable metal contents, potentially introduced to soil with slurry doses, calculated as 170 kg total N/ha/year, ranged from 63.6 to 124.5 g for copper, and from 349.5 to 696.4 g for zinc. The estimated amounts of metal inputs to agricultural land demonstrate that soils are potentially at risk of heavy metal accumulation from the application of pig and cattle slurries.
Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: A case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula
Fritsch, C. ; Coeurdassier, M. ; Faivre, B. ; Baurand, P.E. ; Giraudoux, P. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Scheifler, R. - \ 2012
Science of the Total Environment 432 (2012). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 275 - 287.
ecological risk-assessment - small mammals - soil properties - heavy-metals - host factors - birds - lead - bioavailability - exposure - cadmium
Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels in blackbirds, tissue residues increasing with soil contamination. At a finer grain, landscape composition and soil properties (pH, organic matter, clay) influenced metal transfer, while no influence of landscape diversity was detected. landscape composition better explained metal transfer than soil properties did. Diet composition varied according to landscape composition, but diet diversity was not influenced by landscape diversity. Surprisingly, metal accumulation in some insect taxa was as high as in earthworms (known as hyper-accumulators). Results strongly suggested that variations in diet composition were the drivers through which landscape composition influenced metal transfer to blackbirds. This study shows that landscape features can affect pollutant transfer in food webs, partly through ecological processes related to spatial and foraging behavior of birds, and brings evidences underpinning the need to better consider landscape in environmental risk assessment and management of contaminated lands.
Bodemverontreiniging en de opname van lood door moestuingewassen : risico’s van lood door bodemverontreiniging
Otte, P.F. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Lijzen, J.P.A. - \ 2012
Bilthoven : RIVM - 63
bodemverontreiniging - lood - toxicologie - zware metalen - gezinstuinen - groenteteelt - groenten - soil pollution - lead - toxicology - heavy metals - home gardens - vegetable growing - vegetables
Lood uit bodemverontreinigingen wordt opgenomen door moestuingewassen die daarop worden geteeld. Deze gewassen kunnen een gezondheidsrisico vormen als zij worden geconsumeerd. Uit deze studie van het RIVM en Alterra blijkt dat bij hoge concentraties lood in de bodem de opname minder wordt. Hierdoor bevatten de gewassen op deze bodems minder van dit metaal dan aanvankelijk werd gedacht.
Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: A case study from Portugal
Rodrigues, S.M. ; Pereira, M.E. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2012
Environment International 39 (2012)1. - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 27 - 37.
potentially toxic elements - available pools - risk-assessment - food-chain - part ii - cadmium - mercury - lead - metals - sheep
Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vertical distribution of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated vegetable garden soils of three West African cities
Abdu, N. ; Abdulkadir, A. ; Agbenin, J.O. ; Buerkert, A. - \ 2011
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 89 (2011)3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 387 - 397.
farming systems - balances - agroecosystems - pollution - scale - lead - pb
Application of untreated wastewater to irrigate urban vegetable gardens is raising serious concern about possible health risks associated with the consumption of these vegetables particularly with regard to the concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in their edible portions. The soil concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), were investigated in seven vegetable gardens from the three West African cities of Kano (Nigeria), Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and Sikasso (Mali). Also determined were input–output balances of Cd and Zn from five vegetable gardens under 30 years of wastewater irrigation in Kano. In these gardens Cd (2.3–4.8 mg kg-1) and Zn (13–285 mg kg-1) concentrations throughout the profile attained unsafe levels. The concentrations of Cu (0.8–18 mg kg-1), Cr (1.8–72 mg kg-1), Ni (0–17 mg kg-1) and Pb (0.6–46 mg kg-1) were below the safety thresholds for arable soils. Overall, concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni were higher in Kano than in Bobo-Dioulasso and Sikasso. Input–output analyses in Kano indicated that irrigation wastewater contributed annually 400–3,700 g Cd ha-1 and 7,200–22,300 g Zn ha-1, fertilizer 30–2,100 g Cd ha-1 50–17,600 g Zn ha-1, harmattan dust 0.02–0.4 g Cd ha-1 and 40–200 g Zn ha-1 while 300–500 g Cd ha-1 and 2,700–4,700 g Zn ha-1 came from rainwater inputs. Input–output calculations subtracting the amounts of HM taken out in vegetable biomass and that lost to leaching from total inputs yielded an annual net positive balance of 700–4,160 g Cd ha-1 and 9,350–39,700 g Zn ha-1. If such balances remain unchanged for another 10–20 years vegetables raised in these garden fields are likely to be unsuitable for human consumption
Lood in bodem en gewas in volkstuincomplexen in Leiden : locatie-specifiek onderzoek naar risico's van bodemverontreiniging
Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2255) - 52
bodemverontreiniging - lood - groenteteelt - risicoschatting - volkstuinen - blootstelling - zuid-holland - soil pollution - lead - vegetable growing - risk assessment - allotment gardens - exposure
In Leiden komen verhoogde gehalten lood in de bodem van moestuincomplexen voor. Aan de hand van de meting van het bodemgehalte per tuin en de gehalten aan lood in gewasmonsters is vastgesteld dat er geen risico’s zijn voor het gebruik van de tuinen als moestuin. Er zijn daarom geen aanvullende maatregelen nodig voor beheer of sanering.
Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use
Brink, N.W. van den; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Boerwinkel, M.C. - \ 2011
Environmental Science and Technology 45 (2011)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7497 - 7502.
mice apodemus-sylvaticus - heavy-metal concentrations - river floodplains - food-web - earthworms - lead - diet - bioaccumulation - stressors - pollution
In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet composition, accumulation of cadmium was not related to local soil concentrations or soil properties, but to diet preferences. For the common vole (Microtus arvalis), a nonmobile, specific feeding species, accumulation of cadmium was related to local soil concentrations or properties. For the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a species with a smaller home range than the wood mouse but a broader diet spectrum than the common vole, both local soil properties and diet appeared to affect the cadmium accumulation in the kidneys. The results of this field study show that species-specific traits of small mammals are important determinants of accumulation of cadmium on a local scale. For site-specific assessment of risks of contaminants, such information is essential in order to understand exposure dynamics
Effects of extraction procedures on metal binding properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges
Abzac, P. D'; Bordas, F. ; Hullebusch, E. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Guibaud, G. - \ 2010
Colloids and Surfaces. B: Biointerfaces 80 (2010)2. - ISSN 0927-7765 - p. 161 - 168.
activated-sludge - titration data - biosorption - cadmium - complexation - adsorption - sorption - lead - cd - constants
The effects of the extraction procedure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on their proton/metal binding properties were studied. Nine extraction procedures (one control, four physical and four chemical procedures) were applied to four types of anaerobic granular sludges. The binding capacities between the EPS and lead or cadmium were investigated at pH 7 by a polarographic method. The composition of the EPS extracts varied according to the extraction technique and the origin of the sludge. This induced differences in the pK(a)s and the binding sites density of the EPS extracts. The carry-over of the extractant in the samples strongly affects the properties of the EPS from chemical extraction protocols. Lead and cadmium seem to be bound differently with the EPS, a higher binding capacity was observed for Pb2+ than for Cd2+.
Locatiespecifiek onderzoek naar de risico's van lood in moestuinen : gehalten aan lood in de bodem en moestuingewassen in het volkstuincomplex 'Aan het Meer' te Heerenveen
Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2107) - 52
bodemverontreiniging - blootstelling - lood - volkstuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezinstuinen - friesland - groenten - soil pollution - exposure - lead - allotment gardens - domestic gardens - home gardens - vegetables
Locatiespecifiek onderzoek naar de invloed van verhoogde gehalten aan lood in de bodem in het Volkstuincomplex ‘aan het Meer’ te Heerenveen toont aan dat de gehalten in de gewassen niet leiden tot onacceptabele blootstelling. De gemeten gehalten in belangrijke groenten in moestuinen (aardappel, sla, andijvie, bonen) zijn normaal en liggen een factor 3 tot 10 lager dan de berekende waarden met C-Soil. Dit betekent dat de risico-index op basis van gemeten gehalten varieert van 0.03 tot 0.21 voor levenslange blootstelling en maximaal 0.55 voor kinderen terwijl de standaardbeoordeling leidt tot risico-indexen hoger dan 1. Op grond van de metingen blijkt dat het gebruik als moestuin daarmee geen enkel risico oplevert. Geadviseerd wordt de groenten wel goed te wassen en de pH van de bodem op een niveau rond 5.5 tot 6 te houden of te brengen door (extra) bekalking.
Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA
Boon, P.E. ; Sioen, I. ; Voet, H. van der; Huybrechts, I. ; Neve, M. De; Amiano, P. ; Azpiri, M. ; Busk, L. ; Christensen, T. ; Hilbig, A. ; Hirvonen, T. ; Koulouridaki, S. ; Lafay, L. ; Liukkonen, K.H. ; Moschandreas, J. ; Papoutsou, S. ; Ribas-Barba, L. ; Ruprich, J. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Tornaritis, M. ; Turrini, A. ; Urtizberea, M. ; Verger, E. ; Westerlund, A. ; Kersting, M. ; Henauw, S. de; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2010
Expochi - 82
voedselconsumptie - lood - eetpatronen - kinderen - europa - voeding en gezondheid - blootstelling - food consumption - lead - eating patterns - children - europe - nutrition and health - exposure
Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to allow for linkage with lead concentration data in a standardised way. Two different models were used for the calculations: the beta-binomial-normal (BBN) model and the observed individual means (OIM) model. For both models the lower bound exposure ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 µg/kg bw per day for median consumers. For 99th percentile consumers however the exposure differed between the two models with a lower bound exposure ranging from 0.7 to 4.1 µg/kg bw per day with the BBN model and 0.9 to 7.9 µg/kg bw per day with the OIM model. Upper bound exposures were on average a factor 1.8 higher for both models. Exposures on a body weight basis were higher in younger compared to older children. To assess the long-term exposure to lead in European children, a model, such as the BBN model, that corrects for the within-person variation is the preferred method to be used. The OIM method results in an overestimation of the percentage of the population exceeding a provisional tolerable weekly intake which is of relevance for risk management decisions.
Effects of soil properties on food web accumulation of heavy metals to the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)
Brink, N.W. van den; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Boerwinkel, M.C. ; Hout, A. van der - \ 2010
Environmental Pollution 158 (2010)1. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 245 - 251.
ecological risk-assessment - small mammals - earthworms - cadmium - lead - model - mice - zinc - netherlands - floodplain
Effects of soil properties on the accumulation of metals to wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were evaluated at two sites with different pH and organic matter content of the soil. pH and organic matter content significantly affected accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in earthworms and vegetation. For Cd, Cu and Zn these effects propagated through the food web to the wood mouse. Soil-to-kidney ratios differed between sites: Cd: 0.15 versus 3.52, Cu: 0.37 versus 1.30 and Zn: 0.33–0.83. This was confirmed in model calculations for Cd and Zn. Results indicate that total soil concentrations may be unsuitable indicators for risks that metals pose to wildlife. Furthermore, environmental managers may, unintentionally, change soil properties while taking specific environmental measures. In this way they may affect risks of metals to wildlife, even without changes in total soil concentrations. Soil properties significantly affect accumulation of heavy metals to wood mice so; risks cannot be based on total concentrations.
Trendanalyse zware metalen in diervoeder(grondstoffen)
Adamse, P. ; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Jong, J. de; Polanen, A. van; Egmond, H.J. van; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2009
Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2009.019) - 108
zware metalen - cadmium - kwik - lood - voer - diervoedering - tendensen - bemonsteren - voedselveiligheid - heavy metals - mercury - lead - feeds - animal feeding - trends - sampling - food safety
In dit rapport wordt er met behulp van historische waarden inzicht gegeven in het verloop van de gehalten aan kwik, cadmium en lood in diervoeders en diervoedergrondstoffen in Nederland. Het is een vervolg op het rapport 2007.001 “Trendanalyse van gehalten aan aflatoxine B1 en dioxinen/dioxine-achtige PCB’s in diervoeders” dat in 2007 is verschenen. Dit onderzoek is ook verricht op verzoek van de VWA. De resultaten van deze analyses bieden mogelijkheden voor de VWA om tot een meer risico-gestuurde bemonstering in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeders te komen
Dynamic modelling of heavy metals - time scales and target loads
Posch, M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2009
Environmental Modelling & Software 24 (2009)1. - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 86 - 95.
soil concentrations - cadmium - mercury - lead - netherlands - forest - copper - zinc - view - cd
Over the past decade steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks in view of food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. However, dynamic models are needed to estimate the times involved in attaining a certain chemical state in response to input (deposition, fertilizers or manure) scenarios. Starting from a mass balance, a universal dynamic model was developed by defining appropriate dimensionless quantities, which depend only on the metal under consideration. For any given metal, the model (differential equation) is characterised by the interplay of four (dimensionless) variables: the initial condition, i.e. the concentration at the start of the simulation, the input (driving force), time, and the concentration of the metal at any given point in time. Depending on the question asked, one of these quantities is fixed and the functional relationship between the other three provides the answer. The model allows to investigate the time development of the soil chemical status under a constant future input of the metal to predict (i) the future metal concentration as a function of time (scenario analysis), (ii) the time when a prescribed chemical state (e.g., a critical concentration or steady state) is reached (delay times), and (iii) which future input (reduction) is needed to reach a prescribed chemical state within a prescribed time period (target loads). The general solutions are illustrated with concrete examples, using (average) data from the Netherlands for four metals: cadmium, lead, copper and zinc. The modelling approach set out in this paper illustrates the potential use of dynamic models in the support of policies aimed at reducing emissions of metals by providing an understanding of the structural properties of the model, independent of site-specific parameters. It thus allows assessing temporal behaviour and time scales before embarking on detailed modelling for individual sites.
Toxicological risks for small mammals in a diffusely and moderately polluted floodplain
Wijnhoven, S. ; Leuven, R.S.E.W. ; Velde, G. van der; Eijsackers, H.J.P. - \ 2008
Science of the Total Environment 406 (2008)3. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 401 - 406.
metal accumulation - river floodplains - heavy-metals - food-chain - cadmium - exposure - liver - lead - mice - bioaccumulation
The ecotoxicological risk of heavy metal pollution in diffusely polluted floodplains is largely unclear, as field-based data are scarce. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulation in the liver and kidneys of small mammal species (voles, mice and shrews) from a moderately polluted Dutch floodplain. The Cd and Pb concentrations were compared with effect concentrations (ECs). Reported ECs in literature varied considerably, with the lowest values frequently exceeded by our values, whereas the highest values were encountered only occasionally. Cd and Pb levels were highest in the shrew species, particularly in Sorex araneus. Although toxicological effects at the specimen level were present in these floodplains, effects at population level are thought to be limited, as a result of the animals' relatively short life expectancies (due to recurrent floods) and the rapid maturation of small mammals. Exceptionally high tissue metal concentrations in some specimens of all species indicated local hotspots with peaks in metal concentrations. Sanitizing such local hotspots might reduce toxicological risks. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.
A Chain Modeling Approach To Estimate the Impact of Soil Cadmium Pollution on Human Dietary Exposure
Franz, E. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2008
Journal of Food Protection 71 (2008)12. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 2504 - 2513.
dairy-cattle - lead - tissues - ingestion - children - germany - mercury - metals - food - netherlands
Cadmium in soil poses a risk for human health, due to its accumulation in food and feed crops. The extent of accumulation depends strongly on soil type and the degree of pollution. The objective of the present study was to develop a predictive model to estimate human dietary cadmium exposure from soil characteristics. This chain model consists of three basic steps: (i) calculation of plant cadmium levels from soil contamination levels and soil characteristics, (ii) calculation of animal transfer from consumption and contamination levels, and (iii) human exposure from both plant and animal products. Six soil scenarios were assessed, reflecting a specific contaminated region and ranging from 0.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 4.5) to 2.5 mg/kg of Cd (pH 5.5). Cadmium levels in feed crops and vegetables were estimated with regression and mathematical models. Animal exposure and transfer to cattle kidneys, livers, and meat were calculated using a consumption database and a parameterized linear simulation model. Human exposure was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation, using a consumption database. The median human exposure for the different scenarios ranged from 0.24 to 0.98 ¿g/kg of body weight per day, which is comparable to results obtained from exposure levels based on observed field contamination data. The study shows that a chain model approach from soil contamination to human exposure, including animal exposure and transfer to animal products, can successfully be applied. The model can be used for fast evaluation of dietary cadmium exposure and the identification of risk areas based on soil conditions.
Transfer of heavy metals in the food chain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in The Netherlands
Roodbergen, M. ; Klok, C. ; Hout, A. van der - \ 2008
Science of the Total Environment 406 (2008)3. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 407 - 412.
eggs - feathers - birds - population - cadmium - wetland - molt - lead - soil
The Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a migratory wader that favours wet meadows for breeding. The species has a Red List status in The Netherlands, as it strongly declined in numbers since the 1960s. Intensification of agriculture and land use change resulting in habitat loss are considered major causes of this decline. In some areas the breeding habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Adult godwits mainly feed on earthworms in the breeding season, which are known to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In this paper we investigate the transfer of heavy metals from the soil to the Black-tailed godwit, which may have an additive negative effect on the viability of local populations. We measured heavy metal concentrations in soil, earthworms, and godwit eggs and feathers at a polluted and a reference site. The results suggest that Lead, Mercury and Cadmium are transferred from the soil to godwits even though the species spends only a few months in the breeding area during the year
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