Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Naar een betere bescherming van champignonrassen : het definiëren van afgeleid kwekersrecht voor champignons en het creëren van draagvlak
Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Plant Breeding/WUR-Glastuinbouw (Rapport 2013-2) - 14
eetbare paddestoelen - hybride rassen - bevestigingstesten - genetica - kwekersrecht - veredelen - controle - wettelijke rechten - nederland - edible fungi - hybrid varieties - confirmatory tests - genetics - breeders' rights - breeding - control - legal rights - netherlands
1. Inleiding In 1980 zijn de eerste hybride rassen van de champignon gemaakt en op de markt gebracht: Horst U1 en Horst U3. Deze rassen zijn in 3 jaar uitgegroeid tot de belangrijkste ch ampignonrassen, wereldwijd. Beide rassen zijn ook de eerste paddenstoelrassen die via kwekersrecht zijn beschermd. Al 3 jaar na het uitbrengen van deze nieuwe rassen werden door verschillende broedleveranciers “nieuwe” hybriden op de markt gebracht. De eerste hybriden waren in eigenschappen niet te onderscheiden van de eerste beschermde hybriden. Ras testen wezen uit dat dit naar alle waarschijnlijkheid kopieën waren van de Horst rassen. Het aanvechten van deze inbreuk op kwekersrecht voor het gerecht bleek een moeilijke zaak te zijn en uiteindelijk is er geen uitspraak gedaan door de rechter wegens gebrek aan expertise en een gebrek aan kennis over de genetica (levenscyclus) van de champignon. In de volgende jaren verschenen steeds nieuwe rassen op de markt die weliswaar erg op de Horst rassen leken maar toch wat andere eigenschappen hadden. Genetische fingerprints konden deze rassen niet onderscheiden van de Horst-rassen. Tot op heden zijn deze rassen de belangrijkste rassen die wereldwijd geteeld worden. Deze zijn, door gebruik te maken van de bijzondere levenscyclus van de champignon, direct afgeleid van de eerste hybride Horst U1/U3 zonder menging met andere rassen of wild isolaten. Hierdoor is het mogelijk om in korte tijd en met geringe inspanningen een “nieuw” ras te maken. De bedoeling van dit project is om data te genereren die gebruikt kunnen worden om te onderbouwen dat dit type rassen valt onder de definitie van afgeleid kwekersrecht en daardoor een bescherming verdient. Tevens is het project bedoeld om het bedrijfsleven internationaal achter deze aanpak te krijgen zodat de definitie van afgeleid kwekersrecht wordt opgenomen in de wetgeving. Op deze manier wordt een return of investment gegarandeerd voor veredelaar en zal een investering in veredeling weer lonen. Op dit moment is er een dringende behoefte aan nieuwe rassen om aan de nieuwe wensen van telers en de markt tegemoet te komen.
The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series ) - ISBN 9789086867912 - 469
mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737182 - 483
mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
Introductietraject sleedoornonderstammen
Steeg, P.A.H. van der; Maas, F.M. ; Ravesloot, M.B.M. - \ 2013
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 19
prunus spinosa - onderstammen - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fruitgewassen - rassen (planten) - selectie - veredelingsmethoden - virussen - gebruikswaarde - kwekersrecht - wettelijke rechten - plantenvirussen - nederland - rootstocks - propagation materials - fruit crops - varieties - selection - breeding methods - viruses - use value - breeders' rights - legal rights - plant viruses - netherlands
Uit het onderzoek naar de gebruikswaarde van sleedoornselecties als onderstam voor pruim zijn sele cties naar voren gekomen die zeer perspectiefvol zijn . Deze hebben een groeikracht tussen die van VVA - 1 en St. Julien A (Van der Steeg et al, 2011 ). PPO is eigenaar van deze selecties. Vanuit de steenfruitsector bestaat hiervoor veel belangstelling . Men wil graag zo snel mogelijk bomen op deze onderstammen kunnen planten. Voordat éé n of meer selecties in de praktijk geïntroduceerd zouden kunnen worden, dien d en ze echter: - virusvrij gemaakt te worden - wettelijk beschermd te worden - vermeerderd te worde n Daarnaast wa s er de behoefte om ‘pilot s ’ op te zetten om de waarde aan de sector te demonstreren. Verder diende ook in het buitenland interesse ge wek t te worden voor het gebruik van deze selecties als onderstam voor pruim, kwets en mogelijk ook voor abri koos, perzik en nectarine. Dit is een grote potentiële afzetmarkt voor de onderstammen, waarmee de collectieve investering geld kan opleveren. In 2011 en 2012 is in een viertal projecten aan deze zaken invulling gegeven. In dit rapport worden de projecten beschreven.
Ontwikkelingen in octrooien die invloed hebben op het gebruiksrecht van dieren in de veehouderij = Developments in patents that impact on the right of use of animals in animal production
Napel, J. ten; Oonk, H.B. ; Hiemstra, S.J. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 523) - 33
veehouderij - octrooien - wettelijke rechten - dierveredeling - europa - livestock farming - patents - legal rights - animal breeding - europe
European and Dutch legislation allow applications for patenting animals, provided that certain criteria are met. In practice, the precise interpretation of these criteria is not clear en it takes relatively long before an application is granted or rejected. Analysis of patent applications concerning animal breeding in the last two decades shows that there is no imminent risk for the right to use animals in animal production.
El agua y los pueblos indígenas
Boelens, R.A. ; Chiba, M. ; Nakashima, D. ; Retana, V. - \ 2007
Paris : Unesco (Conocimientos de la naturaleza 2) - 208
waterbeheer - waterbeleid - watergebruik - toegangsrecht - wettelijke rechten - wetgeving - inheemse volkeren - waterrechten - water management - water policy - water use - right of access - legal rights - legislation - indigenous people - water rights
Pluralismo Legal, Reforma Hïdrica y Polïticas de Reconocimiento
Boelens, R.A. ; Guevara Gil, A. ; Hendriks, J. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Lsg. Irrigatie en Waterbouwkunde (WALIR studies vol. 13) - ISBN 9789085851554 - 306
waterbeheer - recht - wetgeving - wettelijke rechten - water - peru - bolivia - chili - ecuador - plaatselijke bevolking - waterrechten - inheemse volkeren - andes - actieonderzoek - water management - law - legislation - legal rights - chile - local population - water rights - indigenous people - action research
Riego Campesino y Diseño Compartido. Gestión local e intervención en sistemas de riego en Bolivia
Gutierrez Pérez, Z. - \ 2006
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir ) - ISBN 9972511553 - 252
wettelijke rechten - waterbeheer - boeren - irrigatie - regering - bolivia - inheemse volkeren - waterrechten - legal rights - water management - farmers - irrigation - government - indigenous people - water rights
Agua y Derecho. Políticas Hídricas, Derechos Consuetudinarios e Identidades Locales
Boelens, R.A. ; Getches, D. ; Guevara Gil, A. - \ 2006
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir / Water Law and Indigenous Rights ) - ISBN 9972511529 - 436
water - waterbeleid - wettelijke rechten - eigendomsrechten - toegangsrecht - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - peru - latijns-amerika - waterrechten - water policy - legal rights - property rights - right of access - local government - local population - latin america - water rights
Derechos Colectivos y Políticas Hídricas en la Región Andina
Urteaga Corvetto, P. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2006
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir ) - ISBN 9972511561 - 225
wettelijke rechten - politiek - waterbeheer - boeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - wetgeving - gebergten - peru - ecuador - andes - inheemse volkeren - waterrechten - identiteit - legal rights - politics - water management - farmers - rural communities - legislation - mountains - indigenous people - water rights - identity
El Futuro Robado
Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2006
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir ) - ISBN 9972511545 - 510
boeren - wettelijke rechten - landbouwhervorming - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plattelandsontwikkeling - overheidsbeleid - peru - waterrechten - farmers - legal rights - agrarian reform - rural communities - rural development - government policy - water rights
Water rights and politics in Andean water policy reforms
Boelens, R.A. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (WALIR studies vol. 11) - ISBN 9085850649 - 80
wettelijke rechten - overheidsbeleid - ecuador - peru - irrigatie - waterbeheer - politiek - waterrechten - andes - legal rights - irrigation - water management - politics - government policy - water rights
Normas indígenas y consuetudinarias sobre la gestíon del agua en Bolivia
Bustamente, R.R. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Lsg. Irrigatie en Waterbouwkunde (WALIR studies vol. 10) - ISBN 9085850568 - 56
wettelijke rechten - waterbeheer - recht - bolivia - inheemse volkeren - waterrechten - andes - legal rights - water management - law - indigenous people - water rights
Género, etnicidad, normas e institucionalidad de los derechos de agua
Vera, D.J.R. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Lsg. Irrigatie en Waterbouwkunde (WALIR studies vol. 8) - ISBN 908585055X - 72
man-vrouwrelaties - wettelijke rechten - waterbeheer - etnische groepen - peru - bolivia - ecuador - geslacht (gender) - waterrechten - gender relations - legal rights - water management - ethnic groups - gender - water rights
Liquid Relations. Contested Water Rights and Legal Complexity
Roth, D. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2005
New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press - ISBN 9780813536750 - 313
waterbeheer - watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - recht - irrigatiesystemen - wettelijke rechten - waterbeleid - conflict - waterrechten - inheemse volkeren - water management - water resources - resource management - law - irrigation systems - legal rights - water policy - water rights - indigenous people
Verhandelbare ontwikkelingsrechten
Luijt, Jan - \ 2004
physical planning - legislation - legal rights - regional planning - rural policy
The market for hedging services : a marketing - finance approach with special reference to rights futures contracts
Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.T.G. Meulenberg; Wim Heijman. - S.l. : Pennings - ISBN 9789054858379 - 370
termijnhandel - optiehandel - termijntransacties - marketing - bedrijfsvoering - financiën - openbare financiën - banken - valuta - ondernemingen - risico - besluitvorming - operationeel onderzoek - simulatie - werkschema - lineair programmeren - wettelijke rechten - landbouw - futures trading - options trading - forward trading - management - finance - public finance - banks - currencies - enterprises - risk - decision making - operations research - simulation - work flow - linear programming - legal rights - agriculture - cum laude
<p>Due to the recent and proposed reductions in price support for agricultural products, as a part of the European Union's common agricultural policy, an increase in price volatility for agricultural raw materials is perceptible. This causes an increase in price risk, both for the primary agricultural company and the affiliated agribusiness. For a risk-averse entrepreneur, the higher price volatility in the market of agricultural raw materials will increase his or her need for price risk management instruments, such as futures contracts.</p><p>Not only does an increased price volatility further the use of existing futures contracts for raw materials, it also leads to the introduction of new ones. Moreover, the introduction of production and environmental rights forms an additional impulse to the development of futures contracts as well. Recent developments in computer-guided trading systems will further enhance the attractiveness and accessibility of the futures contract as a price risk management instrument.</p><p>In addition, the introduction of a single European currency will give an extra impulse to trade in (commodity) futures contracts, since it obliterates one of the traditional difficulties in futures contract specification, standardization after currency and thus makes national futures markets more attractive for participants from other European countries. The developments mentioned above - increased price volatility in the spot market of agricultural raw materials, the introduction of negotiable production and environmental rights, the rise of computerized trading systems and the introduction of a single European currency - all add to the great interest in agricultural futures markets which exists among financial institutions. For several European futures markets, among which the Amsterdam Exchanges, the London International Financial Futures & Options Exchange and the Marché à Terme International de France, this has been the cause for the development of new agricultural futures contracts. However, futures contracts involve a substantial risk of failure. Of the 40 futures contracts launched around the world in 1995, only a few were successful in their first year. The development and introduction of futures contracts is an expensive and time-consuming process, especially when it concerns entirely new contracts. For this reason, insight into the market for hedging services is desirable.</p><p>In this doctoral thesis we will focus on those aspects of the risk reduction services provided by futures exchanges which lie in the interdisciplinary field between marketing and finance. The services offered by futures contracts will be investigated from two approaches: the <em>finance approach</em> and the <em>marketing approach</em> .</p><p>The <em>finance approach</em> to financial services is a normative approach: it answers the question 'which necessary conditions will have to be met to make a particular financial service successful?' Fulfilling these necessary conditions, however, does not guarantee the market success of financial services. Their success also depends on the extent to which they succeed in meeting the needs of (potential) customers at a competitive price. The latter point of view stems from the marketing tradition, which holds that customer needs occupy a central position in the development of products and services.</p><p>The <em>marketing approach</em> conducts qualitative and quantitative research into the need for financial services and the market potential of a particular financial service. In many cases, alternative products or services will be available to satisfy the entrepreneur's needs. For this reason, the marketing approach pays a lot of attention to the entrepreneur's decision making process. In our particular case the entrepreneur's decision making process concerning price risk management instruments. Insight into the way in which an entrepreneur reaches a decision and why he or she decides the way he or she does, provide the marketer with clues on how to market the hedging service. Given the necessary conditions imposed by the finance approach, the results from the marketing approach may serve to compose the characteristics of a particular financial service.</p><p>When creating a particular service, the marketing approach, in its preoccupation with customer needs, tends to pay only limited attention to issues of technical feasibility, whereas the finance approach tends to undervalue customer needs in favor of the technical aspects of a particular service. A combination of the marketing approach (with its stress on desirability from a customer perspective) and the finance approach (with its focus on the technical feasibility of a service) seems to offer a solution to this problem. Therefore, the development of new futures contracts would be served by a combined use of the marketing and the finance approach.</p><p>Apart from the integration of both approaches, a further deepening of each approach would be beneficial. This thesis elaborates on a number of aspects which stem from the finance approach, e.g. hedging efficiency and liquidity. The perspective has been shifted from portfolio to exchange management. Furthermore, the optimal hedge ratio and optimal "commodity product spread" have been deducted for rights futures. The marketing approach has also been elaborated upon, in that an investigation has taken place of the how and why of the choices which entrepreneurs make concerning the covering of price risk and, more particularly, concerning futures contracts.</p><p>This study consists of three parts. Part I systematically discerns the different sources of risk <strong></strong> that emerge from transactions on the futures market. This classification has been used to develop new measures for a futures market's hedging effectiveness and liquidity, which provide both the exchange management and the hedger with insight into the risk-reducing capacity of futures contracts. Moreover, a conceptual model for over-all risk reduction has been developed, on the basis of which a measure for hedging effectiveness has been developed. Contrary to the existing measures, this one does not focus on portfolio performance, but on the hedging function of a futures contract. This measure, as opposed to others, takes into account the fact that futures contracts on the one hand realize a reduction of price risk in the spot market, and on the other hand, introduce a risk of their own, which is inherent to the futures trade. Our measure discerns basic risk and market-depth risk. Moreover, it takes into account the costs of commission. Let this measure be the distance between the hedging service offered by the futures exchange and the 'perfect hedge', an ideal situation where the hedging service eliminates risk in the spot market without introducing an additional risk of its own, then this distance can be subdivided into a systematic and a non-systematic part.</p><p>The systematic part, caused by the specifications of the futures contract and the structure of the futures exchange, can be managed by the futures exchange, whereas the non-systematic part is beyond the exchange's influence. The measure for hedging effectiveness provides the hedger with a means to compare the competitiveness of different futures contracts. It incorporates not only the characteristics of the futures contract, but also the spot market risks. The measure's futures market risk component indicates the hedging quality of the futures contract. The spot market price risk component emphasizes the need for price risk reduction. The empirical results, based on data from the Amsterdam Exchanges (Agricultural Futures Markets), show the measure's usefulness for an exchange management.</p><p>As an important determinant of the hedging effectiveness of futures contracts, liquidity, or, more accurately put, market depth has been studied more closely. Contrary to earlier investigations into market depth, we show that the price path is non-linear due to market order imbalances. The market depth measure developed consists of two dimensions, which can be related logically to the futures market's toolbox. Our findings indicate that market depth is preferably to be valued along the two dimensions that constitute its basis.</p><p>Not just motives of a financial-economic nature play a part in the entrepreneur's decision to trade on the futures market. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to study the decision making behavior of entrepreneurs concerning price risk management instruments. To this study, Part II of this book has been devoted. In this part, a decision making model has been developed which tells us how entrepreneurs decide and why they decide the way they do, concerning price risk management instruments. In this context, risk attitude is an important concept. Methodological research was conducted into the way in which risk attitude is measured within economics (the "expected utility framework") and within marketing-psychometrics (risk attitude scales). During large-scale experiments, the risk attitude measures developed were tested for construct validity by checking for convergent validity and nomological validity. The different risk attitude measures correlate significantly, indicating convergent validity. Moreover, the value function (obtained using the rating technique) does not correlate with the risk attitude measures, indicating discriminant validity. The psychometric risk attitude scale performs well on the self-report measures, contrary to the measure obtained from the lottery technique and the intrinsic risk attitude obtained through relating the utility function (itself obtained using the lottery technique) and the value function. However, the risk attitude measure and the intrinsic risk attitude greatly outperform the psychometric scale where the relation with actual behavior is concerned.</p><p>After having gained more insight into the risk attitude construct, the decision making behavior of entrepreneurs was modeled. Important elements affecting his or her decision making behavior were: the extent to which the entrepreneur feels that the use of futures will enhance his or her <em>entrepreneurial freedom</em> (as compared to other price risk management instruments), his or her <em>understanding</em> of the functioning of futures contracts (compared to his or her understanding of other relevant price risk management instruments) and the <em>performance</em> of futures contracts in the field of price risk reduction (compared to that of other relevant price risk management instruments).</p><p>The decision making process of entrepreneurs appears to have a two-phase structure. During the first phase, the entrepreneur decides whether futures contracts constitute a relevant alternative and should thus be in his or her toolbox. In this phase the aforementioned elements entrepreneurship, understanding and performance are of great importance.</p><p>During the second phase of the decision making process, when futures contracts are already a part of the entrepreneurs toolbox, the difference between the entrepreneur's psychological reference price and the actual futures market price becomes an important factor in the decision for or against entering the futures market. The components entrepreneurship and performance remain of importance during this phase of the decision process, whereas understanding no longer plays a part in the second phase.</p><p>Due to the structure of futures markets, the process of disseminating information about innovative futures contracts, henceforth the <em>information dissemination process</em> , is of great influence on the success of a futures contract. This has been investigated for an information dissemination process in which the brokers from the exchange spread the information among the potential users of a futures contract.</p><p>Part III of this study is devoted to an investigation into the feasibility of futures contracts on rights. First, an overview and a taxonomy are presented of the different environmental and production rights in agriculture and outside of it. The prices of these rights reflect the production rent. We show that the specific characteristics of rights increase hedging effectiveness. From this point of view, rights futures seem an interesting instrument for eliminating spot market price risk. We further show that the use of rights futures may be highly effective in situations of "spreading", where production has been restricted by rights.</p><p>By integrating the marketing and finance approach, the insight into the market for hedging services is increased. On the one hand a marketing-finance approach broadens our knowledge of existing markets, on the other hand it improves the development process of hedging services. By using both approaches, potential problems, as well as opportunities, can be discovered in an early stage. Thus, our investigation into rights futures yields that, from a finance perspective, these new futures contracts have highly convenient features and are therefore efficient instruments to cover price risk. The marketing perspective, however, reveals that potential users perceive futures markets as very complex and therefore do not perceive futures contracts as alternative price risk management instruments.</p><p>The marketing-finance approach is an integral approach which contains all aspects relevant to draw conclusions about the viability of a futures market. The marketing-finance approach yields insight into the policy measures which a futures market might take to create and secure a viable futures market. In this book much attention has been paid to subjects pertaining to one of both approaches which demanded further deepening in order to reach a fruitful integration of both approaches. Further elaboration of this marketing-finance approach is of great importance to an efficient and effective futures market policy.</p>
Property rights in fishing; Effects on the industry and effectiveness for fishing management policy
Davidse, W.P. ; Harmsma, H. ; wijk, M.O. van; McEwan, L.V. ; Vestergaard, N. ; Frost, H. - \ 1997
The Hague [etc.] : LEI-DLO [etc.] - ISBN 9789052424231 - 329
bezit - recht - vis vangen - visserij - jagen - wettelijke rechten - eigendomsrechten - property - law - fishing - fisheries - hunting - legal rights - property rights
Analyzing alternative policy instruments for the irrigation sector : an assessment of the potential for water market development in the Chishtian Sub-division, Pakistan
Strosser, P. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; M.W. Rosegrant; T. Rieu. - S.l. : Strosser - ISBN 9789054857860 - 243
irrigatie - bedrijfsvoering - water - wettelijke rechten - waterbeleid - waterwegen - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - pakistan - hydrologie - waterrechten - irrigation - management - legal rights - water policy - waterways - water management - water resources - hydrology - water rights
<br/>The increasing scarcity of water and financial resources has made the economic dimension of water an important element of irrigation sector policies. Water pricing is the means traditionally used to incorporate economic issues into irrigation sector policies. More recently, water markets have been proposed as an alternative to water pricing. From a theoretical point of view, water markets are expected to lead to an efficient allocation of water among water users, as well as to improve water use economic efficiency. However, the discrepancy between theoretical requirements and the existing characteristics of the irrigation sector is significant. Therefore, the potential for water markets in managing water resources is questioned.<p>In Pakistan, consideration has recently been given to water markets as a means to improve the performance of irrigated agriculture. The present study investigates issues related to water markets in Pakistan using the example of the Chishtian Sub-division, an irrigation system located in the South-Punjab. Within the framework of an integrated approach that combines hydraulic, soil and economic issues, the study analyses the functioning and impact of existing surface and groundwater markets that have developed spontaneously within the tertiary units of the irrigation system. Although constraints remain on the functioning of these markets, water transactions significantly improve the flexibility in managing water resources without threatening significantly the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.<p>This study also discusses elements related to the technical feasibility of water markets at higher spatial scales in the irrigation system, and their potential impact on agricultural production and the physical environment. The potential for reallocation of surface water in terms of increased farm gross income is the highest within and between tertiary units. Also, the impact of reallocation on farm gross income is higher when volumes of surface water are transacted independently of the time of the year, as opposed to yearly reallocations that would affect proportionally the supply of canal water received each month. Constraints related to the existing conveyance infrastructure are not seen as a major obstacle to water transactions. Changes in the operational rules required to develop water markets at higher spatial scales, however, may represent an important constraint to water market development. Also, the absence of storage facility limit the potential for temporal reallocation of surface water, thus the overall impact of potential water markets.<p>The thesis concludes by emphasizing the importance of a combination of interventions to manage the irrigation sector, as well as to improve its performance in terms of agricultural production and sustainability. The need to analyze, compare and combine interventions, further stresses the relevance of an integrated approach that integrates disciplines, links decisional and bio-physical processes, and investigates the heterogeneity of these processes within the irrigation system.
Eind 40-jarige erfpacht in relatie tot de bedrijfscontinuiteit
Welten, J. ; Venema, G. ; Luijt, J. - \ 1996
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Publikatie / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 2.204) - ISBN 9789052423449 - 54
pachtovereenkomsten - landbouwbedrijven - erfpacht - wettelijke rechten - eigendomsoverdrachten - bedrijfsopvolging - bewoning - pachtstelsel - nederland - flevoland - farm leases - farms - heritable leases - legal rights - property transfers - succession - tenancy - tenure systems - netherlands
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