Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes: the case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India
Mehta, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 159 - 168.
periurban interface - political ecology - water management - cities - governance - city - adaptation - sanitation - lessons - science
The notion of the waterscape has been proposed to capture the interconnectedness of economic, political, cultural and social processes embedded in water. More recently recognised, yet still relatively under-theorised are waterscapes that are ‘in-between’ the city and the periphery. This article focuses on peri-urban Delhi, specifically the area around Ghaziabad. We show that peri-urban waterscapes do not fit into existing urban or rural planning models because these same models largely fail to recognise the peri-urban interface as a distinct form of territorial development. As a result a diverse range of mobilisations around water relevant to the peri-urban poor are systematically undermined while power asymmetries that shape access to water remain unrecognised. Peri-urban spaces thus continue to be planned as if in a transition towards urban modernity despite the complex social, political, technological and cultural realities these spaces represent. The failure to address current limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes has long term implications for the resilience, sustainability and transformative adaptation of both city and periphery.
No growth stimulation of tropical trees by 150 years of CO2 fertilization but water-use efficiency increased
Sleen, J.P. van der; Groenendijk, P. ; Vlam, M. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Boom, A. ; Bongers, F. ; Pons, T.L. ; Terburg, G. ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2015
Nature geoscience 8 (2015). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 24 - 28.
rising atmospheric co2 - carbon-dioxide - climate-change - elevated co2 - forest trees - responses - ecosystems - vegetation - feedbacks - lessons
The biomass of undisturbed tropical forests has likely increased in the past few decades (1, 2), probably as a result of accelerated tree growth. Higher CO2 levels are expected to raise plant photosynthetic rates (3) and enhance water-use efficiency (4), that is, the ratio of carbon assimilation through photosynthesis to water loss through transpiration. However, there is no evidence that these physiological responses do indeed stimulate tree growth in tropical forests. Here we present measurements of stable carbon isotopes and growth rings in the wood of 1,100 trees from Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. Measurements of carbon isotope fractions in the wood indicate that intrinsic water-use efficiency in both understorey and canopy trees increased by 30–35% over the past 150 years as atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased. However, we found no evidence for the suggested concurrent acceleration of individual tree growth when analysing the width of growth rings. We conclude that the widespread assumption of a CO2-induced stimulation of tropical tree growth may not be valid.
Estimating the cost of different strategies for measuring farmland biodiversity: Evidence from a Europe-wide field evaluation
Targetti, S. ; Herzog, F. ; Geijzendorffer, I.R. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 45 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 434 - 443.
conservation - indicators - scale - management - challenge - habitats - payments - lessons - ecology - forests
Forty percent of the EU land area is currently considered to be agriculturally managed (utilised agricul-tural area – UAA – Eurostat Agricultural Census 2010), and attention to the environmental performanceof farming practices is growing. To determine the performance of agricultural practices, farm-scale mon-itoring programmes are required but their implementation is hampered by a number of difficulties suchas the identification of broadly applicable indicators appropriate for different biogeographic locations,and the evaluation of the effectiveness and costs of different monitoring approaches. In this paper, wefocus on the costs of farm-scale biodiversity monitoring, presenting results from a Europe-wide costdata collection in the EU FP7 BioBio Project. Firstly, we present an analytical assessment of resourcesconsumed by the research units and a cost estimation for the measurement of six biodiversity-relatedparameters: farm habitats, vegetation, wild bees and bumblebees, spiders, earthworms and farm man-agement. Thereafter, we estimate a standardised cost for an ordinary measurement of the six parametersat farm-scale. In doing so, we highlight the cost differences between three strategies involving differentpotential actors (professional agencies, farmers, volunteers). This analysis demonstrates that producingreliable data on monitoring costs requires a large sample pool of farms and farm types, as was the casein the BioBio project. The cost standardisation allowed us to estimate a cost for biodiversity monitoringranging between D 2700 and D 8200 per farm, depending on the chosen strategy.
Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa
Struik, P.C. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Hounkonnou, D. - \ 2014
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 370 - 382.
innovation platforms - systems - knowledge - lessons
This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints addressed were agronomic or economic (e.g. low production, yield, quality, prices) and institutional (e.g. poor access to resources and constraining regulations) and were analysed using an array of research approaches. The studies showed that political ambitions to foster institutional change were often high (restoring the Beninese cotton sector and protecting Ghanaian farmers against fluctuating cocoa prices) and that the institutional change achieved was often remarkable. However, flexibility of institutions, co-evolution of technical and institutional change, and increased transparency are needed to make institutional change successful. The programme Convergence of Sciences – Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Systems encouraged interventions where needed and enabled researchers and stakeholders to acquire the change capacities required to identify the need and potential for change and to make change happen. More research is needed to design pathways towards sustainable intensification based on social and technological innovation. Policy-makers should create space for institutional experimentation and empower smallholder farmers in West Africa to create resilient, local food systems to feed burgeoning urban populations.
The politics of IWRM in Southern Africa
Mehta, L. ; Alba, R. ; Bolding, J.A. ; Denby, K. ; Derman, B. ; Hove, T. ; Manzungu, E. ; Movik, S. ; Prabhakaran, P. ; Koppen, B.M.C. - \ 2014
International Journal of Water Resources Development 30 (2014)3. - ISSN 0790-0627 - p. 528 - 542.
water-resources management - catchment management - developing-countries - zimbabwe - lessons
This article offers an approach to the study of the evolution, spread and uptake of integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, it looks at the flow of IWRM as an idea in international and national fora, its translation and adoption into national contexts, and the on-the-ground practices of IWRM. Research carried out in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique provides empirical insights into the politics of IWRM implementation in southern Africa, the interface between international and national interests in shaping water policies in specific country contexts, and the on-the-ground challenges of addressing equity, redress and the reallocation of water.
Social Learning, Natural Resource Management, and Participatory Activities: A reflection on construct development and testing
Rodela, R. - \ 2014
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 69 (2014). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 15 - 22.
deliberative democracy - public-participation - impact assessment - comanagement - innovation - lessons - trust
This analysis reflects on the use of multidimensional constructs for the study of social learning in natural resource management. Insight from deliberative democracy and adult learning literature are used to ground the identified four dimensions (the moral dimension the cognitive dimension, the relational dimension and trust). Then, a selection of empirical cases is surveyed with the aim to develop and understanding how well the empirical outcomes reported by these sit against the insights borrowed from the deliberative democracy and pedagogy literature. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research.
Ecosystem-based marine management in European regional seas calls for nested governance structures and coordination—A policy brief
Raakjaer, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Tatenhove, J. van; Hadjimichael, M. - \ 2014
Marine Policy 50 (2014)part B. - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 373 - 381.
baltic sea - multilevel governance - framework - institutions - atlantic - politics - lessons - impact
Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the blue economy. This article shows that the governance landscape at the regional sea level is very complex, fragmented and faced with several dilemmas. It examines the present governance structures in the four European seas (Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas and North East Atlantic Ocean). It is argued that the implementation of EBMM at the regional sea level is characterized by a highly fragmented European governance system where there is lack of coordination between relevant DGs within the European Commission, between EU, International organisations, Regional Sea Conventions and the Member States and between sectoral governance arrangements that should provide sectoral management measures that support EBMM. The article develops suggestions for a nested governance system in which institutions, policies, laws and sectors are nested into a tiered, internally consistent and mutually re-enforcing planning and decision-making system. Developing institutional interaction and soft modes of governance between the EU, the Regional Sea Conventions, Member States and the governance arrangements of the different marine sectors will be crucial in evolving towards such a nested governance system for EBMM. Moreover, there is no one size fits all approach in implementing EBMM, which means that for each European Sea a context-dependent nested governance system should be developed.
Gender perspectives on decentralisation and service users’ participation in rural Tanzania
Masanyiwa, Z.S. ; Niehof, A. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
The Journal of Modern African Studies 52 (2014)1. - ISSN 0022-278X - p. 95 - 122.
citizen participation - health systems - decision space - lessons - government - africa - uganda - accountability - women
Increasing participation in decision-making processes by service users is one of the objectives of decentralisation reforms in Tanzania. The argument is that decentralisation enhances participation by all sections of the community, and by women in particular, and results in decisions that better reflect local needs. This paper examines the impact of decentralisation reforms on service users’ participation for delivery of water and health services in rural Tanzania, using a gender perspective and principal-agent theory. The paper investigates how decentralisation has fostered spaces for participation and how men and women use these spaces, and identifies factors that constrain or encourage women’s participation. It shows that decentralisation reforms have created spaces for service users’ participation at the local level. Participation in these spaces, however, differs between men and women, and is influenced by the sociocultural norms within the household and community. Men have gained more leverage than women to exercise their agency as principals. Women’s participation is contributing to addressing practical gender needs, but strategic gender needs have been less adequately addressed because gendered power relations have been largely untouched by the reforms.
Responding to coastal problems: Interactive knowledge development in a US nature restoration project
Seijger, C. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Dewulf, G. ; Otter, H.S. - \ 2014
Ocean & Coastal Management 89 (2014). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 29 - 38.
climate-change - policy - governance - science - management - systems - information - interface - lessons - delta
Coastal decision-making is impacted by global climate change and region-specific changes related to population growth, economic activities and the natural environment. This results in complex and interdependent problems. Addressing these problems requires the involvement of decision-makers, researchers and other societal actors in knowledge production. However, such means of knowledge production are poorly understood when it comes to coastal regions. Using a conceptual framework that makes a distinction between project arrangements and knowledge arrangements, this paper analyses interactive knowledge development in a nature restoration project on the US West Coast. The project adopted a collaborative approach, and involved diverse organisations in developing knowledge for reaching its restoration solutions. The case study analysis results in seven causal mechanisms. The mechanisms are divided into two groups. One group discusses processes that affect interactive knowledge development, such as the need for public support. The other group explains how interactive knowledge development functions, for example through facilitation and the creation of safe environments for researchers and regulators. Through identifying these mechanisms, this paper contributes to an improved understanding of interactive knowledge development in coastal regions.
Reviewing the main characteristics of the international forest regime complex and partial explanations for its fragmentation
Giessen, L. - \ 2013
International Forestry Review 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 60 - 70.
global governance - climate-change - united-nations - policy - partnerships - lessons - back
The objectives of this review article are, firstly, to provide an overview of the literature on the main characteristics of what is referred to as the international forest regime and secondly, based on this, to review explanations for fragmentation as its core characteristic. A third aim of the article is to propose fields for future policy-oriented research on global forest governance, the international forest regime and its fragmentation. The article discusses different strands of literature and academic views on the existence and main characteristics of an international forest regime. It regards the recent notion of an international forest regime complex to be a fruitful topic for future research proposals and finds that fragmentation is its analytical core characteristic. In addition, the article reviews partial explanations for the great relevance of fragmentation in the case of the forest regime complex. It discriminates between domestic factors and causes as opposed to those resulting from the international system. Based on the review, the article suggests, lastly, fields for future research on global forest governance, the international forest regime complex and its fragmentation.
Understanding contracts in evolving agro-economies: Fermers, dekhqans and networks in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Djanibekov, U. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Boezeman, D. ; Djanibekov, N. - \ 2013
Journal of Rural Studies 32 (2013). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 137 - 147.
danube delta - moral hazard - choice - agriculture - governance - lessons - reform - risk
We combine institutional economic perspectives and actor-network theory to elucidate the role of contracts in the evolution of transitional agricultural systems. Such combination of theories can shed a light on the mutual constitution of actors and institutions, and the formation of economic strategies. We argue that forms and functions of contracts can only be understood in an evolutionary context. In a case study of the Khorezm region, Uzbekistan, where several waves of reform created two principal actors - commercial farms (called fermers locally) responsible for state-ordered production and semi-subsistence smallholders (called dekhqans locally) - it is demonstrated how in the self-transformation of the actor-network, and thus the shifts in forms and roles of contracts, several network features play a role: interdependencies between the actors, the essential actant of the irrigation and drainage system, formal/informal dialectics. Time horizons, risk/benefit calculations, trust and cooperation forms emerge in the self-reproducing network and leave space for certain contractual forms and functions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantifying the development of agreement among experts in Delphi studies
Meijering, J.V. ; Kampen, J.K. ; Tobi, H. - \ 2013
Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80 (2013)8. - ISSN 0040-1625 - p. 1607 - 1614.
coefficient-alpha - kappa-coefficient - methodology - consensus - lessons - requirements - reliability - prevalence - management - accuracy
Delphi studies are often conducted with the aim of achieving consensus or agreement among experts. However, many Delphi studies fail to offer a concise interpretation of the meaning of consensus or agreement. Whereas several statistical operationalizations of agreement exist, hardly any of these indices is used in Delphi studies. In this study, computer simulations were used to study different indices of agreement within different Delphi scenarios. A distinction was made between the indices of consensus (Demoivre index), agreement indices (e.g., Cohen's kappa and generalizations thereof), and association indices (e.g., Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient). Delphi scenarios were created by varying the number of objects, the number of experts, the distribution of object ratings, and the degree to which agreement increased between subsequent rounds. Each scenario consisted of three rounds and was replicated 1000 times. The simulation study showed that in the same data, different indices suggest different levels of agreement, and also, different levels of change of agreement between rounds. In applied Delphi studies, researchers should be more transparent regarding their choice of agreement index and report the value of the chosen index within every round as to provide insight into how the suggested agreement level has developed across rounds
Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria
Downing, A.S. ; Galic, N.G. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. ; Witte, F. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
east-africa - niloticus l - fisheries - impact - ecosystems - resurgence - lessons - tilapia - kyoga - l.
Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources.
Looking at agricultural innovation platforms through an innovation champion lens. An analysis of three cases in West Africa
Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Adu-Acheampong, R. ; Saïdou, A. ; Zannou, E. ; Soumano, L. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Paassen, A. van; Nederlof, S. - \ 2013
Outlook on Agriculture 42 (2013)3. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 185 - 192.
systems - networks - lessons - roles - ghana - time
The concept of an innovation platform is increasingly used in interventions inspired by agricultural innovation systems thinking, as a way of bringing stakeholders from a sector together to enable transformative change. An essential role on such innovation platforms is thought to be that of the ‘innovation champion’, but this role has so far not been unravelled. In this paper, by applying insights from management science to analyse three innovation platforms in West Africa from the Convergence of Sciences – Strengthening Innovation Systems programme (CoS–SIS), different types of innovation champions are mapped. The authors conclude that making a distinction among different types of innovation champions can be useful in identifying members for innovation platforms, but that the specifics of agricultural innovation appear not to be adequately captured by roles attributed to existing categories of innovation champions. Further research is needed to ascertain whether other categories exist, and how different innovation champions interact over time on agricultural innovation platforms.
Collaborative research approaches to cope with uncertainty of water management practices in Tidal areas
Ritzema, H.P. - \ 2013
Irrigation and drainage 62 (2013)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 92 - 106.
lessons
Throughout the world, tidal areas are being developed. The initial development is generally for agriculture, often in combination with flood protection. The development focus in tidal areas is, however, gradually moving to ports, harbours, transportation routes, industries, and aquaculture, housing and recreation facilities. Models are often used to develop strategies for sustainable land and water practices. These models normally require long-time data sets that are often not available in emerging countries, thus new ways have to be found to address the traditionally validated simulation models. This paper presents case studies in Surinam, India and Vietnam in which the traditional validation process was replaced by joint plausibility discussions and shared vision building in order to improve the understanding of cause–effect relationships and proposals for water management measures. The aim was to match the tacit knowledge of the local stakeholders with explicit scientific knowledge in order to create a mutual basis for an integrated approach as opposed to single-issue measures, and a mutual agreement on follow-up steps needed to sustain both the livelihood of the people as well as natural resource functions. The collaborative modelling approach proved to be a useful tool to obtain a consensus of opinion among the stakeholders
Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments
Gupta, N. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; George, S. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Nanoparticle Research : an Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology 15 (2013)8. - ISSN 1388-0764
genetically-modified foods - public perceptions - mass-media - gm food - risk - consumer - attitudes - lessons - technologies - biopolitics
The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials.These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nanoparticles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.
Environmental Governance for Marine Infrastructure: Enabling and Constraining Conditions for Ecodynamic Development and Design in Marine Infrastructural Projects
Korbee, D. ; Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2013
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 15 (2013)4. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 533 - 550.
public-private partnerships - netherlands - policy - networks - lessons
Ports are crucial in the economic growth of the marine sector, but a growing awareness on the adverse ecological implications influences their development. Ecodynamic development and design (EDD) is an innovative approach with the aim to integrate the economic aspects of port development projects with dynamics of marine ecosystems. These projects develop within different governance settings, therefore not only different types of project arrangements develop, but there is also a difference in the possibilities for ecodynamic design. Based on an analysis of 28 port development projects, we distinguish four ideal-typical Marine Infrastructural Project Arrangements (MIPAs): Conventional, Integrated market, External Financier initiated and Private. These arrangements differ from each other on the actors involved, the rules applied, the division of resources and the discourse set. Due to these differences, we formulate enabling and constraining conditions of the project arrangement to incorporate ecodynamic design principles in terms of marine infrastructural projects. The possibilities for EDD in these MIPAs increase if there is space for contractors, consultants and project owners to (co)develop the design. The analysis shows that the ‘Integrated Market’ and ‘Private’ project arrangements are best capable of incorporating EDD port development projects.
Participatory trials and farmers' social realities: understanding the adoption of legume technologies in a Malawian farmer community
Pircher, T. ; Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Kamanga, B.C.G. - \ 2013
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 11 (2013)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 252 - 263.
soil fertility management - africa - poverty - improvement - lessons - crop
This article presents results from a study exploring the reasons for low adoption of legume technologies to improve soil fertility by farmers from a community in central Malawi who took part in participatory trials. This study explores the influence of gender roles in agriculture and land ownership and socio-economic differentiation in the community. Because most women do not own land and are traditionally responsible for legume crops, they have little interest in managing soil fertility for maize crops. Men are not interested in using legumes in maize-cropping systems. Some are too poor: this group needs to complement their subsistence maize production with paid labour on the farms of better-off farmers; restricting the labour availability for their own farming activities. Wealthier farmers have access to, and prefer to use chemical fertilizer and cattle manure. Take-up rates among the middle group of farmers were also low. This study discusses how these (and other) factors influence the (non-)adoption of maize-legume technologies in Malawi and the effectiveness of participatory research. It emphasizes how differentiated farmer-realities affect the uptake of technologies identified as promising in participatory field evaluations.
Unravelling the role of innovation platforms in supporting co-evolution of innovation: Contributions and tensions in a smallholder dairy development programme
Kilelu, C.W. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2013
Agricultural Systems 118 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 65 - 77.
agricultural innovation - systems - networks - technology - brokers - africa - intermediation - partnerships - management - lessons
The agricultural innovation systems approach emphasizes the collective nature of innovation and stresses that innovation is a co-evolutionary process, resulting from alignment of technical, social, institutional and organizational dimensions. These insights are increasingly informing interventions that focus on setting up multi-stakeholder initiatives, such as innovation platforms and networks, as mechanisms for enhancing agricultural innovation, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There has been much emphasis on how such platforms are organized, but only limited analysis unravelling how they shape co-evolution of innovation processes. This paper addresses this gap and conceptualizes platforms as intermediaries that connect the different actors in innovation systems in order to foster effective co-evolution. We present a case study of a smallholder dairy development programme in Kenya, led by a consortium of five organizations that provide a platform for building multi-actor partnerships to enhance smallholder dairy productivity and improve livelihoods. The findings indicate that co-evolution of innovation is a highly dynamic process with various interactional tensions and unexpected effects, and that the distributed nature of intermediation is important in resolving some of these tensions emerging at different actor interfaces. However, platforms are not always able to adapt adequately to emerging issues. This points to the need to look at platforms dynamically and pay more attention to mechanisms that strengthen feedback, learning and adaptive management in innovation processes
Evolution and Diversification of Community Forestry Regimes in Babati District, Tanzania
Babili, I.H. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2013
Small-scale Forestry 12 (2013)4. - ISSN 1873-7617 - p. 539 - 557.
natural-resources - decentralization - management - governance - property - participation - lessons
Since the 1980s many tropical countries have promoted community forestry (CF). Gradually, various forms of community forest management regimes were developed in response to decentralization processes in the forest administration or the government administration. The emergence of community forestry regime (CFR) complexes and their evolutionary pathways have still been little explored. In Tanzania, Babati District is a pioneer in the development of CF. This paper assesses how emergence of a CFR complex is related to dynamic institutional interactions at local community level and bureaucratic level. It is demonstrated that evolution and diversity of CF regimes is associated with (a) a partial bureaucratic deconcentration of the government’s administrative authority over forests from national level to district level, and (b) democratic decentralization in the form of a partial devolution of formal management authority over forests from governmental authorities to local communities and individual people. Also, it is shown that endogenous changes in the norms and principles of the traditional systems of indigenous forest management occurred, calling for formulation of policy objectives that help to sustain local management practices.
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