Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Sea floor litter monitoring : International Bottom Trawl Survey 2016
Hal, Ralf van - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C021/17) - 60
litter - environmental monitoring - marine environment - marine sediments - surveys - north sea - ligstro - milieumonitoring - marien milieu - mariene sedimenten - karteringen - noordzee
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures taken, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring program for this descriptor includes amongst others the collection of data on the presence, abundance and distribution of litter on the seafloor. According to the Dutch program, the data on seafloor litter must be collected by statutory task fish surveys using standardized GOV fishing net, as a part of the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). This report presents the results of the seafloor litter monitoring during the IBTS survey of Quarter 1 2016. Seafloor litter data is collected annually during this survey since 2013, and the new data is presented in perspective of the data collected in previous years. This is done for the composition and the spatial distribution of the seafloor litter from the catch. The composition of the litter collected in 2016 is similar compared to earlier years; plastic and specifically rope/lines are the most dominant litter items found. The survey was again carried out on board the UK vessel CEFAS Endeavour, and the standard Dutch IBTS area including the Channel area was covered. Even though, due to a survey design based on random sampling within ICES rectangles, comparison in spatial distribution of litter as well as in estimates of the amount of litter between years is difficult. The spatial distribution of the litter seems random with small and large catches close to each other. It might be a result of small probability of actually catching litter items with a GOV trawl not designed for this purpose, or by differences in seafloor structure. It is possible to register additional habitat information and use this information in the data analysis After four years of litter sampling as part of the IBTS, inconsistencies in categorising the litter items are still found between national observers. In 2015 and 2016, close cooperation with CEFAS staff showed that these inconsistencies also exist between countries. The inconsistencies exist for a small number of subcategories, for which there is some arbitrary in how to divide items between them. Analysing the Dutch IBTS data by itself indicates a number of limitations, e.g. the spatial differences owing to a semi-randomized survey design between years, which could be overcome by combining the international data of the IBTS. This data can be found in the database developed and accessible via the ICES datacentre and combining the data is done within OSPAR.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42 p.
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
Vrijloopstallen Utrecht
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Kasper, G.J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 45
melkvee - loopstallen - vloeren - ligstro - organische stof - houtspaanders - bagger - ammoniakemissie - utrecht - dierenwelzijn - dairy cattle - loose housing - floors - litter - organic matter - wood chips - dredgings - ammonia emission - animal welfare
De afgelopen jaren heeft de huisvesting van melkvee een grote ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. In de jaren 60 van de vorige eeuw werd de ligboxenstal geïntroduceerd als vervanger van de grupstal. Het belangrijkste doel hiervan was het verbeteren van de arbeidsefficiëntie waardoor boeren meer koeien konden houden. Met de ligboxenstal veranderde ook de mestopslag van een gescheiden systeem voor gier en vaste mest in een systeem voor drijfmest. Ook kregen de koeien meer bewegingsruimte. De afgelopen jaren namen de eisen ten aanzien van welzijn en milieu steeds verder toe, wat geleid heeft tot aanpassing van afmetingen, vloeren, mestopslagsystemen en ventilatie in ligboxenstallen. Toch hebben sommige melkveehouders behoefte aan een stal die enerzijds de koeien nog meer bewegingsruimte geeft dan een ligboxenstal en anderzijds mest oplevert met een hoger organische stof gehalte dan drijfmest. De Provincie Utrecht stimuleert innovatieve stallenbouw.
Bedded pack barns for dairy cattle in the Netherlands
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Ouweltjes, W. ; Poelarends, J.J. ; Driehuis, F. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 15
dierenwelzijn - melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - melkvee - dierlijke productie - ligstro - loopstallen - compost - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - animal welfare - dairy farming - cow housing - dairy cattle - animal production - litter - loose housing - composts - sustainability
The bedded pack barn offers good perspective on animal welfare, animal health and public perception, but has disadvantages in terms of mineral management (nitrogen losses and fertilising value) and the presence of TAS (Thermophilic Aerobic Spore formers). Bedded packs with compost have a too high ammonia emission in the barn and lead to too high concentrations of TAS in sterile dairy products and therefore have no perspective. A controlled composting process with wood chips may have more future perspective. However, the availability and/or the price of wood chips can be a bottleneck if demand is increasing. The search for alternative TAS-poor bedding materials deserves continuation.
Linkages between plant traits and soil ecology in the rhizosphere and through litter decomposition
Brolsma, K.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellis Hoffland, co-promotor(en): Ron de Goede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571068 - 112
bodemecologie - rizosfeer - ligstro - decompositie - wortels - bodembiologie - nematoda - solanum tuberosum - globodera pallida - biofumigatie - genotypen - soil ecology - rhizosphere - litter - decomposition - roots - soil biology - biofumigation - genotypes
Broiler excreta composition and its effect on wet litter : aspects of nutrition
Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen; Wouter Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738646 - 160
vleeskuikens - excreten - samenstelling - ligstro - vochtgehalte - pluimveevoeding - diervoeding - voer - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - vleeskuikenresultaten - voedingsfysiologie - broilers - excreta - composition - litter - moisture content - poultry feeding - animal nutrition - feeds - gastrointestinal microbiota - broiler performance - nutrition physiology

In commercial broiler farms, birds are usually housed on litter, composed of bedding materials like wood shavings. Wet litter is a condition in which the litter reaches its saturation threshold for water and cannot hold more moisture. It causes increased microbial activity and, as a result, ammonia is produced and emitted into the air. Wet litter can result in negative welfare issues (e.g., footpad dermatitis) and also a reduced performance. Wet litter is a multifactorial problem, involving management, housing, disease, diet, and gut health factors. In this thesis, nutritional aspects on excreta moisture content were studied in four different experiments. Different dietary compositions were evaluated and the results show that reductions in excreta water content were related to increased transit time and/or reduced water reabsorption in the hindgut. Insoluble fibers, if they are combined with a coarse diet, can be used to slow down transit time and optimize digestibility, thereby improving both excreta and litter quality. Minerals (e.g., Mg) and other undigested nutrients increase the osmotic load of the digesta in the hindgut and, as a result, more water is moving into the gut lumen. Changing the type or level of nutrients that reach the hindgut by varying dietary ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) had limited effects on the ileal microbiota composition. Additionally, no effects of variations in commensal bacteria and excreta quality were observed. In this thesis, different parameters to assess the status of water in excreta and litter samples were evaluated. Water in the excreta or litter can be present in free form or bound, therefore solely total moisture content may not be sufficient to describe excreta and litter quality. Water activity correlates well with microbial growth. However, its use is limited in high moisture (> 30%) content samples. Free water, even though this parameter is dependent of the centrifugal speed applied, seems to be a more valuable parameter to assess excreta quality. The results from this thesis show that nutrition can be used to manipulate excreta and litter moisture content. The effects of nutritional manipulation can be related to (in)digestibility of nutrients, although transit time also seems to be an important factor determining excreta moisture output. Current feed strategies need to aim at optimizing the gastro-intestinal tract functions via the diet. Besides assessment of litter quality, also monitoring excreta quality throughout the growing period is highly recommended for managing litter quality, broiler health, and environmental impact. This should not be limited to measuring total excreta moisture, as the results of this thesis show that the status of the water in the excreta can be different.

Bodemmaterialen voor vrijloopstallen: eigenschappen in relatie tot compostering en gasvormige emissies bij menging met mest en urine = Exploratory study of bedding materials for freestall animal housing; their composting potential and gaseous emissions after mixing with dairy cattle excreta
Smits, M.C.J. ; Blanken, K. ; Bokma, S. ; Galama, P.J. ; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Szanto, G.L. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 608) - 45
melkkoeien - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - ammoniakemissie - compostering - ademhalingssnelheid - melkvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - dairy cows - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - ammonia emission - composting - respiration rate - dairy cattle - animal production - animal housing - animal health
Chemical characteristics of bedding materials, their composting potential and the related gaseous emissions when mixed with cattle feces and urine were compared.
Onbeschadigde en schone koeien : Strooiselsoort niet alleen bepalend
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 40.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - ligboxen - melkveehouderij - huisvesting op dik strooisel - ligstro - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal housing - animal health - cubicles - dairy farming - deep litter housing - litter
Er wordt voortdurend gezocht naar verhoging van het dierenwelzijn door aanpassingen in ligboxenstallen. Een van de aspecten daarbij is het ligbed. Naast allerlei kunststof materiaal in de vorm van matten en matrassen wordt er ook steeds gezocht naar het juiste materiaal in diepstrooiselboxen.
Carbon pools in tropical peat forest : towards a reference value for forest biomass carbon in relatively undisturbed peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia
Verwer, C.C. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2108)
veengebieden - veengronden - tropische bossen - kooldioxide - ontbossing - biomassa - koolstofvastlegging - gegevens verzamelen - ligstro - zuidoost-azië - peatlands - peat soils - tropical forests - carbon dioxide - deforestation - biomass - carbon sequestration - data collection - litter - south east asia
'Goedkoop strooisel is must' : de vrije loopstal
Hulst, M. van der - \ 2009
Nieuwe Oogst / Magazine Veehouderij 5 (2009)8. - ISSN 1871-0948 - p. 10 - 10.
veehouderij - stallen - huisvesting op dik strooisel - ligstro - kosten - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - mest - livestock farming - stalls - deep litter housing - litter - costs - animal welfare - animal health - manures
De Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR maakte een economische vergelijking van de twee staltypen. Daaruit bleek dat de perspectieven van de vrijeloopstal afhankelijk zijn van strooiselkosten en mestkwaliteit
Moeilijk te meten mest
Buisonjé, F.E. de; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2009
De Pluimveehouderij 39 (2009)12. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
pluimveehouderij - eenden - vleesproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - ligstro - samenstelling - poultry farming - ducks - meat production - animal manures - litter - composition
In een praktijkonderzoek naar de mineralenbalans van vleeseenden bleek dat de analyseresultaten van strorijke eendenmest een grote spreiding vertonen
Werken aan welzwijn : methodische verantwoording
Greef, K.H. de - \ 2007
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group - 2
dierenwelzijn - varkens - varkenshouderij - ligstro - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - kostenanalyse - projectimplementatie - stalinrichting - animal welfare - pigs - pig farming - litter - farm management - cost analysis - project implementation - animal housing design
Als onderdeel van het LNV onderzoeksprogramma Maatschappelijk geaccepteerde Veehouderij werkt Wageningen UR samen met belanghebbenden aan verbetering van het dierwelzijn in de vleesvarkenshouderij. Na het project diergericht ketenontwerp en de daaruit voortkomende principes voor een Comfort Class stal, ligt nu de focus op het ondersteunen van welzijnsinitiatieven in de praktijk. De projecten maken een ontwikkeling door die kan worden verwoord als overgang van Welzijn via Welzwijn naar W€lzwijn. Welzijn staat hierbij voor het streven van alle belanghebbenden, Welzwijn staat voor de vertaling hiervan in 10 basisbehoeften van het varken die als eerste centraal worden gesteld en Welzwijn staat voor de daarop volgende zoektocht hoe we aan deze behoeften kunnen voldoen zonder onacceptabele stijging van de kostprijs. Deze notitie laat zien hoe we dit invullen, en welke methodische ideeën hieraan ten grondslag liggen
Welzwijn: lage kostprijs sluit een goed leven voor varkens niet uit
Greef, K.H. de - \ 2007
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group - 2
dierenwelzijn - varkens - varkenshouderij - ligstro - stro - diergedrag - huisvesting op dik strooisel - animal welfare - pigs - pig farming - litter - straw - animal behaviour - deep litter housing
Informatie over het project 'w€lzwijn', het realiseren van een beter welzijn voor varkens, rekening houdend met het bestaande kostprijssysteem voor de varkenshouderij
Niet te veel stro op de vork nemen!
Greef, K.H. de - \ 2007
Wageningen : Animal Sciences Group - 2
ligstro - varkenshouderij - varkens - dierenwelzijn - stro - bodemoppervlak - huisvesting op dik strooisel - litter - pig farming - pigs - animal welfare - straw - floor area - deep litter housing
In de Nederlandse vleesvarkenshouderij wordt vrijwel geen stro gebruikt. Varkenshouders zien veel problemen rondom stroverstrekking en zijn daarom zeer terughoudend. Toch zouden verschillende partijen rondom de varkenshouderij (burgers, overheid, consumenten, dierenbeschermers, etc.) graag zien dat vleesvarkens in een bed van stro konden vertoeven. Het zou het welzijn van het dier en het imago van de sector wel eens sterk kunnen verbeteren, vinden zij. Maar varkenshouders laten zich niet dwingen
Litter as seedbed: interactions between the soil, seedlings and litter of kauri (Agathis australis)
Verkaik, E. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Wim Braakhekke. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9085045495 - 112
agathis australis - concurrentie tussen planten - zaailingen - ligstro - tanninen - mineralisatie - decompositie - stikstof - nieuw-zeeland - plant competition - seedlings - litter - tannins - mineralization - decomposition - nitrogen - new zealand
Plants have important impacts upon soil processes such as nutrient mineralisation and organic matter dynamics. They might even enhance their own fitness by improving soil quality or by making the soil less favourable for competing species. In the latter strategy, tannins in plant foliage might be important. To investigate this strategy we used the New Zealand kauri tree (Agathis australis), whose massive litter accumulation has a huge impact upon the soil, as an example. We hypothesised that kauri-tannins can reduce nitrogen mineralisation in the soil below the crown of a kauri tree and thus create an environment where kauri seedlings are better able to compete with angiosperm seedlings, resulting in natural selection for kauri trees with high tannin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, several descriptive and experimental studies were conducted. Nutrient concentrations in the foliage of a common shrub species show that below the crown of a kauri tree nutrient availability of the soil is lower than outside the kauri crown. Two studies on tree seedlings in kauri forest indicate that the lower nutrient availability below kauri reduces the competition for kauri seedlings from fast growing angiosperm seedlings. The results of a laboratory incubation study with purified kauri tannins suggest that kauri tannins contribute to the reduction of nitrogen availability below kauri by complexing proteins. A litterbag experiment provided no conclusive evidence in favour or against this effect of kauri tannins on nitrogen availability. Finally, a study on the variation in tannin concentration between kauri seedlings shows that the variation in tannin concentration of kauri foliage is partly genetic. Therefore natural selection of kauri individuals with high tannin concentration is possible. Overall the results of the different studies confirm the main hypothesis: kauri tannins can reduce nitrogen mineralisation in the soil under the crown of a kauri tree and thus create an environment where kauri seedlings are better able to compete with angiosperm seedlings. Natural selection for kauri trees with high tannin concentration, via the effects these tannins have upon nitrogen availability and thereby on the competition between seedlings, is plausible.
Environmental aspects of improving sow welfare with group housing and straw bedding
Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jos Metz; Leonard den Hartog. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9085850894 - 146
zeugen - stro - ligstro - dierenwelzijn - milieueffect - ammoniak - emissie - dierhouderij - groepshuisvesting - sows - straw - litter - animal welfare - environmental impact - ammonia - emission - animal husbandry - group housing
Ligbed van stro beter voor welzijn vleesstieren dan rubber ligmat
Heutinck, L.F.M. - \ 2005
V-focus 2 (2005)dec.. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 22 - 23.
rundveeteelt - vleesvee - slachtdieren - stieren (bulls) - vleesstieren - blonde d'aquitaine - belgisch witblauw - ligstro - matten - vloeren - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - cattle farming - beef cattle - meat animals - bulls - beef bulls - belgian blue - litter - mats - floors - animal welfare - animal behaviour - farm comparisons
In een vergelijkingsonderzoek zijn bij Blonde d'Aquitaine vleesstieren en bij Belgisch Witblauwe-kruislingstieren de groei en slachtkwaliteit, de hokbenutting, het lig- en opstaangedrag, en de klauwslijtage nagegaan op zowel ligstro als op rubberen stalmatten
'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area
Franeker, J.A. van; Heubeck, M. ; Fairclough, K. ; Turner, D.M. ; Grantham, M. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Guse, N. ; Pedersen, J. ; Olsen, K.O. ; Andersson, P.J. ; Olsen, B. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1162) - 70
fulmarus - ligstro - mariene gebieden - waterverontreiniging - kunststoffen - inname - monitoring - biologische indicatoren - noordzee - noordoost atlantische oceaan - richtlijnen (directives) - europese unie - litter - marine areas - water pollution - plastics - ingestion - biological indicators - north sea - northeast atlantic - directives - european union
North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atlantic Ocean. OSPAR has requested to expand Dutch studies using the Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) as a marine litter monitor to the wider North Sea, considering such a project as a pilot study for the introduction of a Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the wider OSPAR area. A North Sea international study of Fulmar stomach contents became possible as a part of the 'Save the North Sea (SNS)' project. SNS is an international and interdisciplinary initiative to reduce marine litter which received cofunding from EU Interreg IIIB program for the North Sea over the years 2002-2004. The Fulmar is used as the symbol of the SNS campaign. The SNS Fulmar study established a research network in all countries around the North Sea. Combined results from Dutch long-term work and the 2002-2004 North Sea study show the Fulmar to be a sensitive and robust monitoring tool for spatial and temporal trends in the marine litter situation that will be of use for EcoQO implementation by OSPAR and the European Marine Strategy
Penaeus monodon post-larvae and their interaction with Rhizophora apiculata
Nga, B.T. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Rudi Roijackers. - Wageningen : WUR - ISBN 9085040930 - 111
penaeus monodon - garnalen - rhizophora apiculata - mangroves - interacties - aquacultuur - garnalenteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - populatiedynamica - mortaliteit - ligstro - voedingsstoffen - toxiciteit - vietnam - shrimps - interactions - aquaculture - shrimp culture - shellfish fisheries - population dynamics - mortality - litter - nutrients - toxicity
Stro praktisch inpasbaar?
Vermeer, H.M. - \ 2004
Praktijkkompas. Varkens 18 (2004)1. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 4 - 5.
varkensstallen - dierenwelzijn - stro - ligstro - zeugen - zwangerschap - pig housing - animal welfare - straw - litter - sows - pregnancy
Stro biedt varkens een heleboel mogelijkheden, maar is het ook praktisch inpasbaar? In een nieuw verschenen folder is de stand van zaken weergegeven. Het oriënterende onderzoek op onderdelen van de afgelopen jaren wordt nu voortgezet op systeemniveau,waarbij we de losse onderdelen samenvoegen. Het meest luxe systeem, de "Comfort-class" varkenstal komt op Praktijkcentrum Raalte in onderzoek.
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