- A.F.M. Hees van (1)
- A.W. Heusden van (1)
- S.H. Janse-ten Klooster (1)
- P. Linger (1)
- F.J. Sterck (1)
- E.J.P. Thomas (1)
- J.H. Venema (2)
Explaining interspecific differences in sapling growth and shade tolerance in temperate forests
Janse-ten Klooster, S.H. ; Thomas, E.J.P. ; Sterck, F.J. - \ 2007
Journal of Ecology 95 (2007). - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1250 - 1260.
life-history variation - rain-forest - leaf-area - low-light - trees - plant - traits - strategies - survival - height
1. Species differences in growth and shade tolerance might contribute to coexistence of tree species. To explore how such differences depend on underlying plant traits, 14 tree species were investigated in temperate forests on sand and loess soils in the Netherlands. Plant traits were measured for 0.5¿1 m tall saplings: 10 saplings growing at low light conditions and 10 at high light conditions. Growth was determined from annual lengths of leader shoots, and shade tolerance from an independently tested scale. 2. Shade tolerance and extension growth of the leader shoot were negatively correlated. Plant traits that related positively with shade tolerance were negatively related to extension growth, and vice versa. Photosynthetic capacity, leaf dark respiration and total leaf mass related weakly to shade tolerance and extension growth. Specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area/leaf mass) and wood density were the traits most strongly correlated to shade tolerance and extension growth. 3. Shade-tolerant species had denser wood and slower extension growth. They also had larger crowns, suggesting that dense stems provide strength for supporting larger crowns. 4. More shade-tolerant species had a higher SLA, which is opposite to tree communities with larger leaf life span variation. In winter deciduous tree communities, more shadetolerant species benefit from investing leaf area at low costs (high SLA) rather than from investing in durable leaves (low SLA). 5. Species on sand had higher growth rates and higher light requirements than species on loess. In line with the resource-ratio hypothesis, the dominance of the more shadetolerant species on nutrient rich loess soils may be attributed to the denser vegetation supported and the resultant lower light availability for saplings compared with saplings on infertile and drought-prone sand soils. 6. Synthesis: These results provide plant trait-based predictions for the regeneration success and composition of species of temperate forests with management based on natural regeneration. These forests are expected to become dominated by shade-tolerant species with high wood density and high SLA on the more productive soils, and by light demanding species with low wood density and low SLA on poorer soils. Key-words: carbon balance, extension growth, natural forest development, photosynthetic capacity, shade tolerance, soil, specific leaf area, temperate forests, total leaf mass, wood density
The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp).
Venema, J.H. ; Linger, P. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Hasselt, P.R. van; Bruggemann, W. - \ 2005
Plant Biology 7 (2005)2. - ISSN 1435-8603 - p. 118 - 130.
ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase - low-temperature tolerance - low-light - chlorophyll fluorescence - xanthophyll cycle - cultivated tomato - wild tomato - photosynthesis parameters - electron-transport - cold tolerance
During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of these studies can be seen in the increase in chilling tolerance of the cultivated genotypes. In this review, we will focus on low-temperature effects on photosynthesis and the inheritance of these traits to the offspring of various breeding attempts. While crossing L. peruvianum (¿) to L. esculentum (¿) so far has brought the most detailed insight with respect to physiological questions, for practical purposes, e.g., the readily cross ability, crossing programmes with L. hirsutum as pollen donor at present seem to be a promising way to achieve higher chilling-tolerant genotypes of the cultivated tomato. This perspective is due to the progress that has been made with respect to the genetic basis of chilling tolerance of Lycopersicon spp. over the past five years
Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech
Hees, A.F.M. van; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. - \ 2003
Forest Ecology and Management 176 (2003)1-3. - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 439 - 448.
fagus-sylvatica - allocation patterns - hardwood seedlings - quercus-robur - low-light - growth - tolerance - biomass - survival - nitrogen
Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of shading on root-shoot relations of these species. Saplings were grown for 2 years under full light (light availability of 100%) and shaded conditions (light availability of 30%) and then harvested and their rootsystem excavated. Shading had no effect on the biomass distribution within the root system. Shading reduced the root-shoot ratio of the species studied. Only for silver birch the fine root biomass-leaf biomass ratio decreased by shading, indicating a reduced partitioning to the fine roots in comparison to the leaves. Shading reduced the fine root length-leaf area ratio of the three species studied. However the magnitude of reduction differed between the species; small in pedunculate oak, intermediate inbeech and large in silver birch. For pedunculate oak and beech this effect must be primarily attributed to an increase in specific leaf area under shaded conditions, while for silver birch this effect can be attributed to both the morphological adjustment in the leaves and the increased partitioning to the leaves. As the capacity of leaves and fine roots to acquire resources has to balance we postulate that under the experimental conditions an increase the efficiency of carbon uptake relative to the efficiency of nutrient uptake is the dominant acclimation of pedunculate oak. The response of silver birch indicates that the dominant acclimation to shading is based on a shift in a biomass partitioning between the leaves and the fine roots. Beech holds anintermediate position, as there is evidence for an increase in the efficiency of carbon uptake relative to the efficiency of nutrient uptake and an increase of leaf area relative to fine root length.
Low-temperature-related growth and photosynthetic performance of alloplasmic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with chloroplasts from L. hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl.
Dolstra, O. ; Venema, J.H. ; Groot, P.J. ; Hasselt, P.R. van - \ 2002
Euphytica 124 (2002)3. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 407 - 421.
chlorophyll fluorescence - nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility - low-light - tolerance - genome - plastome - plants - cybrid - cold - peruvianum
Growth and photosynthetic performance were analyzed in alloplasmic tomato at a high- (25/17 °C; HTR) and low-temperature regime (12/6 °C; LTR) in order to establish the role of cytoplasmic variation on low-temperature tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Four alloplasmic tomato lines, containing the nuclear genome of tomato and the plastome of L. hirsutum LA 1777 Humb. & Bonpl., an accession collected at high-altitude in Peru, were reciprocally crossed with 11 tomato entries with a high inbreeding level and a wide genetic variation, resulting in a set of 44 reciprocal crosses. Irrespective of growth temperature, alloplasmic families with alien chloroplasts of L. hirsutum (h) were on average characterized by a high shoot biomass, a large leaf area, and a low specific leaf area in comparison with their euplasmic counterparts. These results do not directly point to an advantageous effect of h-chloroplasts on biomass accumulation at low temperature but rather towards a small general beneficial effect on growth and/or distribution of assimilates. Significant chloroplast-related differences in photosynthetic performance, however, were not detected at both temperature regimes, indicating that h-chloroplasts can properly function in a variable nuclear background of L. esculentum. It is concluded that chloroplast substitution is not an effective method for breeding tomato plants with improved low-temperature tolerance