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Follicle size and reproductive hormone profiles during a post-weaning altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows
Leeuwen, J.J.J. van; Martens, M.R.T.M. ; Jourquin, J. ; Draincourt, M.A. ; Wagner, A. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2015
Reproduction Fertility and Development 27 (2015)2. - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 304 - 312.
litter size - luteinizing-hormone - allyl trenbolone - luteal-phase - weaned sows - estrus - gilts - secretion - synchronization - estradiol
This study investigated the endocrine background of follicle size changes during post-weaning altrenogest treatment. altrenogest-treated sows received a 20-mg dosage daily at 8.00 a.m. from Day –1 to Day 14 after weaning. On Day –1, only 3/13 altrenogest-treated sows showed LH pulses compared with 8/8 control sows (P = 0.001). On Day 0, control sows showed a typical high frequency–low amplitude LH pattern, indicative for recruitment of oestrogenic follicles. In altrenogest-treated animals on Day 0, half of the sows showed high frequency–high amplitude pulses from 4–5 h after weaning. In altrenogest-treated sows, average follicle size increased from 3.1 ± 0.5 mm on Day 0 to 4.4 ± 0.6 mm on Day 5, then decreased to 3.7 ± 0.5 mm on Day 7 and stabilised thereafter. FSH and oestradiol (E2) concentrations showed a distinct diurnal pattern; high at 7.00 a.m. and low at 3.00 p.m. E2 concentrations (7.00 a.m.) showed a 2.5-fold increase from Day –1 to Day 2, and subsequently a 2-fold decline to reach a plateau at Day 8. FSH concentrations reached maximum levels by Day 5 and slowly declined afterwards. In conclusion, once-daily administration of altrenogest starting one day before weaning delays the weaning-induced increase in LH pulses. Although FSH and follicle size increase until Day 5 after weaning, follicle E2 production already decreased from Day 2 after weaning. Post-weaning altrenogest treatment thus results in a follicular wave of follicles that lose oestrogenic competence at Day 2 after weaning, presumably related to the changed LH dynamics during altrenogest treatment.
Cystic ovaries in intermittently-suckled sows: follicle growth and endocrine profiles
Gerritsen, R. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2014
Reproduction Fertility and Development 26 (2014). - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 462 - 468.
luteinizing-hormone - reproductive-performance - estrous behavior - dairy-cattle - lactation - estrus - pigs - estradiol - ovulation - cortisol
This paper presents follicle development and hormone profiles for sows with normal ovulation or cystic follicles during an intermittent-suckling (IS) regime that started at Day 14 of lactation. Sows were subjected to separation from their piglets during blocks of 6 h or 12 h. In total, 8 out of 52 sows developed cystic follicles; either full cystic ovaries (n = 6) or partial ovulation (n = 2). Increase in follicle size of these sows was similar to that of normal ovulating sows until pre-ovulatory size at Day 5 after the start of separation, but from then on became larger (P <0.05). LH surge was smaller or absent in sows that developed (partially) cystic ovaries (0.4 ± 0.1 vs 3.6 ± 0.3 ng mL–1; P <0.01). Peak levels of oestradiol (E2) were similar but high E2 levels persisted in sows that developed (partly) cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. The risk of developing (partly) cystic ovaries was higher when IS occurred in blocks of 6 h versus 12 h (33 vs 10%). In conclusion, the appearance of cystic ovaries at approximately Day 20 of ongoing lactation was related to an insufficient LH surge, as is also the case in non-lactating sows.
Insulin-stimulating diets during the weaning-to-estrus interval do not improve fetal and placental development and uniformity in high-prolific multiparous sows
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1307 - 1316.
nutritionally induced relationships - pancreatic beta-cells - growth-factor-i - primiparous sows - energy-source - luteinizing-hormone - birth-weight - reproductive characteristics - follicle development - ovulation interval
Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of insulin-stimulating feed components (dextrose plus starch; fed twice daily) during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations, and on follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. During WEI, multiparous sows were isocalorically fed diets supplemented with 375 g/day dextrose plus 375 g/day corn starch (INS-H), with 172 g/day dextrose plus 172 g/day corn starch and 144 g/day animal fat (INS-L), or with 263 g/day animal fat (CON). Jugular vein catheters were inserted through the ear vein at 1.5 days before weaning to asses plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations. After estrus, all sows received a standard gestation diet until slaughter at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. The dextrose plus starch-diets enhanced the postprandial insulin response in a dose-dependent manner (e.g. at day 2 insulin area under the curve was 4516 µU/444 min for CON, 8197 µU/444 min for INS-L and 10 894 µU/444 min for INS-H; s.e.m. = 694; P <0.001), but did not affect plasma IGF-1 concentrations during the first 3 days of WEI. Follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity were not affected by the dietary treatments, nor related to plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations during WEI. Pre-weaning plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were negatively related to sow body condition loss during lactation, but were not related to subsequent reproduction characteristics. This study shows that dietary dextrose plus starch are effective in stimulating insulin secretion (both postprandial peak and long-term concentration), but not IGF-1 secretion during the first 3 days after weaning in multiparous sows. The extreme insulin-stimulating diets during WEI did, however, not improve follicle development, or subsequent development and uniformity of fetuses and placentas in these high-prolific sows (27.0 ± 0.6 ovulations; 18.6 ± 0.6 vital fetuses)
Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity: Effects of weaning-to-pregnancy interval and body condition changes in sows of different parities and crossbred lines
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Knol, E.F. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)5. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2099 - 2107.
subsequent reproductive-performance - nutritionally induced relationships - feed-intake - estrus interval - follicle development - luteinizing-hormone - conception interval - genetic-parameters - ovulation interval - oocyte maturation
Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity were studied in sows of different parities and crossbred lines in relation to 1) the weaning-to-pregnancy interval (WPI); and 2) sow body condition changes (in BW and backfat thickness) during lactation and gestation in sows with a short WPI (= 7d). At the IPG research farm, individual piglet birth weights and sow body condition (BW and backfat thickness at farrowing and weaning) were measured of 949 TOPIGS20 and 889 TOPIGS40 sows with > 4 total born piglets, inseminated between 2003 and 2011. In all analyses, mean piglet birth weight and birth weight SD and CV were corrected for total number born. Total number born was higher in sows with a WPI of 8 to 21d (+ 1.2 piglets; n = 72) and >21d (+ 0.7 piglets; n = 182) compared with sows with a WPI = 7d (P <0.01; n = 1,584). Mean piglet birth weight was not affected by WPI. Birth weight SD (- 23 g) and CV (- 1.7%) were lower in sows with a WPI > 21d compared with sows with a WPI = 7d (P <0.01). Effects of WPI were independent of sow parity. Effects of body condition changes in sows with a WPI = 7d were studied separately in TOPIGS20 sows inseminated between 2006 and 2011 (n = 808) and in TOPIGS40 sows inseminated between 2003 and 2008 (n = 747). Sow body condition loss during lactation was not related with subsequent total number born or mean piglet birth weight. Only in TOPIGS20 sows, more BW loss during lactation was related with higher subsequent birth weight SD (ß = 0.83 g/kg, P <0.01; ß = 1.62 g/%, P <0.01), and more backfat loss during lactation was related with higher subsequent birth weight SD (ß = 5.11 g/mm, P <0.01) and CV (ß = 0.36 %/mm, P <0.01), independent of sow parity. Sow BW increase during gestation was negatively related with total number born (TOPIGS20: ß = - 0.06 and - 0.05 piglet/kg BW increase for parity 2 (P <0.01) and 3 and 4 ( P <0.01), respectively; TOPIGS40: ß = - 0.04 piglet/kg BW increase (P <0.01) independent of sow parity). Sow BW increase during gestation was positively related with birth weight SD (TOPIGS20: ß = 0.63 g/kg BW increase (P = 0.01) independent of sow parity). Sow body condition increase during gestation was not related with mean piglet birth weight. To conclude, this study shows that litter uniformity is compromised by severe sow body condition loss during lactation and improved in sows with a prolonged WPI. These effects are likely related with (insufficient) restoration of follicle development
Deep RNA Sequencing of the Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome in Swimming Fish
Palstra, A.P. ; Beltran, S. ; Burgerhout, E. ; Brittijn, S.A. ; Magnoni, L.J. ; Henkel, C.V. ; Jansen, A. ; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M. ; Spaink, H.P. ; Planas, J.V. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - rainbow-trout - growth-hormone - luteinizing-hormone - profiling analysis - androgen receptor - in-vitro - expression - differentiation - pathway
Deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to provide an in-depth view of the transcriptome of red and white skeletal muscle of exercised and non-exercised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the specific objective to identify expressed genes and quantify the transcriptomic effects of swimming-induced exercise. Pubertal autumn-spawning seawater-raised female rainbow trout were rested (n = 10) or swum (n = 10) for 1176 km at 0.75 body-lengths per second in a 6,000-L swim-flume under reproductive conditions for 40 days. Red and white muscle RNA of exercised and non-exercised fish (4 lanes) was sequenced and resulted in 15–17 million reads per lane that, after de novo assembly, yielded 149,159 red and 118,572 white muscle contigs. Most contigs were annotated using an iterative homology search strategy against salmonid ESTs, the zebrafish Danio rerio genome and general Metazoan genes. When selecting for large contigs (>500 nucleotides), a number of novel rainbow trout gene sequences were identified in this study: 1,085 and 1,228 novel gene sequences for red and white muscle, respectively, which included a number of important molecules for skeletal muscle function. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that sustained swimming increased transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle and specifically an up-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth and developmental processes in white muscle. The unique collection of transcripts will contribute to our understanding of red and white muscle physiology, specifically during the long-term reproductive migration of salmonids.
Timing of lactational oestrus in intermittent suckling regimes: Consequences for sow fertility
Soede, N.M. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M. ; Gerritsen, R. ; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Animal Reproduction Science 130 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 74 - 81.
conventional housing systems - dietary energy-source - 2 feeding levels - reproductive-performance - luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - extended lactation - progesterone - pigs - ovulation
Three intermittent suckling (IS) regimes were evaluated for their effects on lactational oestrus and subsequent fertility. Control sows were weaned (CW; n = 38) at d 26 ± 2 of lactation. In IS19-7D (n = 40) and IS19-14D (n = 42) sows, IS started at d 19 ± 1 of lactation and sows were weaned 7 or 14 d later. In IS26-7D (n = 41), IS started at d 26 ± 1 of lactation and sows were weaned 7 d later. During IS, sows were separated from their piglets for 10 h/day. Oestrus detection was performed twice daily without a boar and ovulation was confirmed by ultrasound once a week. In IS19-7D, IS19-14D and IS26-7D, respectively, 50%, 64% and 61% of the sows showed oestrus and ovulation during IS (P > 0.05), and, of the remaining sows, 100%, 93%, and 69% showed oestrus in the first week after weaning. In CW sows, 95% showed oestrus in the first week after weaning. Parity 1 sows were considerably less likely than older parities (23% vs. 68%) to show oestrus in lactation. Pregnancy rate of the first post partum oestrus (during lactation or after weaning) was 89% (CW), 92% (IS19-7D), 80% (IS19-14D) and 77% (IS26-7D) (P > 0.05) and subsequent litter size was 14.5 ± 0.5, 14.5 ± 0.6, 15.3 ± 0.5 and 15.2 ± 0.8, respectively (P > 0.05). Sows mated during lactation had similar pregnancy rate and litter size to those mated after weaning. Hence, ongoing lactation for the first 2–9 d of pregnancy did not negatively affect fertility. A total of 50–64% of IS sows showed lactational oestrus, regardless of the stage of lactation. Pregnancy rates and litter size were similar to control sows, and were not affected by stage of lactation at mating
The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane sulphonate treatment of adult male rats
Heng, K. ; Anand-Ivell, R. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Ivell, R. - \ 2012
International Journal of Andrology 35 (2012)3. - ISSN 0105-6263 - p. 353 - 363.
insulin-like factor-3 - in-utero exposure - gene-expression - luteinizing-hormone - rodent testis - differentiation - destruction - population - insl3 - fetal
The manner by which endocrine-disrupting xenobiotics, such as phthalates, can induce changes in the development of the male reproductive system still remains largely unknown. Herein, we have explored the application of ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to eliminate adult-type Leydig cells in the mature rat testis, leading to their regeneration from resident stem cells, as a novel system to investigate the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adult-type Leydig cell differentiation. The advantage of this model is that one can study adult-type Leydig cell differentiation in vivo divorced from the concomitant endocrine development of puberty. In these preliminary studies, we show that both DBP and/or DES, given for 2 or 4 days following EDS application, indeed affect Leydig cell differentiation in the adult testis, largely by increasing early Leydig cell proliferation and possibly thereby delaying early differentiation. In particular, on day 27 post-EDS, a time-point when the differentiation trajectory appears to be most discriminating, we observe that both DBP and/or DES cause a fourfold increase in Leydig cell density, and a significant increase in the expression of the Leydig cell-specific marker transcripts INSL3, LH receptor, Cyp17a1 and Cyp 11a1. In conclusion, both DBP and DES are able to affect adult-type Leydig cells during their differentiation to cause a significant perturbation in their ultimate functional capacity.
Split-weaning Before Altrenogest Synchronization of Multiparous Sows Alters Follicular Development and Reduces Embryo Survival
Leeuwen, J.J.J. van; Verhoeven, M. ; Heden-van Noort, I. van; Kranenbarg, S. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)4. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 530 - 536.
primiparous sows - progestagen treatment - luteinizing-hormone - bovine oocytes - ovulation rate - litter size - estrus - follicles - gilts - pregnancy
This study used split-weaning (SW) to induce differences in follicle size at weaning and study its consequences for follicle development during and after post-weaning altrenogest feeding and for reproductive performance. Multiparous sows (n = 47) were assigned to SW (n = 23; litter size reduced to the six smallest piglets 3 days before weaning) or control (C; n = 24; normal weaning). Altrenogest (20 mg/day) was fed to all 47 sows from Day -1 till Day 5 (complete weaning = Day 0). Follicle size on Day 1, 2 and 8 was smaller in C than in SW (p = 0.05). Ovulation rate was similar, but C sows had higher embryo survival rate (ESR) than SW sows (83 ± 19 and 58 ± 31%, respectively; p = 0.001). SW sows with low ESR (63%; n = 10; p = 0.04). A decrease in follicle size between Day 5 and 6 of altrenogest feeding was associated with increased ESR in both treatments (p = 0.002). Follicle pool analyses (assessment of all follicles >2 mm) revealed that on Day 3, sows with low ESR had a higher % of follicles >5 mm compared with sows with high ESR (30% vs 10%; p = 0.04). Thus, sows in which follicle growth was less suppressed during altrenogest feeding had a lower ESR. These effects on follicle development and ESR were more pronounced in split-weaned sows.
Nutritionally Induced Relationships Between Insulin Levels During the Weaning-to-Ovulation Interval and Reproductive Characteristics in Multiparous Sows: II. Luteal Development, Progesterone and Conceptus Development and Uniformity
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)1. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 62 - 68.
uterine protein secretion - dietary energy-source - piglet birth-weight - primiparous sows - embryo survival - feed-intake - luteinizing-hormone - gilts - size - growth
Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating improve piglet uniformity. We studied effects of nutritionally induced differences in insulin levels during the weaning-to-ovulation interval (WOI) on luteal development, progesterone secretion and pre-implantation conceptus development and uniformity (d10). To create insulin contrasts, 32 multiparous sows were fed either a dextrose plus lactose containing diet (each 150 g/day) at 4 h intervals (DL treatment) or an isocalorically control diet (containing soybean oil) at 12 h intervals (CTRL treatment) during the WOI. After ovulation, all sows received a standard gestation diet at 12 h intervals. Ovulation rate, plasma progesterone levels, pregnancy rate and embryo survival did not differ between treatments. CTRL sows had a higher total luteal weight (11.2 vs 9.7 g; p = 0.03) than DL sows. Conceptus diameter at d10 of pregnancy tended to be larger in CTRL sows (diameter: 7.1 vs 6.4 mm; p = 0.07). Conceptus uniformity was not influenced by treatment. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) and mean insulin during the WOI were positively related with mean progesterone (ß values were 0.78 (ng/ml)/1000 µU and 0.14 (ng/ml)/(µU/ml) for AUC and mean, respectively; p <0.05) and maximal progesterone (ß values were 1.46 (ng/ml)/1000 µU and 0.27 (ng/ml)/(µU/ml) for AUC and mean, respectively; p <0.05) levels during the first 10 days of pregnancy, but not with conceptus development and uniformity. In conclusion, high insulin levels during the WOI seem to be beneficial for progesterone secretion in sows, probably mediated through beneficial effects of insulin on follicle development.
Effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-I levels in multiparous sows
Wientjes, J.G.M. ; Soede, N.M. ; Aarsse, F. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96 (2012)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 494 - 505.
growth-factor-i - volatile fatty-acid - primiparous sows - energy-source - luteinizing-hormone - incretin responses - physical-activity - lactase activity - embryo survival - estrus interval
Effects of different carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were compared to subsequently be able to study effects of insulin-stimulating diets on follicle development in sows. The following feed components were tested in 12 sows during six consecutive test periods of 9.5 days: dextrose (DEX), sucrose (SUC), lactose (LAC), dextrose plus lactose (DL), sucrose plus lactose (SL), dextrose plus sugarbeet pulp (DSBP) and control (CON). On day 2, 5 and 9 of each test period, plasma glucose (only at day 9), insulin and IGF-I profiles were determined. Despite similar glucose profiles for all diets, the postprandial insulin response was higher for DL and SL compared with CON and LAC; the other diets were intermediate. Plasma IGF-I levels were higher in CON, LAC and SL compared with DSBP, but differences were only marginal. It was concluded that dextrose and sucrose have the potential to stimulate fast and high insulin peaks, especially when combined with additional lactose. Despite the high dextrose in the DSBP diet, the insulin response was flattened, probably due to the viscosity of sugarbeet pulp. The results show that modulation of plasma insulin levels by dietary carbohydrates seems possible in anabolic sows, but IGF-I levels are less easily modified.
Influence of temperature regime on endocrine parameters and vitellogenesis during experimental maturation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) females
Perez, L. ; Penaranda, D.S. ; Dufour, S. ; Baloche, S. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M. ; Asturiano, J.F. - \ 2011
General and Comparative Endocrinology 174 (2011)1. - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 51 - 59.
messenger-rna levels - glycoprotein hormone alpha - goldfish carassius-auratus - trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - induced sexual-maturation - conger conger-myriaster - ii-beta subunits - japanese eel - luteinizing-hormone - artificial maturation
We examined the effect of temperature in European silver eels during their maturation induced by injections of carp pituitary extract on endocrine parameters: pituitary fshß and lhß expression, plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin, estrogen receptor 1 (esr1), and vitellogenin 2 (vtg2) expression in liver. A variable thermal regime (T10) that increased from 10° to 14° and 17°C was compared with a constant 20°C regime (T20) during 12weeks. T10 caused a faster development until week 8, higher fshß, lhß, esr1 expression, and higher E2 levels. The results strongly suggest that T10 is inducing a higher endogenous FSH level which increases the E2 circulating level during vitellogenesis. A variable thermal regime induced an fshß expression and E2 profile in vitellogenic hormonally matured eel females that were more similar to the profile observed in other naturally maturing fish
Variation in LH pulsatility during 24 h after a postweaning altrenogest treatment in relation to follicle development in primiparous sows
Leeuwen, J.J.J. van; Martens, M.R.T.M. ; Jourquin, J. ; Draincourt, M.A. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2011
Animal Reproduction Science 126 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 101 - 107.
luteinizing-hormone - allyl trenbolone - ovarian-function - lactating sows - ovulation rate - luteal-phase - protein loss - litter size - estrus - gilts
This study assessed pulsatile release of LH during altrenogest treatment after weaning in primiparous sows and related this to follicle development, estrus and ovulation rate. Weaned sows (n = 10) received altrenogest 20 mg/day from D-1 to D13 (weaning = D0) at 0800 h. On D13, blood samples were collected every 12 min from 1000 until 1900 h (1st sampling period) and from 2300 h until 0800 h (2nd sampling period). During the 1st sampling period, LH concentrations remained low and no LH pulses were detected in 8/10 sows. During the 2nd sampling period, average and basal LH concentrations (P <0.04) and frequency of pulses (P <0.0001) were higher than during the 1st sampling period. Sows with short vs. long intervals to estrus (
Reproductive cycles in pigs
Soede, N.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2011
Animal Reproduction Science 124 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 251 - 258.
growth-factor-i - porcine corpora-lutea - dietary energy-source - 2 feeding levels - luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - follicular development - estrous-cycle - ovulation rate - pulsatile release
The oestrous cycle in pigs spans a period of 18–24 days. It consists of a follicular phase of 5–7 days and a luteal phase of 13–15 days. During the follicular phase, small antral follicles develop into large, pre-ovulatory follicles. Being a polytocous species, the pig may ovulate from 15 to 30 follicles, depending on age, nutritional status and other factors. During the luteal phase, follicle development is less pronounced, although there is probably a considerable turnover of primordial to early antral follicles that fail to further develop due to progesterone inhibition of gonadotrophic hormones. Nevertheless, formation of the early antral follicle pool during this stage probably has a major impact on follicle dynamics in the follicular phase in terms of number and quality of follicles. Generally, gilts are mated at their second or third estrous cycle after puberty. After farrowing, pigs experience a lactational anoestrus period, until they are weaned and the follicular phase is initiated, resulting in oestrus and ovulation 4–7 days after weaning. This paper describes the major endocrine processes during the follicular and luteal phases that precede and follow ovulation. The role of nutrition and metabolic status on these processes are briefly discussed
Cortisol profiles in sows submitted to an intermittent suckling regime compared with that of abruptly weaned sows
Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Gerritsen, R. ; Nes, A. van; Langendijk, P. - \ 2010
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 45 (2010)3. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 377 - 382.
to-estrus interval - luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - stress - reproduction - lactation - ovulation - piglet
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in cortisol levels in sows around the time of separation from their piglets, in two different intermittent suckling regimes, compared with that in conventionally weaned sows. Sows were either weaned at 21 days of lactation (CONT) or subjected to an intermittent suckling regime (IS) from 14 days of lactation onwards. Sows in the IS regimes were separated from their piglets for 12 h every day, either from 08:00 to 20:00 hours (IS12) or from 08:00 to 14:00 hours and 20:00 to 02:00 hours (IS6). Separation caused a transient increase in cortisol levels on the first (CONT and IS12) and second (IS12) day of separation, compared with a gradual decline from early morning when the sows were still continuously suckling. In IS6 sows, in contrast, the transient rise in cortisol levels after separation at 08:00 hours was observed on the first 3 days and also on day 7 of the IS regime. Cortisol parameters were correlated with peri-ovulatory characteristics like onset of oestrus, onset of the LH surge and time of ovulation. Onset of the LH surge was delayed in IS6 sows. In conclusion, increase in cortisol levels as a consequence of separation of sows and piglets, is an acute, incidental phenomenon in IS12 and CONT sows, but shows a repeated acute elevation in IS6 sows, possibly placing IS6 sows at a higher risk of influencing peri-ovulatory processes and developing cystic follicles
Effect of dietary lysine supplement on the performance of Mong Cai sows and their piglets
Pham, K.T. ; Duc, N. le; Hendriks, W.H. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)3. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 385 - 395.
subsequent reproductive-performance - primiparous lactating sows - nursing large litters - feed-intake - body-composition - 1st-litter sows - protein concentration - luteinizing-hormone - digestible lysine - nitrogen-balance
The objective of this study was to determine optimal lysine requirement of lactating Mong Cai sows and their piglets. An experiment was conducted using 30 Mong Cai sows in a factorial randomized design with 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 1.0 and 1.15%) for one-week pre-partum and 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.75, 0.90, 1.05 and 1.2%) for lactation diets. Mong Cai sows were about 1 to 2 years old and had an initial body weight of 120 kg (sd = 2.5) after farrowing. Sows were restrictively fed 1.7 kg feed during gestation and were fed ad libitum during lactation. Diets of sows contained about 12% CP during pregnancy and about 14% CP for the lactation period. DE concentration of the diets ranged between 12.5-13.0 MJ of DE. Water was supplied at up to 8 liters per sow per day in a basin. Studied traits were related to both sows and their progeny. Sows were weighed at 107 days of gestation, after farrowing and at weaning. Sow back-fat depth was measured at 110 days of gestation, after farrowing, at 21 days of lactation and at weaning. Number of piglets born, at 24 h after birth, at 21 days of age and at weaning were recorded. Piglets were weighte at birth, at 21 days and at weaning. Supplying lysine one week pre-partum had no effect on the number of piglets born nor litter weight at birth (p = 0.776 and p = 0.224). A positive effect of increasing dietary lysine level during lactation from 0.60 to 1.20% was observed with regard to less sow weight loss, and increased piglet weight at 21 days and at weaning. The level of lysine that resulted in the lowest sow backfat loss and the highest weaned piglet weight was 1.05%; this may be the optimum level of lysine for the diet of lactating Mong Cai sows. At this lysine level, the number of weaned piglets was also highest.
Effects of Dextrose Plus Lactose in the Sows Diet on Subsequent Reproductive Performance and within Litter Birth Weigt Variation
Brand, H. van den; Enckevort, L.C.M. van; Hoeven, E.M. van der; Kemp, B. - \ 2009
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44 (2009)6. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 884 - 888.
to-estrus interval - luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - preweaning survival - embryo survival - ovulation rate - energy-source - feed-intake - insulin - growth
Effects of dextrose plus lactose in sow's feed were tested on subsequent reproductive performance and within litter birth weight variation. During the last week of gestation and lactation, sows were either fed a commercial lactation diet (Control: C), or an isocaloric diet containing 25 g/kg dextrose plus 25 g/kg lactose (Treatment: T). In the subsequent weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI), all sows received the same amount of a commercial feed, but T sows were supplemented with 150 g dextrose plus 150 g lactose per day. Weight and backfat changes were recorded as well as litter characteristics during the treatment period and the subsequent parity. No significant effect of treatment was found on the subsequent reproductive performance, including the number of piglets born, although the number of live born piglets was 0.51 larger (p = 0.31) and weight of the live born piglets was 84 g higher in the T sows (p = 0.07) than in the C sows. When sows were categorized in sows with 12 or less and more than 12 total born piglets in the previous litter, treatment of sows with dextrose plus lactose resulted for the group with 12 or less piglets in a strong increase in subsequent total born piglets (13.97), whereas in the untreated sows the subsequent litter size was 11.89. In the group with more than 12 total born piglets, no effect of treatment was found (interaction between previous litter size and treatment p = 0.03). The within litter variation in birth weight in the subsequent litter was numerically lower in the T sows. We concluded that the use of dextrose and lactose during lactation and WEI seems to enhance litter size in sows with low previous litter size and seems to have the potential to reduce the within litter variation in birth weight.
Prenatal induced chronic dietary hypothyroidism delays but does not block adult-type Leydig cell development
Rijntjes, E. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Swarts, H.J. - \ 2009
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 296 (2009)2. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E305 - E314.
rat sertoli cells - thyroid-hormone - neonatal-hypothyroidism - luteinizing-hormone - testicular development - postnatal-development - interstitial-cells - iodine deficiency - prepubertal rat - testis
Transient hypothyroidism induced by propyl-2-thiouracyl blocks postpartum Leydig cell development. In the present study, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on the formation of this adult-type Leydig cell population were investigated, using a more physiological approach. Before mating, dams were put on a diet consisting of an iodide-poor feed supplemented with a low dose of perchlorate and, with their offspring, were kept on this diet until death. In the pups at day 12 postpartum, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were increased by 20-fold, whereas thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine levels were severely depressed, confirming a hypothyroid condition. Adult-type progenitor Leydig cell formation and proliferation were reduced by 40¿60% on days 16 and 28 postpartum. This was followed by increased Leydig cell proliferation at later ages, suggesting a possible slower developmental onset of the adult-type Leydig cell population under hypothyroid conditions. Testosterone levels were increased 2- to 10-fold in the hypothyroid animals between days 21 and 42 postpartum compared with the age-matched controls. Combined with the decreased presence of 5-reductase, this implicates a lower production capacity of 5-reduced androgens. In 84-day-old rats, after correction for body weight-to-testis weight ratio, plasma insulin-like factor-3 levels were 35% lower in the hypothyroid animals, suggestive of a reduced Leydig cell population. This is confirmed by a 37% reduction in the Sertoli cell-to-Leydig cell ratio in hypothyroid rats. In conclusion, we show that dietary-induced hypothyroidism delays but, unlike propyl-2-thiouracyl, does not block the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population
The Histone Deacetylase SIRT1 Controls Male Fertility in Mice Through Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadotropin Signaling
Teerds, K.J. ; Kolthur-Seerharam, U. ; Rooij, D.G. de - \ 2009
Biology of Reproduction 80 (2009)2. - ISSN 0006-3363 - p. 384 - 391.
follicle-stimulating-hormone - luteinizing-hormone - targeted disruption - calorie restriction - male reproduction - gene-expression - leydig-cells - growth-hormone - knockout mice - receptor gene
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis development appears normal in Sirt1¿/¿ mice. In contrast, the first round of spermatogenesis arrests before the completion of meiosis with abundant apoptosis of pachytene spermatocytes, abnormal Leydig and Sertoli cell maturation, and strongly reduced intratesticular testosterone levels. We show that this phenotype is the consequence of diminished hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone expression and strongly reduced luteinizing hormone levels. Rather than having an intrinsic effect on male germ cells per se, our results show that SIRT1 regulates spermatogenesis at postnatal stages by controlling hypothalamus-pituitary gonadotropin (HPG) signaling. In addition to its well studied role in control of metabolism and energy homeostasis, our results thus reveal a novel and critical function of SIRT1 in controlling HPG signaling. This phenotype is more severe than those previously described using mice bred on different genetic backgrounds, and highlights the fact that SIRT1 function is strongly modified by other genetic loci
LH and FSH secretion, follicle development and oestradiol in sows ovulating or failing to ovulate in an intermittent suckling regimen
Langendijk, P. ; Dieleman, S.J. ; Dooremalen, C. van; Foxcroft, G.R. ; Gerritsen, R. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Soede, N.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2009
Reproduction Fertility and Development 21 (2009)2. - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 313 - 322.
luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - stimulating-hormone - lactating sows - litter separation - boar exposure - feeding level - estrus - expression - prolactin
The present paper describes LH and FSH secretion, follicle development and ovulation in sows that were subjected to a limited nursing regimen. From Day 14 of lactation, 32 sows were separated from their piglets for 12 h every day (intermittent suckling; IS). Half the sows had boar contact during separation. Nine of 32 sows ovulated spontaneously within 14 days from initiation of IS. The frequency of LH pulses on the first day of IS tended to be higher in anovulatory sows (6.3 v. 4.2 pulses per 12 h; P <0.10); other characteristics of LH secretion were similar to sows that ovulated. The characteristics of FSH secretion did not differ over the 8-h sampling period. Boar contact did not influence either LH and FSH secretion or the number of sows that ovulated. Up to 58% of anovulatory sows showed an increase in follicle size after initiation of IS and, 4 days after the initiation of IS, one-third still had follicles similar in size to those in ovulatory sows. However, the oestradiol concentration in anovulatory sows did not increase. We conclude that FSH and LH stimulation in anovulatory sows is not limiting for normal follicle development, but that ovarian follicles are not responsive to increased LH secretion
Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy
Gerritsen, R. ; Soede, N.M. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Langendijk, P. ; Dieleman, S.J. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2009
Theriogenology 71 (2009)3. - ISSN 0093-691X - p. 432 - 440.
luteinizing-hormone - extended lactation - reproductive tract - primiparous sows - ovulation rate - progesterone - prolactin - gilts - pigs - lh
Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this was due to: (1) stage of lactation when IS was initiated, and (2) continuation of IS post-ovulation. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were studied under three conditions: conventional weaning at Day 21 of lactation (C21; n = 30), intermittent Suckling from Day 14 of lactation (IS 14; it = 32), and intermittent suckling from Day 21 of lactation (IS21; It = 33). Sows were separated from piglets for 12 h daily during IS. IS sows were either weaned at ovulation or 20 d following ovulation. One-third (21/63) of the IS21 and C21 sows had already ovulated or had large pre-ovulatory follicles at Day 21 and were excluded from further study. Initiation of IS at Day 14 instead of Day 21 of lactation tended to reduce P4 at 7 d post-ovulation (P = 0.07), did not affect pregnancy rate, and tended to reduce embryo survival (P = 0.06). Continuation of IS during pregnancy resulted in lower P4 at 7 and 12 d post-ovulation. tended to reduce embryo weight and pregnancy rate (P <0.10), whereas embryo survival was not affected. This study presents data for a population of sows in which follicle growth and ovulation are easily triggered under suckling conditions. Further, when these sows are bred during lactation, initiation of IS at 21 rather than 14 d of lactation with weaning at ovulation yields the most desirable reproductive performance. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.