Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms
Rutten, C.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen; Michel Nielen, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431934 - 232
dairy cattle - dairy farms - sensors - reproduction - reproductive behaviour - animal health - calving - activity - management - dairy farming - technology - agricultural economics - melkvee - melkveebedrijven - voortplanting - voortplantingsgedrag - diergezondheid - kalven - activiteit - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - technologie - agrarische economie

Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. Some sensors like activity meters, electrical conductivity, weight floors and somatic cell count sensors are commercially available. Adoption has in general been low and mainly driven by the AMS, with a clear exception for estrus detection. In practice, the economic benefits of using sensor systems has not been proven. So, to make sensors live up to their full potential there is a need for research to shift from technical development towards practical applications and integration with operational farm management. Estrus detection sensors can have a good detection performance and are currently applied by farmers in practice, therefore this thesis focusses on sensors that support reproductive management. The main objective of this thesis is to study the utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms. This main objective was split in five sub objectives that each study a part of the main objective and were discussed in the separate chapters of this thesis.

We demonstrated that utility of sensors for reproductive management can be found in economic benefits (estrus and calving detection), reduction of labor (calving and estrus detection) and more detailed management information (prognosis of insemination success). So, automated estrus detection aids reproductive management.

From this thesis the following conclusions can be drawn:

The developed theoretical framework describes four levels of sensor development, which should all be included in proper development of sensor systems. The literature review showed that no studies developed sensor systems with regard to management and decision support.

It was possible to improve the prediction of the start of calving compared to a model that only uses the expected calving date. However, predicting the start of calving within an hour was not possible with a high sensitivity and specificity.

There was financial merit in the use of calving detection, because the sensor system enables more timely intervention by the farmer. The uncertainty about the positive effects was large, which caused a wide range in the simulated financial benefits.

Investment in a sensor for estrus detection was on average profitable with a return on investment of 11%. Profitability was influenced most by the heuristic culling rules and the expected increase of the estrus detection rate between detection by visual observation and the sensor.

Routinely collected farm data can be used to estimate a prognosis on insemination success and be used to determine whether an individual cow has a higher or lower than average likelihood of insemination success. Integration of this prognostic model with an estrus detection sensor has potential.

Currently farmers only adopt sensors for estrus detection or because they were standard with an AMS. A reason for this is that sensor systems do not produce clear information for farmers. Sensor technology should be focused on management support of applications. Labor benefits of sensors are important for adoption of sensors by farmers, farmers value flexibility, increased family time and less physical workload as benefits. However, economic evaluations of technical solutions are unable to quantify these benefits. Sensor research should consider the preference of farmers regarding labor. For the appraisal of sensor technology new methods to value labor benefits of sensor are needed. Furthermore, in sensor development societal acceptance should be an important consideration. Animal rights activists may frame the use of sensors as a form of industrialized farming. Only using technical arguments and considerations to explain the benefits of sensors will hamper the societal acceptance of modern dairy farming. Application of sensors on dairy farms should be communicated smartly to society in terms that relate the values of citizens.

Learning and corporate social responsibility : a study on the role of the learning organization, individual competencies, goal orientation and the learning climate in the CSR adaptation process
Osagie, Eghe Rice - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Vincent Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579774 - 166
learning - corporate social responsibility - competences - sustainability - change - organization - management - leren - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bevoegdheden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verandering - organisatie - bedrijfsvoering

People and other organisms depend on natural resources such as fresh water, land, clean air, wood, and food for critical life requirements and wellbeing. It is well documented that today’s Western way of living and the spread of capitalism is having a detrimental impact on societies and the natural environment. As one of the greatest users of natural and human recourses, many companies have started doing their part in the journey toward Earth’s sustainability and are actively working on translating the idea of sustainable development (SD) into reality. Companies often address SD through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. CSR refers to as a company’s continuing commitment to integrate ecological, social, and economic interests in company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders. This commitment is usually done on a voluntary basis (Dahlsrud, 2008).

This PhD thesis aims to provide a better understanding of how the CSR adaptation process in private companies can be supported, which is of particular importance and interest since the economic interests (i.e., business case logic) of private companies often clash with CSR objectives. Consequently, adapting to CSR principles can be quite challenging for these companies. Many scholars have attempted to identify factors that can facilitate the CSR adaptation process. However, though any large-scale organizational change requires employees to learn new ways of doing their jobs, the role of learning or human resource development in CSR adaption has remained largely unexplored in the CSR literature. This PhD thesis contributes to this line of research by answering the following research question: Which internal resources related to learning at the organizational and individual level contribute to the CSR adaptation process in private companies?

With respect to the organizational level, we found that certain learning organization characteristics can support the CSR adaptation process. We found that stimulating group learning, leadership that encourages learning, and connecting to the local communities are LO characteristics that can directly influence CSR adaptation in a positive way.

With respect to the individual level, we found that CSR managers, those managing the CSR adaptation process, need specific individual competencies in order to do their jobs effectively. We identified eight distinct individual competencies (e.g., Balancing personal ethical values and business objectives). We also found that CSR managers have different job roles in the CSR adaptation process. We identified six of these roles (e.g., strategizing role) and showed that the business case logic influences the relative perceived importance of specific individual competencies within each job role.

To conclude, the key message of this thesis, and the answer to the research question is two-fold. First, because CSR managers are the ones who actually manage the CSR adaptation process they can play a crucial role in the CSR adaptation process if they possess the right individual competencies. In order to develop these individual competencies, CSR managers should take ownership of their learning process and seek opportunities to learn with and from others.

Second, leadership and connecting with external parties are of particular importance to the CSR adaptation process. With respect to connecting with external parties: on the organizational level, having good relations with external parties improves CSR adaptation, because such relationships stimulate learning processes within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, relationships with external parties promote the development of the individual competencies of the CSR managers responsible for the adaptation process. With respect to leadership: on the organizational level, leadership for learning, referring to active support and stimulation of learning, indirectly affects CSR adaptation; it enhances employees’ learning behavior and therefore improve employees’ cognitive readiness and support for the changes needed to integrate CSR within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, leadership competencies are essential for driving the changes needed in the CSR adaptation process.

This thesis contributes to the literature on the CSR adaptation process in several ways. First, this thesis addresses the issue of the CSR adaptation process from a learning or human resource development perspective and as such complements previous research employing the (human resource) management perspective on CSR. Second, it addresses learning from both the organizational and individual level, thereby providing valuable insights into if and how specific internal resources related to learning can contribute at different levels to the CSR adaptation process in private companies. Third, little is known about how factors on an individual level can support companies in their adaptation to CSR principles and their social performance at large (Aquinis & Glavas, 2012). This doctoral thesis is one of the first providing insights into this matter and demonstrates that learning-related influences on the individual level may be of value to the adaptation process. More specifically, this thesis adds to the literature by (1) identifying the job roles and individual competencies CSR managers need to effectively do their jobs within private companies; previous studies on CSR-related competencies often studied this topic from an educational point of view, thereby not fully addressing the complexity of the business context in which CSR managers operate; (2) by exploring how CSR managers can develop their competencies, which up till now remained unexplored in the CSR literature; and (3) by showing how certain organizational characteristics (i.e., learning climate) and personal characteristics (i.e., learning goal orientation) affect the development of CSR managers’ competencies.

There are several implications to be derived from our research with respect to learning (activities) for the benefit of CSR. For one, developing LO characteristics may help companies create favorable conditions for integrating CSR principles. By facilitating learning, companies provide employees with the opportunity to develop their “receptiveness to change”. As such, we suggest that companies experiment with employing LO characteristics to advance the integration of CSR principles. In particular, we suggest that company’s management show leadership for learning by endorsing learning behavior among their employees as this LO characteristic in particular seems to promote the integration of CSR principles. The management can stimulate such behavior by providing employees with continuous opportunities to learn (e.g., provide formal trainings and professional development opportunities), learn in groups (e.g., stimulate team work), and learn with and from external parties (e.g., stimulate stakeholder involvement).

Furthermore, it is important for companies to set up and structure a learning system within the company that enables customized learning, meaning a learning system that provides learning opportunities that fit’s the job and needs of individual workers. Companies can enable customized learning among CSR managers by, for example, providing them with flexible working hours and fixed budgets and hours that they can use for professional development. Such a learning system promotes meaningful learning and self-directed learning behavior among employees (Baars-van Moorsel, 2003), which, according to our research, can stimulate the development of CSR-related competencies.

To conclude, we hope that this thesis will encourage more research on the role of learning in the CSR adaptation process. Our research provides ample directions to further explore this topic. Furthermore, we hope that this research will inspire CSR professionals to start a dialogue with their employers about their competencies and professional development opportunities or that it inspires them to take control of their learning process and create their own learning network in order to develop their competencies, if needed. Moreover, we hope that by developing the relevant CSR-related competencies, CSR managers will effectively manage the CSR adaptation process and that higher CSR maturity levels are reached and more ambitious sustainability challenges are successfully addressed by private companies.

Frontline health worker motivation in the provision of maternal and neonatal health care in Ghana
Aberese-Ako, Matilda - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong, co-promotor(en): G.J.E. Gerrits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578937 - 160
health care workers - motivation - organizations - management - ghana - attitudes to work - patient care - health policy - ethnography - reproductive health - child health - gezondheidswerkers - motivatie - organisaties - bedrijfsvoering - houding t.o.v. werk - patiëntenzorg - gezondheidsbeleid - etnografie - reproductieve gezondheid - gezondheid van kinderen

The health of mothers and neonates is a concern for many countries, because they form the future of every society. In Ghana efforts have been made to address quality health care in order to accelerate progress in maternal and child health and reduce maternal and neonatal mortality through the implementation of a number of polices including a fee exemption for pregnant women for antenatal, delivery and postnatal care and a national health insurance scheme among others. However these interventions have not led to an improvement in the quality of health care and concerns have been raised whether health workers are sufficiently motivated to provide health care that is responsive to the needs of mothers and children. This study set out to study motivation as an individual quality of the worker, however it became obvious in the analytical phase that motivation is an outcome of interactions between the worker and the work environment. So the research resorted to analyse and understand the various ways in which interpersonal interactions and organisational processes contribute to the motivation of health workers and quality of care in a Ghanaian hospital setting. The research tried to answer the following questions: what are the interpersonal processes that influence health worker motivation; what are the organisational and managerial processes that influence health worker motivation; how does the setup of the Ghana health sector and its associated policies influence health worker motivation and how does health worker motivation influence health worker response to client health needs? The research focused on the quality of interpersonal interaction, such as attitudes, motivation, trust and conflict, on a number of organizational characteristics such as power relations, power being defined as the ability to affect organizational outcomes, uncertainty in decision-making and the provision of resources to deliver quality health care and on wider policy-making that affects the ability of health care institutions to take care of the staff (remuneration, human resource management) and the decision-making space of health facility managers.

In order to investigate health worker motivation in a real life setting ethnographic research was conducted for twenty months in two hospitals; a specialist referral hospital and a district hospital that offer basic maternal and child health services in the greater Accra region in Ghana. Between 2011 and 2013, data was collected in mostly the maternity and new-born units of both hospitals. The researcher interacted with hospital staff including nurses, doctors, anaesthetists, orderlies, laboratory technicians, accounts officers and managers and collected data on daily activities and interactions in the hospital environment. The hospitals, which had different characteristics, were not selected for comparative purposes, but to enable a better understanding of how the organizational context influences worker motivation. Conversations were useful in helping the researcher to understand social phenomena. Interviews were conducted to explore social phenomena in depth. Participant observation was also a very important tool in helping the researcher to observe at first- hand how health care is provided in a natural hospital environment. An important source of information consisted of the reactions of hospital staff on the research and the researcher and the researcher’s emotional reactions to this, as it helped her to experience motivation, which was very useful in understanding and analysing motivational processes in the hospital environment.

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethics Review board (approval number GHS-ERC:06/01/12) and the proposal was reviewed by the Wageningen School of Social Sciences board. Written informed consent was obtained from all interview participants. Verbal consent was obtained for conversations and pseudonyms are used for the names of the study hospitals and frontline workers throughout the thesis.

Interpersonal processes including limited interaction and communication between collaborating frontline workers and perceived disrespect from colleagues and managers contributed to poor relations between frontline workers. A high number of frontline workers engaged in locum (private practice) in private hospitals. Such workers came to work late, or left early and some even skipped their official work to engage in locum practice. Workers also believed that some of their colleagues sneaked in their clients from their locum site to the hospital and charged them illegal fees, which they did not share with colleagues. Such practices and perceptions contributed to distrust relations among workers and to a poor organisational climate, which resulted in demotivation of staff, poor collaboration in the provision of health care, and eventually to conflicts. Conflicts contributed to delays in the provision of care and those who were willing to work felt disempowered, as they were unable to marshal their resources with collaborating professionals to respond to clients’ needs. They also contributed to angry and bitter workers and negative perceptions of other professional groups. Sometimes cases were postponed and on some occasions clients had to be referred to other facilities.

Organisational and managerial processes equally influenced health worker motivation in various ways. Health workers perceived distributive, procedural and interactional injustice in organisational and managerial processes as they perceived that managers were not responding to their personal and organisational needs, which compromised their ability to offer quality health care. Health workers perceived distributive injustice in the fact that they worked hard and deserved to be given incentives to offset the stoppage of bonuses that the government initially paid to workers when the fee exemption for maternal health was introduced. Workers felt their managers were not meeting the hospitals’ needs for essential medical supplies, equipment and were incapable of putting up appropriate infrastructure to accommodate workers and an overwhelming number of clients. They perceived interactional injustice because of the fact that managers did not communicate with them on decisions that affected them and that managers were out of touch with the needs of workers. They complained that they were not respected by their superiors, who shouted at them when they made mistakes, and suggested that managers and superiors did not treat them with dignity in matters of discipline. Workers further argued that managers did not care whether they had adequate workforce to support them to provide quality health care. Some felt overworked and some felt burn out.

However, managers felt disempowered at their level as well. The setup of the Ghana health sector and its associated policies remains largely centralised, so managers who are expected to meet the needs of frontline health workers and their hospitals, do not have the power to do so. They could not beef up staff numbers, since recruitment and allocation of staff to health facilities is centralised. In addition, managers received little financial support to run their hospitals. Their main source of funding was from reimbursement of funds from the National Health Insurance Authority, but reimbursement usually delayed for up to six months and they did not receive subvention from the Ghana Health Service or the Ministry of Health (MOH) to run their hospitals, so they were always cash strapped. Also the MOH, which is the body responsible for putting up infrastructure, could not meet the infrastructure needs of the hospitals. Additionally managers had to deal with conflicting policies including procurement policies that made decisions on purchasing essential supplies and drugs bureaucratic and slowed managers’ response to frontline worker and organisational needs. As a result, managers faced uncertainty in securing human and physical resources. To cope with uncertainties managers had to distribute their funds thinly among competing priorities of worker and organisational needs. At times managers had to sacrifice certain needs of workers and their hospitals in order to meet others. Consequently, workers lost trust in managers, which demotivated them in the provision of health care. Also the fee exemption policy made health care accessible to the general populace, but it did not lead to a commensurate increase in salaries, infrastructure development and increase in staff numbers. For that matter managers and frontline workers were overwhelmed with client numbers and had to turn some away. Both hospital managers and frontline workers perceived that policy makers and their superiors were not interested in how they provided care to clients or even their own safety, which demotivated them.

It is important to note that some workers were observed to be intrinsically motivated and responded to the health needs of clients, despite the fact that they faced similar challenges as those who were demotivated. Such workers explained that their sources of motivation included a belief in a supreme being, the desire to maintain work standards and others perceived that clients had a right to quality health care. Also some indicated that they derived inner satisfaction when they were able to provide quality care to clients.

Demotivation contributed to absenteeism, workers reporting to work late and some closing early as strategies to avoid collaborating with colleagues that they did not feel comfortable working with, which further worsened the conflict situation. Some workers also picked and chose to work with particular professionals. Workers exercised power negatively in two ways: 1. Some workers exhibited negative attitudes towards their colleagues, which contributed to poor interaction and poor communication. It further created gaps in clinical decision making. 2. Workers transferred their frustrations and disappointments to clients by shouting at clients and insulting them, which compromised with the quality of care that clients received. Another important consequence of demotivation was that workers got angry, some felt frustrated, and some reported experiencing high blood pressure. Consequently it affected the wellbeing of health workers who were supposed to cater for clients. Also demotivation became so deeply seated in some workers that they appeared to be beyond redemption. Some even hated the hospital environment that they worked in and others chose to leave the hospital.

For health workers to be able to respond to the health needs of clients who visit the hospital there is the need that their personal needs including demand for better terms and conditions of service, incentives and training needs are catered for. Also their organisational needs including demand for essential supplies, equipment, appropriate infrastructure among others need to be addressed. Additionally managers have to be transparent, communicate and interact more frequently with frontline workers to enable them appreciate managers’ efforts in meeting workers’ personal and organisational needs. Also for managers to be able to meet the needs of frontline workers and their organisations managers must be given the power to make decisions on human and other resources. Also managers should be supported with the necessary funds, so that they can meet the multiple needs of their workers and hospitals.

Health worker motivation in the hospital context is determined by an interaction of interpersonal and organisational processes that are shaped by external and internal influencers, who exercise power in their bid to influence organisational outcomes. Thus this study contributes to theory by propounding that motivation is not an individual quality of the worker, but it is an outcome of interactions between the worker and the work environment. Also power and trust relations within and outside the hospital influence worker motivation and for that matter theories on organisational power and trust relations are central to understanding and analysing worker motivation.

Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms
Soest, Felix J.S. van; Santman-Berends, Inge M.G.A. ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8365 - 8374.
dairy - economics - management - mastitis

Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in controlling mastitis, and these preventive costs (PC) also need to be taken into account. To estimate the total costs of mastitis, we estimated both FC and PC. We combined multiple test-day milk records from 108 Dutch dairy farms with information on applied mastitis prevention measures and farmers’ registration of clinical mastitis for individual dairy cows. The aim was to estimate the total costs of mastitis and to give insight into variations between farms. We estimated the average total costs of mastitis to be 240/lactating cow per year, in which FC contributed 120/lactating cow per year and PC contributed another 120/lactating cow per year. Milk production losses, discarded milk, and culling were the main contributors to FC, at 32, 20, and 20/lactating cow per year, respectively. Labor costs were the main contributor to PC, next to consumables and investments, at 82, 34, and 4/lactating cow per year, respectively. The variation between farmers was substantial, and some farmers faced both high FC and PC. This variation may have been due to structural differences between farms, different mastitis-causing pathogens, the time at which preventive action is initiated, stockmanship, or missing measures in PC estimates. We estimated the minimum FC to be 34 per lactating cow per yr. All farmers initiated some preventive action to control or reduce mastitis, indicating that farmers will always have mastitis-related costs, because mastitis will never be fully eradicated from a farm. Insights into both the PC and FC of a specific farm will allow veterinary advisors and farmers to assess whether current udder health strategies are appropriate or whether there is room for improvement from an economic perspective.

The tree under which you sit : district-level management and leadership in maternal and newborn health policy implementation in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana
Kwamie, A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576742 - 158 p.
health policy - birth - pregnancy - policy - management - administration - ghana - west africa - gezondheidsbeleid - geboorte - zwangerschap - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - bestuur - west-afrika

Health system governance has to do with decision-making – who makes decisions, when, where, how and why. At the district level – the level of care which operationalises health policies – governance is critical, yet remains little understood. Governance has the ability to influence health system performance, and this is essential in maternal and newborn health, where timely decisions are required to support policy implementation. In this regard, district managers are particularly important. They are the link in the middle of the health system, connecting top-end policy formulation to bottom-end implementation. Their abilities to interpret, translate, support and challenge policy will have an effect on what gets operationalised. However, capacity weaknesses in district management and leadership are often cited as a factor in poor health system performance.

This thesis seeks to deepen understandings of district-level management, leadership and decision-making for policy and programme management and implementation for maternal and newborn health. Within this, the thesis also seeks to understand the scope for change that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities can bring.

This thesis contributes to the applied field of health policy and systems research by drawing on policy implementation theory, organisational management theory and complexity theory as its theoretical basis. A realist approach methodology was undertaken to understand the contexts in which district managers are embedded, how this influences their decision-making, and what the effects of a managerial intervention are, given these contexts. The thesis followed an embedded case study flexible design. The first case study was an exploratory qualitative case study to understand how and why district managers make decisions in maternal and newborn health policy implementation. The second case study was an historical case study of district manager decision-space over time. The third case study was an explanatory qualitative case study of the management and leadership intervention. The final validation of our theorising throughout the cases was achieved through the administration of a questionnaire across all district health management teams of the Great Accra Region.

This thesis demonstrates that district managers find themselves in contexts of strong hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty – in particular, lacking financial transparency. This promotes a management and leadership typology which attunes managers towards serving the health system bureaucracy, resulting in reduced district-level responsiveness to maternal and newborn health challenges. The outcome is that district manager decision-space is narrow surrounding resource allocation decisions, and this in turn affects local planning programming and management.

The thesis further demonstrates that broader patterns of centralised governmental decision-making have affected the development of the district health system over time. Particularly, the sequencing of decentralisation processes has ensured that national-level decision-making has remained empowered in contrast to district-level decision-making. System fragmentation – through reduced Government of Ghana funds and increasingly verticalised donor funds – has also been a contributor. This accounts for the observed hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty which affects district managers. As a result of these contexts, this thesis also showed that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities was limited in its sustainability.

This thesis raises the issues of health system organisation as critical to the potential of district management and leadership effectiveness. It provides evidence that weaknesses in district management and leadership arise out of the organisational governance mismatches in autonomy and responsibility. It suggests that in strengthening management and leadership, approaches which seek to address organisational capacities, not only individual capacities, are needed to convey sustainable change. Advancements in this regard have the scope to improve district manager decision-making for maternal and newborn health policy and programme implementation in the future.

Nieuwe verdienmodellen voor de Innovatie en Demonstratie Centra
Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : WageningenUR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1386) - 36 p.
glastuinbouw - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - zuid-holland - innovaties - bedrijfsvoering - financiële ondersteuning - toegepast onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - demonstration farms - innovations - management - financial support - applied research
Within the project ‘Knowledge and Innovation IDC Westland- Oostland’ Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture examines which alternative earning models are suitable for the Innovation and Demonstration Centre (IDC) in order to be less dependent on government contribution. There are various earning models, additional activities and governance issues identified, which could increase the continuity perspective of IDC. Nevertheless, representatives of the IDC and Greenport Westland-Oostland believe anyhow that public financing is desirable for knowledge exchange and dissemination. The IDCs are recommended to examine the value of the models further for their situation. The extent to which earning models can be successful for IDC may vary depending on design (thematic / sectoral), ranking in core activities and affiliation with the agenda of the private sector.
Agrimatie : alle feiten en cijfers Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw (LEI Wageningen UR )
Fernhout, C.Y. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
agro-industriële sector - landbouw - informatieverspreiding - informatie - informatiediensten - marktinformatie - kennisoverdracht - bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijven - lesmaterialen - agroindustrial sector - agriculture - diffusion of information - information - information services - market intelligence - knowledge transfer - management - farm management - businesses - teaching materials
Heel Nederland heeft te maken met de agrosector: of het nu gaat om werk, voedsel of vrije tijd. Op Agrimatie.nl staan gegevens verzameld van allerlei projecten, databases en 1500 agrarische ondernemers (helemaal anoniem natuurlijk).
Waarin een klein land groot kan zijn : Reacties op Dutch Farming visie van Agrifirm
Fresco, Louise - \ 2015
agriculture - supply chain management - management - netherlands - innovations

Onder de titel Dutch Farming laat Agrifirm zien hoe agrarisch ondernemers samenwerken in de keten om tot betere resultaten te komen. Is Dutch Farming herkenbaar en is dit concept bruikbaar om de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw vooruit te helpen? We spraken met vier bestuurders in verschillende agroketens. En we legden deze vragen voor aan Louise Fresco, sinds ruim een jaar voorzitter van de raad van bestuur van Wageningen UR.

Stakeholder interactions in nuclear emergency response for the Dutch food supply chain
Asselt, E.D. van; Brandhoff, P.N. ; Twenhöfel, C.J.W. - \ 2015
nuclear power stations - disasters - food industry - management - food contamination - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - kernenergiecentrales - rampen - voedselindustrie - bedrijfsvoering - voedselbesmetting - multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking
In the Netherlands, EPAn (Unit Planning and Advice – Nuclear) assesses the radiological situation and advises the national and regional levels on protective actions. This advice is based on radiological and human health expertise provided by the Crisis Expert Team (CET) radiation. At the start of the project, CET lacked insight in the measures taken by food producers in case of a nuclear accident and communication with these stakeholders was limited. Furthermore, experience on recovery measures was primarily focused on the first stage after an incident.
McGraze : Concept model for modern continuous stocking
Klein Koerkamp, Pim ; Li, Peiyun ; Oostdam, Marieke ; El-Din Sherif, Mohie ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 31 p.
dairy farms - grasslands - grazing - pastures - weather - management - stocking density - tools - dairy farming - melkveebedrijven - graslanden - begrazing - weiden - weer - bedrijfsvoering - bezettingsdichtheid - gereedschappen - melkveehouderij
This report analysed the modern continuous stocking system for dairy farms in the Netherlands. This system has to deal with a minimum grass height of 8 or 10cm (depending on the season) in order to obtain maximum grass production. A model should predict the available herbage mass under changing weather conditions and therefore the available fresh grass and the related amount of additional feed needed for the cows. A concept model, called McGraze, is developed for farmers in order to manage modern continuous stocking (Figure 1). McGraze consists of a grass production section and a stoking related section. The grass production section is based on an existing grass production model called LINGRA, which resulted from a literature review to be the most accurate model to predict grass production. LINGRA needs some minor changes in order to fit into McGraze. The stocking related section is key to the final hours of stocking and the related additional feeding, which are the outputs of McGraze. All values used to predict the outputs are a result of a literature study on grass height, grass quality, grass intake and the effect of stocking on grass growth.
MonQi: Toolbox for monitoring and evaluating the management and performance of smallholder farms
Duivenbooden, N. van; Beek, C.L. van - \ 2015
Alterra - 6 p.
small farms - management - farm management - crop production - fertilizer application - nutrient accounting system - pesticides - teaching materials - kleine landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - gewasproductie - bemesting - mineralenboekhouding - pesticiden - lesmaterialen
Although Integrated Soil Fertility is on the map for decades, the real implementation at farm level does not take off, with associated consequences of soil nutrient mining and insecure agricultural production. A different approach is therefore needed to monitor and evaluate current land use at farm level. We present here the M&E-tool MonQI that can provide insights in the various determining processes.
Protocol Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw : vernieuwde versie tot en met 2014
Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota 2015-122a) - 42 p.
kassen - glastuinbouw - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - protocollen - methodologie - bedrijfsvoering - kastechniek - klimaatregeling - energiebesparing - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - energy - sustainability - sustainable energy - energy consumption - protocols - methodology - management - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - energy saving
Het LEI voert de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw uit in opdracht van de Stichting Programmafonds Glastuinbouw/LTO Glaskracht Nederland en het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ). In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw wordt jaarlijks als eerste de energie-input en -output en de fysieke productie van glastuinbouwproducten gekwantificeerd. Vervolgens wordt de ontwikkeling van de energie-indicatoren bepaald. Ook wordt een jaarlijkse elektriciteitsbalans van de glastuinbouw opgesteld. Naast de elektriciteitsinput en -output wordt hierbij ook de elektriciteitsproductie en -consumptie in kaart gebracht. In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw word ook het effect op het primaire brandstofverbruik c.q. de energie-efficiëntie en op het fossiel brandstofverbruik c.q. de CO2-emissie door wk-installaties in gebruik door de glastuinbouw bepaald. Dit geldt ook voor de inkoop van efficiënter geproduceerde energie (restwarmte en wk-warmte van energiebedrijven) en duurzame energie.
Plan van Aanpak voor MBO 'training en opleiding' rond Smart Dairy Farming : onderdeel van BOGO project 'Sensoren in SDF 1.0: lessen voor validatie en informatievoorziening'
Lokhorst, C. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2015
Livestock Research Wageningen UR (Livestock Research rapport 934) - 14 p.
melkveehouderij - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - sensors - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding melkveehouderij - beroepsopleiding - onderwijsprogramma's - dairy farming - data collection - data analysis - management - dairy education - vocational training - education programmes
Manure management in the (Sub-)Tropics : training manual for extension workers
Teenstra, E.D. ; Buisonjé, F.E. de; Ndambi, A. ; Pelster, D. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 919) - 41
dierlijke meststoffen - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding - voorlichters - veehouderij - verontreiniging - duurzame ontwikkeling - subtropen - handboeken - animal manures - management - training - extension agents - livestock farming - pollution - sustainable development - subtropics - handbooks
Having identified a general lack of knowledge about the value of livestock manure and integrated manure management at multiple levels in government and society, a concerted action led to the compilation of a training manual for extension workers on manure management in the (sub-)tropics. Covering the whole manure chain, from animal excretion to the final application, the manual describes the basic principles of integrated manure management. Although much information originates from more temperate regions, the manual focusses on farm practices in the tropics and subtropics.
Goede bodem voor nieuwe generatie : PPO 't Kompas en Kooyenburg
Hoekzema, G.A. - \ 2015
Akker magazine 11 (2015)5. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 34 - 37.
proeven op proefstations - akkerbouw - bedrijfsvoering - proefstations - station tests - arable farming - management - experimental stations
Praktijkonderzoekbedrijven zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de Nederlandse akkerbouw. Maar wat betekenen deze bedrijven voor de sector? Akker neemt de komende maanden een kijkje in de keuken van de proefboerderijen in Nederland. In dit nummer de proefbedrijven ’t Kompas en Kooijenburg in Noordoost-Nederland, regiobedrijven van PPO/PRI, onderdeel van Wageningen Universiteit. Twee kenniscentra op zoek naar optimale mogelijkheden voor bodem en gewas. Interview met bedrijfsleider Gerard Hoekzema.
The growth of academic spin-offs : the management team’s absorptive capacity and facilitator support
Khodaei, H. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Emiel Wubben; Victor Scholten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574885 - 148
ondernemerschap - universiteiten - ondersteunende maatregelen - bedrijfsvoering - teams - prestatieniveau - entrepreneurship - universities - support measures - management - performance

The Growth of Academic Spin-offs

The Management Team’s Absorptive Capacity and Facilitator Support

Academic spin-offs are defined as new start-up firms that commercially exploit research developed within an academic environment to the benefit of economic, social, and regional development. These start-ups can be initiated by university employees, students or graduates, but also by external individuals grasping the opportunity to bring new knowledge to the market.

Academic spin-offs often face difficulties in translating their initial idea to a business opportunity. In this thesis it is proposed that academic spin-offs can overcome these challenges by enhancing their absorptive capacity and by taking advantage of the guidance and resources provided by supporting organizations. Our findings can assist Academic spin-offs founders to develop their management team capabilities. They can also help university facilitators to optimize their support activities and policy makers to optimize the regional innovation ecosystem.

Veel innovatiekracht in onze regio
Tramper, M. - \ 2015
Akker magazine 11 (2015)8. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 36 - 39.
toegepast onderzoek - proefbedrijven - proefboerderijen - rassenproeven - akkerbouw - zuid-holland - zware kleigronden - bedrijfsvoering - groenteteelt - innovaties - applied research - pilot farms - experimental farms - variety trials - arable farming - clay soils - management - vegetable growing - innovations
Praktijkonderzoekbedrijven zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de Nederlandse akkerbouw. Maar wat betekenen deze bedrijven voor de sector? Akker neemt een kijkje in de keuken van de proefboerderijen in Nederland. In dit nummer proefbedrijf Westmaas: een agrarisch onderzoekscentrum in een innovatieve regio. PPO Westmaas is onderdeel van Wageningen UR
Food for thought : BOGO-ondersteuning CoE Food – Voeding en gezondheid
Dagevos, H. ; Bakker, H.C.M. de - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 27
onderwijs - beleid inzake voedsel - lesmaterialen - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bedrijfsvoering - voeding en gezondheid - voedsel - education - food policy - teaching materials - corporate social responsibility - management - nutrition and health - food
Het Centre of Expertise Food uit verschillende kennisbehoeften in de projectaanvraag 2015 die is gedaan in het kader van kennisverspreiding BOonderzoek (DLO) - groen onderwijs (BOGO). Het onderstaande gaat in op een tweetal van deze kennisbehoeften. De eerste betreft de brede behoefte in het hoger onderwijs om de actualiteit van het WRR-rapport Naar een voedselbeleid in te bedden in lesmateriaal. Deel 1 focust op de visie op voedsel zoals die vanuit de WRR is gepresenteerd. De concentratie ligt op waar het de WRR om te doen is. De tweede betreft de kennisbehoefte op het gebied van sociaal ondernemen. Modern ondernemerschap, ook in het agrocomplex, vraagt behalve om aandacht voor de P van profit ook om de P’s van people en planet. Dit betekent dat niet alleen het eigen bedrijfsbelang belangrijk wordt gevonden, maar ook dat de belangen van de sociale en natuurlijke omgeving bij de bedrijfsvoering worden betrokken en erdoor gediend worden. De uitwerking die hieronder aan beide delen is gegeven, bedoelt een basis te leggen voor verdere afstemming met kennisvragers over hun behoeften en wensen betreffende verdere doorwerking ten behoeve van het onderwijs.
How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
Van het erf naar de stad : Samen met collega's een boerenwinkel in de stad openen, hoe pak je dat aan?
Schoutsen, M.A. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Boxtel, M. van - \ 2015
Ekoland (2015)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 14 - 15.
biologische landbouw - boerderijwinkels - neveninkomsten - relaties tussen stad en platteland - houding van consumenten - klantrelaties - economische samenwerking - bedrijfsvoering - voedselproductie - marketing - multifunctionele landbouw - organic farming - on-farm sales - supplementary income - rural urban relations - consumer attitudes - customer relations - economic cooperation - management - food production - multifunctional agriculture
De boerderijwinkel is een bekend verschijnsel. Maar komt de consument wel naar je toe? Een mogelijkheid is het starten van een boerenwinkel in de stad. Waarbij je als boeren zelf de winkel runt, en zo de marge goed houdt. Samenwerkende ondernemers van de Groene Marke en de Vechtdalmarke lukt dat met winkels in Zwolle, Dalfsen en Ommen.
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