Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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Records 1 - 20 / 1918

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Waardekaarten van: Haisborough, Hammond & Winterton, North Norfolk Sandbanks & Saturn Reef
Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C009/17) - 18 p.
vissen - visserij - waarden - kaarten - natura 2000 - groot-brittannië - kustgebieden - fishes - fisheries - values - maps - great britain - coastal areas
Langs de Engelse kust staan een aantal gebieden op de UK Natura 2000 agenda voor sluiting voor de Nederlandse demersale vloot. Wageningen Marine Research bestudeerde in hoeverre de Nederlandse vloot actief was in dit gebied en hoe de voorgenomen te sluiten gebieden overlappen met voor de visserij interessante visgronden. Een grotere opbrengst (factor 3) wordt gehaald uit het North Norfolk Sandbanks & Saturn Reef gebied (dit is één gebied) ten opzichte van het Haisborough, Hammond and Winterton gebied (dit is ook één gebied). Vooral tong word in dit eerste gebied gevangen terwijl scholvangsten groter zijn in het tweede gebied. De voornaamste visgronden die interessant zijn voor de Nederlandse sector zijn niet opgenomen in de voorgenomen te sluiten gebieden, waarbij juist voor de visserij interessante delen van de totale zoekgebieden niet aangemerkt zijn als te sluiten gebied.
Ecotopenkaart Waddenzee volgens de ZES.1 typologie
Baptist, M.J. ; dert Wal, J.T. van; Groot, A.V. de; Ysebaert, T.J.W. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen University & Research rapport C103/16) - 61
marine ecology - geographical information systems - maps - wadden sea - mariene ecologie - geografische informatiesystemen - kaarten - waddenzee
In dit rapport is de werkwijze beschreven voor het maken van een actuele ecotopenkaart voor de Waddenzee, inclusief het Eems-Dollard estuarium, volgens de ZES.1 methodiek. De ecotopenkaart Waddenzee is publiek digitaal beschikbaar via ArcGIS online. Ga hiervoor naar http://www.arcgis.com/ en typ in het zoekveld: EcotopenkaartWZED. De resultaten worden in dit rapport gepresenteerd in de vorm van oppervlaktes van ecotopen in de gehele Waddenzee (PKB-gebied) en per kombergingsgebied. Tot slot is een vergelijking gemaakt met de ecotopenkaart van de situatie rond 2000 (Wijsman & Verhage, 2004). Deze vergelijking bleek niet goed uitvoerbaar vanwege verschillen in classificaties, een andere gebiedsbegrenzing (PKB-gebied) en andere basisdata (modeluitvoer).
Basiskaart Natuur 2009 : een landsdekkend basisbestand voor de terrestrische natuur in Nederland
Kramer, H. ; Clement, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 72) - 80
natuur - monitoring - landgebruik - kaarten - geodata - geografische informatiesystemen - nederland - nature - land use - maps - geographical information systems - netherlands
De Basiskaart Natuur 2009 (BKN2009) is een basisbestand waarin het areaal natuurgebied in Nederland is opgenomen. BKN2009 is een rasterbestand met een celgrootte van 25 bij 25 meter. In het bestand zijn 13 klassen opgenomen met een code en naam voor het desbetreffende grondgebruik. Het belangrijkste
onderdeel van het bestand is het areaal natuur; volgens de gebruikte definitie van natuur in BKN2009 is dit 650.374 ha. Dit omvat de klassen natuurgraslanden (code 11), heide (30), bos (40), rietmoeras (80), stuifzanden (90) en duinen, strand en zandplaten (91). BKN2009 is voor het gebruik bij monitoring nog niet gevalideerd.
Oude bosgroeiplaatsen in Noord-Holland : een GIS-bestand van boslocaties aanwezig op de Topografische en Militaire Kaart van 1850
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Dorland, G.J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2744) - 47
bossen - geschiedenis - kaarten - noord-holland - forests - history - maps
Dit rapport beschrijft en documenteert een GIS-bestand van oude bosgroeiplaatsen in de provincie Noord-Holland, afgeleid van kaartvlakken bos op de Topografische en Militaire Kaart (TMK) van omstreeks 1850. In totaal ligt er 8432 ha oude bosgroeiplaats in de provincie. Voor alle fysischgeografische regio’s in de provincie worden oude bosgroeiplaatsen beschreven aan de hand van gegevens uit het kadaster van 1832. Voor toepassing van het GIS-bestand in beleid en beheer is een vijfstappenplan opgesteld waarmee op grond van bronnen, terreinkenmerken, aandachtsoorten en kwaliteitskenmerken van de bosstructuur een oordeel kan worden gegeven over de huidige waarde van de oude bosgroeiplaats.
Global land cover map validation, comparison and integration for different user communities
Tsendbazar, N.E. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Sytze de Bruin. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577817 - 164 p.
land use - maps - geoinformation - ground cover - earth system science - remote sensing - landgebruik - kaarten - geoinformatie - grondbedekking - aardsysteemkunde

Global land cover map validation, comparison and integration for different user communities

Abstract

Observation of global-scale land cover is of importance to international initiatives, governments, and scientific communities that endeavour to understand and monitor changes affecting the environment. Various applications such as climate models, ecosystem modelling and hydrological models use a number of global land cover (GLC) maps that were produced from different initiatives. The users have different requirements regarding spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of GLC maps as well as their accuracy. For example, climate modellers typically use GLC maps at 1km spatial resolution or coarser whereas this resolution is too coarse for land change science studies to detect small-scale changes. Furthermore, to determine the fitness of GLC maps for certain applications, map accuracy assessments need to consider the perspectives of the users as confusion between certain classes can have a strong impact on specific applications whereas for other applications they are inconsequential. Therefore, generation and assessment of GLC maps needs to account for different user requirements and perspectives. This PhD research aimed to account for different user requirements in assessing, comparing and as well as improving GLC maps.

Firstly, the characteristics of current GLC reference datasets that have been used for calibration and validation of GLC maps were reviewed and analysed. Findings revealed varying GLC reference dataset suitability levels depending on the reference data characteristics, user requirements and target maps. Nonetheless, several datasets (LC-CCI, GOFC-GOLD, FAO-FRA and Geo-Wiki) were identified as generally being suitable for re-use for multiple user groups. This highlights the potentiality of GLC reference datasets for multiple uses and public access of existing reference datasets in improving the usability of the datasets outside their intended use.

Secondly, a comparative assessment of thematic accuracies of GLC maps based on an existing reference dataset was conducted. The Globcover-2005 reference dataset was processed to assess and compare Globcover, LC-CCI and MODIS maps for the year 2005. These maps were evaluated from the perspective of several user applications using a weighted accuracy assessment procedure. Overall accuracies of the maps ranged between 61.3 ± 1.5% and 71.4 ± 1.3%. The overall weighted accuracy varied between 80-92% for the considered applications. The latter accuracy is higher because confusions between some classes were deemed inconsequential for the applications considered. To determine fitness of use of GLC maps, accuracy of GLC maps should be assessed per application; there is no single-figure accuracy estimate expressing map fitness for all purposes.

Thirdly, this research assesses the spatial accuracy of Globcover-2009, Land Cover-CCI-2010, MODIS-2010 and Globeland30 in Africa using publicly available GLC reference datasets. Spatial accuracy was modelled by the spatial autocorrelation structures of the local correspondence between map and reference data. Created correspondence maps showed spatial patterns indicating zonal differences in the degree with which different GLC maps matched the reference data. The results showed the potentiality of integrating current GLC maps along with reference data to create an improved GLC map. Different integration methods including geostatistical approaches were tested and assessed by cross-validation. The integration methods based on geostatistical approach resulted in 4.5%–13% higher correspondence with the reference LC than any of the input GLC maps. An improved GLC map was presented based on the based integration method. This GLC map has 10% higher global correspondence with reference LC than the individual input maps.

Figure 1. The integrated GLC map

Lastly, the thematic requirements of different GLC map users was addressed and a concept of producing GLC maps with user-specific legends based on area fraction maps of LC classes is proposed. It is demonstrated by creating GLC maps with user-specific legends from the perspectives of land system modelling and biodiversity assessments. This PhD research demonstrates the importance of accounting for the requirements and perspectives of user applications in validating, comparing and improving GLC maps. The work also includes improving the efficient use of existing GLC reference datasets, comparative accuracy assessment of GLC maps using both the design based and model based approaches as well as presenting an integration method to improve current GLC maps to better meet different application needs.

A data-driven reconstruction of historic land cover/use change of Europe for the period 1900 to 2010
Fuchs, R. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Peter Verburg; Jan Clevers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574632 - 159
landgebruik - historisch grondgebruik - geschiedenis - geografie - kaarten - europa - land use - land use history - history - geography - maps - europe
Summary

The population in Europe almost has doubled within just a little more than 100 years. The related need for food, fibre, water, and shelter led to a tremendous reorganization of the European landscape and its use. These land cover/use changes have far-reaching consequences for many ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly drive the climate on continental and global scale. Different types of land changes lead to different changes in carbon pools. Examples are rapid carbon pool changes due to deforestation or a delayed carbon pool change from long-term uptake of carbon in re-/afforested areas. This time lag of greenhouse gas fluxes requires the consideration of present and past land use change dynamics. To assess the fluxes of present and past land use change dynamics data or model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Historic land cover/use data as input for historic land reconstructions are fragmented, hard to obtain (copyright, secrecy statuses, accessibility, language barriers), difficult to harmonize and to compare. This lack of available data limits historic land change assessments, especially on large scales. Many continental to global historic land cover/use reconstructions provide little detail of change dynamics, have a rather coarse spatial resolution and reconstruct only a few land cover/use classes. Furthermore, most of them consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes), which leads to serious underestimation of the amount of area subject to change.

This research aimed to reconstruct historic European land cover/use and its changes for the period from 1900 to 2010 addressing some of the shortcomings of previous studies. The main objective of this thesis was to explore new reconstruction methods that improve the spatial and temporal detail and reduce the uncertainty in the estimates at continental level by better using available data sources. The use of available historic data sets as input data for the reconstruction was evaluated. The main objective was achieved by providing a full representation of gross land changes at continental scale in order to capture all major land change processes and their dynamics for Europe throughout the last century. The thesis also explored the implications of those change dynamics on environmental and biogeochemical research, such as climate change research.

In chapter 2 the combination of different data sources, more detailed modelling techniques and the integration of land conversion types was investigated to create accurate, high resolution historic land change data for Europe suited for the needs of greenhouse gas and climate assessments. A method was presented to process historic net land changes consistently on a 1 km spatial resolution for five IPCC land categories (settlement, cropland, grassland, forest and other land) back to the year

1950 for the EU27 plus Switzerland. Existing harmonized land cover/use change data from census data and from remote sensing were intensively used to feed into the reconstruction.

Chapter 3 analysed how historic statistics of encyclopaedias and old topographic maps can improve the accuracy and representation of land cover/use and its changes in historic reconstructions. This study made use of historic statistics and old topographic maps to demonstrate the added value for model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Central Europe back to 1900. The added value was evaluated by performing a reconstruction with and without the historic information. The study showed that a data driven reconstruction for historic land cover/use improved the modelling accuracy in comparison to a traditional model-based reconstruction approach that more strongly relies on assumptions and proxy variables for the spatial allocation and land change trends.

Chapter 4 explored to what extent historic land cover/use reconstructions underestimate land cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900–2010 period by accounting for net changes only. Available historic land-change data were empirically analysed for differences in quantities between gross and net changes. The empirical results of gross change quantities were applied in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for Europe back to 1900. Besides, a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison was created. The two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. The gross change reconstruction led in total to twice the area change of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than the gross change reconstruction.

Chapter 5 investigated to what extent historic gross land changes lead to differences in continental carbon flux estimations compared to net land changes. Historic changes of carbon in soils and vegetation in Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 were assessed, while accounting for legacy effects and gross change dynamics with decadal time steps at 1 km spatial resolution. A net land change assessment was performed for comparison to analyse the implications using gross land change data. For areas that were in both reconstructions subject to land changes (35% of total area) the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%, and highest over forested areas. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes and systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data as compared to net land change data.

The research conducted in this thesis contributes to the improvement on historic land cover/use reconstructions and gives a harmonized, consistent ‘bigger picture’ of Europe’s land history with high spatial resolution.

Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level
Carter, S.L. ; Herold, M. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Neumann, K. ; Kooistra, L. ; Verchot, L. - \ 2015
Biogeosciences 12 (2015). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4809 - 4825.
greenhouse-gas mitigation - carbon stocks - deforestation - intensification - food - 21st-century - cropland - policies - regions - maps
Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available non-forest land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector could reduce deforestation emissions as well as reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics between 2000 and 2010. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics (97 countries) are 4.3 GtCO2e yr-1. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agricultural emissions on existing agriculture land. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, with potential for forest-sparing interventions and a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), there is a potential to mitigate 1.3 GtCO2e yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agricultural emissions as a priority for mitigation, up to 1 GtCO2e yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from implementing interventions based on national level data call for detailed investigation at the local level to inform decisions on mitigation interventions. Three case studies demonstrate the use of the analytical framework. The inherent link between the agriculture and forestry sectors due to competition for land suggests that these sectors cannot be considered independently. Our findings highlight the need to include the forest and the agricultural sectors in the decision-making process to mitigate deforestation.
Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m resolution: random forest significantly improve current predictions
Hengl, T. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Kempen, B. ; Leenaars, J.G.B. ; Walsh, M.G. ; Shepherd, K.D. ; Sila, A. ; Macmillan, R.A. ; Mendes de Jesus, J.S. ; Tamene, L. ; Tondoh, J.E. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
continental-scale - maps - classification - surveillance - management - models - carbon - trees
80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008–2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management—organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na). We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15–75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols) help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring pedological knowledge from data rich countries to countries with limited soil data.
Ruimtelijke verspreiding van mosselen en Japanse oesters in de Waddenzee in de periode 1992 - 2013
Troost, K. ; Stralen, M.R. van; Zweeden, C. van; Brinkman, A.G. - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C062/15) - 35
mossels - oesters - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - waddenzee - habitats - visserijbeleid - kaarten - ecosystemen - monitoring - mussels - oysters - shellfish culture - wadden sea - fishery policy - maps - ecosystems
Het doel van dit rapport is om de tot op heden verzamelde gegevens met betrekking tot het voorkomen van mosselbanken en oesterbanken in de Nederlandse Waddenzee samen te voegen en toegankelijk te maken voor een breed publiek. In dit rapport wordt ruimtelijke informatie gepresenteerd, zonder in te gaan op achterliggende factoren en oorzaken. Voor dat laatste wordt verwezen naar de literatuurverwijzingen zoals opgenomen. De verzamelde gegevens zijn geaggregeerd tot kaarten waarin inzichtelijk wordt gemaakt waar en in welke frequentie mosselbanken aanwezig zijn geweest. Het is daarbij goed mogelijk dat er nu ter plaatste geen mosselen liggen. De kaarten laten evenwel zien waar ze hebben gelegen en de omstandigheden klaarblijkelijk dus geschikt zijn om ze te laten ontstaan. De gebieden waar frequent mosselbanken hebben gelegen worden daarom aangeduid als ‘mosselgebieden’.
Waardekaarten Ridens & Recifs
Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C073/15) - 18
kaarten (charts) - kaarten - frankrijk - kustwateren - vergelijkend onderzoek - opbrengsten - visvangsten - schol - scophthalmus rhombus - tarbot - charts - maps - france - coastal water - comparative research - yields - fish catches - plaice - turbot
In dit rapport beantwoorden wordt een offerteaanvraag van de Nederlandse Vissersbond van 18 februari 2015 beantwoord waarin zij vroegen om waardekaarten en tabellen van de N2000 gebieden Ridens & Récifs voor de Franse kust.
Waardekaarten van: Outer Thames Estuary, Haisborough, Hammond and Winterton & Margate and Long Sands
Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C054/15) - 16
vissersschepen - engeland - kustwateren - kaarten - taxatie - demersale visserij - schol - tong (vis) - tarbot - raja - fishing vessels - england - coastal water - maps - valuation - demersal fisheries - plaice - dover soles - turbot
Dit rapport is geschreven in opdracht van VisNed. IMARES is gevraagd om waardekaarten en tabellen te leveren van alle bodem beroerende Nederlandse visserijschepen binnen de gebieden 1) Haisborough, Hammond and Winterton, 2) Margate and Long Sands voor de Engelse kust en 3) Outer Thames Estuary.
Quantitative economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests: What does it require and when is it worth the effort?
Soliman, T.A.A. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2015
Crop Protection 69 (2015). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 9 - 17.
maps - ecology - disease - system - growth
According to the International Plant Protection Convention and theWorld Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures, any measure against the introduction and spread of new pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis. Economic impact assessments are usually carried out using a qualitative approach, based on classifying the size of impact into five categories, from “minimal” to “massive”. Whilst the qualitative approach may be adequate in many instances, it lacks transparency and demonstrable objectivity. A quantitative approach for economic impact assessment may improve transparency and strengthen the justification for measures, if taken, but requires additional work, and it requires specific data and models. This paper, first, compares the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Second, it clarifies the data and models needed to conduct a quantitative economic impact assessment to support a decision on the pest quarantine status or justify management measures. Third, it identifies the criteria for choosing the appropriate level of complexity, regarding the resolution, economic technique and time frame of the quantitative approach. The greater transparency and objectivity of the quantitative vis-a-vis qualitative economic impact assessment may enhance plant health policy and decision making at national and international regulatory bodies. However, uncertainties that are inherent to this approach may weaken this position. Hence, PRAs require a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches for assessing impacts and the exact balance of the two has to be case-specific.
Rescue and renewal of legacy soil resource inventories: A case study of the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.
Cambule, A. ; Rossiter, D.G. ; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Smaling, E.M.A. - \ 2015
Catena 125 (2015). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 169 - 182.
acid sulfate soils - carbon sequestration - resurrection - uncertainty - gambia - maps
Many areas of developing countries are covered by legacy soil surveys, which, however are hardly used, as they are not available in digital form, used outdated standards, and have unknown quality. There have been very few attempts to rescue and renew these surveys, nor are there established criteria for the evaluation of their quality. We therefore decided to test the applicability of the Cornell Adequacy Criteria (CAC) to assess the quality of several renewed soil surveys in or near the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique (centroid: 23° 18' 55.57¿ S, 31° 55' 16.24¿ E), using the concepts of digital soilmapping. The qualitywas assessed formapping andmonitoring soil organic carbon (SOC), in terms of geodetic control, positional accuracy, map scale, and texture and adequacy of map legend. Metadata was attached to the renewed maps. SOC stocks were estimated qualitatively based on the description of themap units and quantitatively by themeasure-and-multiply approach fromlegacy laboratory measurements. The positional accuracy of georegistrationwas 13 to 45% of the square root of aMinimumLegible Area (MLA). Point and area-class layers could be created with high positional accuracy. However the index of maximumreductionwas high, indicating that the original publication scale could be reduced.Map unit definitions and overall information content of the surveyswere adequate. Integration of remotely sensed optical imagery and digital elevation models could be used to derive accurate contours, against which the positional accuracy of contour-basedmap borderswas assessed. Less than 30% of their lengths were within a distance equal to the square root of MLA. These sources could not be used to evaluate internal map borders, due to the subdued topography and major land-use changes since the original survey. Qualitative estimates of SOC are between lowand medium, consistent with other studies in this area. The CAC proved to be a useful framework for determining the fitness for use of legacy surveys.
Neerschalen van ruimtelijke informatie : Perceelsinformatie uit kaarten voor postcodegebieden
Brus, D.J. ; Orton, T.G. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. ; Reijneveld, J.A. ; Oenema, O. ; Knotters, M. - \ 2014
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 31 (2014)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 165 - 168.
bodemkwaliteit - organische stof - velden - landbouwgronden - kaarten - bepaling - kriging - statistische analyse - innovaties - soil quality - organic matter - fields - agricultural soils - maps - determination - statistical analysis - innovations
Kaarten kunnen informatie geven over grotere eenheden, bijvoorbeeld postcodegebieden, of nog kleinere, zoals percelen. Met een variant op een interpolatietechniek is het mogelijk informatie te verkrijgen over een kleiner gebied. We illustreren dit aan de hand van organische stofgehalten in de bodem. De methodiek is breed toepasbaar op allerlei vormen van ruimtelijke informatie en maakt een betere benutting van data mogelijk.
SoilGrids1km— global soil information based on automated mapping
Hengl, T. ; Mendes de Jesus, J.S. ; Macmillan, R.A. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Carvalho Ribeiro, E.D. ; Samuel Rosa, A. ; Kempen, B. ; Leenaars, J.G.B. ; Walsh, M.G. ; Ruiperez Gonzalez, M. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
global land areas - organic-carbon - resolution - climate - world - maps - interpolation - database - models
Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg-1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m-3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is highly automated and flexible, increasingly accurate predictions can be generated as new input data become available. SoilGrids1km are available for download via http://soilgrids.org under a Creative Commons Non Commercial license.
Een andere kijk in de bodem : bodemscanners brengen de ondergrond in beeld
Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2014
PPO BBF
boomteelt - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - organische stof - monitoring - innovaties - kaarten - precisielandbouw - arboriculture - soil management - soil quality - organic matter - innovations - maps - precision agriculture
PPO Boomkwekerij laat de bedrijfsmogelijkheden van innovatief bodembeheer zien.
Actualisatie bodemkaart veengebieden : deelgebied en 2 in Noord Nederland
Vries, F. de; Brus, D.J. ; Kempen, B. ; Brouwer, F. ; Heidema, A.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2556)
veengronden - bodem - bodemkarteringen - cartografie - kaarten - noord-nederland - peat soils - soil - soil surveys - mapping - maps - north netherlands
De bodemkaart onderscheidt allerlei bodemtypen met veenlagen ondiep in het profiel. Door oxidatie en klink neemt de veendikte geleidelijk af. Hierdoor treedt er een verschuiving op in bodemtypen; moerige gronden veranderen in minerale gronden en veengronden in moerige gronden. Vanwege deze dynamiek bij gronden met dunne veenlagen dient de bodemkundige informatie periodiek geactualiseerd te worden. Alle veengebieden in Friesland en een deel van de veengebieden in Drenthe, Groningen en Overijssel zijn opnieuw in kaart gebracht. Het project heeft geresulteerd in een veendiktekaart en een geactualiseerde bodemkaart.
Climate adaptation services for the Netherlands: An operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning
Goosen, H. ; Groot, M.A.M. de; Masselink, L. ; Koekoek, A. ; Swart, R.J. ; Bessembinder, J. ; Witte, J.M.P. ; Stuyt, L.C.M. ; Blom-Zandstra, G. ; Immerzeel, W. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1035 - 1048.
landgebruik - klimaatverandering - landgebruiksplanning - stakeholders - kennisoverdracht - land use - climatic change - land use planning - knowledge transfer - decision-support - design - visualization - thinking - tools - maps - gap
There is a growing availability of climate change information, offered to scientists and policy makers through climate services. However, climate services are not well taken up by the policy-making and planning community. Climate services focus on primary impacts of climate change, e.g., the disclosure of precipitation and temperature data, and this seems insufficient in meeting their needs. In this paper, we argue that, in order to reach the spatial planning community, climate services should take on a wider perspective by translating climate data to policy-relevant indicators and by offering support in the design of adaptation strategies. We argue there should be more focus on translating consequences of climate change to land-use claims and subsequently discuss the validity, consequences and implications of these claims with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place. The term Climate Adaptation Services is introduced as being a stepwise approach supporting the assessment of vulnerability in a wider perspective and include the design and appraisal of adaptation strategies in a multi-stakeholder setting. We developed the Climate Adaptation Atlas and the Climate Ateliers as tools within the Climate Adaptation Services approach to support decision-making and planning processes. In this paper, we describe the different steps of our approach and report how some of the challenges were addressed
Validatie van grondwaterstandskaarten met behulp van de Landelijke Steekproef Kaarteenheden
Knotters, M. ; Hoogland, T. ; Brus, D.J. - \ 2013
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 19 (2013)3/4. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 35 - 47.
grondwaterstand - kaarten - nauwkeurigheid - modellen - groundwater level - maps - accuracy - models
Verschillende kaarten geven de diepte tot het freatische grondwater aan. Voorbeelden zijn de kaart van de grondwaterdynamiek, en kaarten die zijn gemaakt met modelinstrumentaria zoals het Nationaal Hydrologisch Instrumentarium en de hydrologische component van Stone. Om hun bruikbaarheid te kunnen beoordelen moeten we weten hoe nauwkeurig deze kaarten zijn. In dit artikel beschrijven we hoe we een beeld kregen van de nauwkeurigheid door de kaarten te vergelijken met informatie over de freatische grondwaterstand uit de Landelijke Steekproef Kaarteenheden. Deze steekproef werd destijds uitgevoerd op de bodemkaart van Nederland, schaal 1 : 50.000.
Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity
King, A.J. ; Montes, L.R. ; Clarke, J.G. ; Affleck, J. ; Li, Y. ; Witsenboer, H. ; Vossen, E. van der; Linde, P. van der; Tripathi, Y. ; Tavares, E. ; Shukla, P. ; Rajasekaran, T. ; Loo, E.N. van; Graham, I.A. - \ 2013
Plant Biotechnology Journal 11 (2013)8. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 986 - 996.
transcriptome analysis - genetic diversity - biofuel plant - genome - oil - markers - qtl - construction - sequence - maps
Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F2 plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties.
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