Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove; Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Machiel Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden

Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.

Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.

This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.

The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.

The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?

1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?

2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?

A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.

Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.

Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.

In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.

Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.

In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.

In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.

Sea floor litter monitoring : International Bottom Trawl Survey 2016
Hal, Ralf van - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C021/17) - 60
litter - environmental monitoring - marine environment - marine sediments - surveys - north sea - ligstro - milieumonitoring - marien milieu - mariene sedimenten - karteringen - noordzee
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures taken, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring program for this descriptor includes amongst others the collection of data on the presence, abundance and distribution of litter on the seafloor. According to the Dutch program, the data on seafloor litter must be collected by statutory task fish surveys using standardized GOV fishing net, as a part of the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). This report presents the results of the seafloor litter monitoring during the IBTS survey of Quarter 1 2016. Seafloor litter data is collected annually during this survey since 2013, and the new data is presented in perspective of the data collected in previous years. This is done for the composition and the spatial distribution of the seafloor litter from the catch. The composition of the litter collected in 2016 is similar compared to earlier years; plastic and specifically rope/lines are the most dominant litter items found. The survey was again carried out on board the UK vessel CEFAS Endeavour, and the standard Dutch IBTS area including the Channel area was covered. Even though, due to a survey design based on random sampling within ICES rectangles, comparison in spatial distribution of litter as well as in estimates of the amount of litter between years is difficult. The spatial distribution of the litter seems random with small and large catches close to each other. It might be a result of small probability of actually catching litter items with a GOV trawl not designed for this purpose, or by differences in seafloor structure. It is possible to register additional habitat information and use this information in the data analysis After four years of litter sampling as part of the IBTS, inconsistencies in categorising the litter items are still found between national observers. In 2015 and 2016, close cooperation with CEFAS staff showed that these inconsistencies also exist between countries. The inconsistencies exist for a small number of subcategories, for which there is some arbitrary in how to divide items between them. Analysing the Dutch IBTS data by itself indicates a number of limitations, e.g. the spatial differences owing to a semi-randomized survey design between years, which could be overcome by combining the international data of the IBTS. This data can be found in the database developed and accessible via the ICES datacentre and combining the data is done within OSPAR.
Marine complex adaptive systems : theory, legislation and management practices
Bigagli, Emanuele - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Craglia. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431255 - 160
marine areas - marine environment - adaptation - environmental management - oceans - climate - environmental legislation - global warming - climatic change - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - adaptatie - milieubeheer - oceanen - klimaat - milieuwetgeving - opwarming van de aarde - klimaatverandering

Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodiversity. Moreover, they have a negative impact on maritime economic sectors and on the social welfare of dependent coastal populations. In order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional single-sector management, in the recent decades several scientific approaches emerged, based on the view of marine systems as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), i.e. systems where components interact in non-linear, path dependent ways, with lock-in and feedback loop mechanisms, and unpredictable effects also across scales. These approaches have been introduced into the texts of several international agreements related to marine CAS, and related management practices, with contrasting results in relation to effectiveness and integration of governance.

This thesis evaluates for the first time the current international and European legal frameworks from the perspective of marine CAS. To accomplish this objective, four research objectives are formulated: (1) Develop a framework for marine CAS assessment and management; (2) Evaluate the entire European Union (EU) legal framework against the framework developed; (3) Evaluate the international legal framework for the assessment and management of the global oceans against the framework developed; and (4) Evaluate the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into practice.

Chapter 2 develops a framework for marine CAS, based on the combination of two promising theoretical approaches: Adaptive Management (AM) and Transition Management (TM). The framework is based on the idea that AM and TM have the potential to overcome each other’s limitations, which are related to the insufficient attention to micro-level socio-economic components, and to the limited incorporation of environmental aspects into socio-technical assessments, respectively. More into detail, the proposed framework is articulated into three components. First, the two sets of marine social-ecological systems and connected socio-technical systems (e.g. fisheries, maritime transportation, coastal tourism and energy) must be clearly identified, and the complex interactions and influences between socio-economic patterns of production and consumption, and ecological components must be assessed. Second, the achievement of ecological resilience of a marine social-ecological system should be performed in coordination with transitions of unsustainable connected socio-technical systems. This implies that sustainability should be evaluated in relation to the pressures socio-technical systems generate on the ecological resilience of connected social-ecological systems, and related impacts. Third, the implementation of the two approaches should be articulated into iterative, learning- and science-based policy cycles, with mechanisms to foster coordination between the policy cycles of social-ecological and socio-technical systems. The benefits of this framework are threefold. First, the assessment of the two sets of social-ecological and socio-technical systems, taken together, allows to overcome current AM limitations and include micro-level socio-economic components into the assessment of ecological resilience. Second, by linking AM managers with established transition arenas, it is possible to overcome TM limitations and streamline the consideration of ecological aspects into the TM process. Third, by linking AM and TM policy cycles, it is possible to reduce the current legal and policy fragmentation.

Chapters 3 and 4 apply the framework proposed in Chapter 2 to evaluate the EU and global legal frameworks for the assessment and management of marine CAS. Chapter 3 presents the first comprehensive review ever realised of the entire EU legal framework, composed of more than 12,000 EU legal acts, from the perspective of marine CAS assessment and management. It concludes that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the assessment and management of EU marine CAS. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and integrate ecological resilience into the objectives of sector-based laws and policies.

Chapter 4 reviews 500 multilateral agreements, evaluated for the first time from the perspective of marine CAS. It shows that there is no international agreement aiming at the ecological resilience of the global oceans social-ecological system. Instead, the international legal framework is fragmented along two dimensions. On the one side, global agreements focus on specific objectives for determined socio-economic activities, ecological features or anthropogenic pressures. On the other side, regional agreements are in place for 18 ocean regions of the world, with a varying level of inclusion of elements of marine CAS assessment and management. The need is highlighted for a reformed global ocean governance framework, which should be based on a bio-geographical approach to the ecological resilience of the global oceans, and build on iteration, learning, and science-based advice to policy and management.

Chapter 5 evaluates the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into the practice of assessment and management of a case-study area, the Adriatic Sea. It shows the importance of the MSFD as the first policy trying to deliver a CAS approach to marine assessment and management. However, the case-study investigation confirms the three limitations of the MSFD, laying in: 1) an insufficient geographical approach, where implementation is driven at national level and the requirement of cross-border cooperation is weak; 2) the vagueness of legal requirements, and the limited capacity to include socio-economic aspects into the required assessment; and 3) an insufficient capacity to coordinate with other laws, policies and programmes at various levels of governance. Based on the identified limitations, suggestions are advanced on how to strengthen the implementation of the MSFD, both at Adriatic and EU level. These suggestions are further advanced in Chapter 6, which includes detailed proposals on how to foster integrated large-scale marine monitoring in the EU, in order to contribute to the implementation of the MSFD in an efficient and effective way, also in relation to costs.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the major findings of this thesis and evaluates the capacity of the framework to deliver a CAS approach to marine systems. It concludes that AM and TM, although holding different visions on sustainability and referring to different principles, have the potential to be put in synergy at the practical level. Further scientific research and management practices should focus on the need for AM and TM to overcome the relative isolation and foster synergies across sector-based management, in order to integrate environmental considerations into economic sectors. Suggestions are advanced to improve legal frameworks and policy practices at the global and EU level. They focus on the need: (i) to fill the gaps in the geographical scope of legal texts and to foster international cooperation at the right social-ecological scale; (ii) to increase guidance in translating complex scientific requirements into clear management objectives, and improve related data collection and sharing; and (iii) to reduce current legal and policy fragmentation through targeted, ecological resilience-based marine environmental impact assessments and maritime spatial planning. Lines for further scientific research are suggested, focusing on: (i) improving the evidence-base through additional case-studies; (ii) analysing legal frameworks and governance regimes in place for other marine social-ecological systems, like e.g. the United States of America, Canada, Australia and China; (iii) improving existing tools, or creating new ones for marine ecological resilience assessment; and (iv) developing innovative instruments and mechanisms to strengthen global oceans governance.

Tetrodotoxine (TTX) in mosselen: Accumulatie experiment verswaterleiding Kijkuit, Yerseke
Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Poelman, M. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C078/16) - 13 p.
tetrodotoxin - marine aquaculture - mussel culture - eastern scheldt - animal experiments - marine environment - tetrodotoxine - zeeaquacultuur - mosselteelt - oosterschelde - dierproeven - marien milieu
In verband met de overschrijding van de concentratie tetrodotoxine (TTX) in het schelpdiervlees van oesters en mosselen in de Kom van de Oosterschelde (inclusief de verwaterpercelen) is dit gebied eind juni 2016, evenals de noordelijke tak van de Oosterschelde, gesloten voor schelpdierproductie en als verwatergebied. Om te onderzoeken of schone mosselen tijdens het verwateren in verwatercontainers TTX kunnen accumuleren zijn schone mosselen (zonder TTX) gedurende een periode van ruim 2 weken verwaterd met verswater uit de Pijp van Bliek. Om de dag is een monster verzameld en geanalyseerd op de aanwezigheid van TTX. In alle gevallen waren de gehaltes aan TTX beneden de detectielimiet (LOD) en was er dus geen sprake van accumulatie van TTX tijdens het verwateren met het water uit de verswaterleiding.
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands : update 2015
Franeker, J.A. van; Kühn, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E.L. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C091/16) - 50
fulmarus - sea birds - wastes - water pollution - marine environment - monitoring - netherlands - zeevogels - afval - waterverontreiniging - marien milieu - nederland
PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta : ontwikkeling vis in de Voordelta na instelling bodembeschermingsgebied ter compensatie van de aanleg Tweede Maasvlakte
Tulp, Ingrid ; Tien, Nicola ; Damme, Cindy van - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C089/16) - 148
vissen - monitoring - natuurcompensatie - natuurbeheer - marien milieu - bodembescherming - fishes - nature compensation - nature management - marine environment - soil conservation
In deze rapportage worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van de bemonsteringen vanaf de T0 (2005-2007) tot na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied (2009-nu), voor zover mogelijk tot en met de resultaten van voorjaar 2013.
Food from the Sulawesi Sea, the need for integrated sea use planning
Siahainenia, Audrie J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578869 - 180
mangroves - mangrove forests - fishes - habitats - marine areas - marine environment - fish stocks - environmental management - ecological disturbance - disturbance - sulawesi - mangrovebossen - vissen - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - visstand - milieubeheer - ecologische verstoring - verstoring - celebes

Mangroves occur in the tropics and subtropics region and an important coastal habitat for the artisanal fisheries along the coast of Indonesia. Around 19% of the total mangrove area in the world is located in Indonesia. Besides providing a barrier against coastal/Delta erosion, mangrove forest plays a significant role as a nursery area for most of the marine communities. Unluckily, 57% of the ±3.2 million ha of the mangroves in Indonesia is currently in degraded, mostly because of human activities (anthropogenic disturbance). The primary sources of anthropogenic disturbances to mangroves are increasing population growth rate and demand for seafood products as an essential protein, especially the wild shrimp, in the world market. These resulted in land-use conversion along estuarine areas not only for settlements and plantations but also for aquaculture ponds. The lack of awareness and understanding of the value and function of mangrove ecosystems contributed to the loss and damage the mangroves area.

Therefore, my research and field experiment aimed to quantify the effects of human disturbance on mangroves associated trophic cascades in Indonesia estuarine areas. The study was performed in the Berau District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia between 2005 and 2010. Data of mangrove extent from 1990 in the Berau Delta was used as base data with low human disturbance. We also interviewed the artisanal fishermen about their catches, origins, and fishing locations, in relation to the total catch per unit effort (CpUE).

The results had shown that the total mangroves area in the Berau Delta decreased by 54% between the 1990 and 2009, which led to fragmentation and alteration in the structural complexity of mangroves. The field experiment conducted at three locations with different levels of human disturbances revealed that the species richness was decreased with increased the level of human interference and the marine community tended to be dominated by only a few species. In the highly disturbed areas, the catch of small-scale fishermen tended to be lower. Furthermore, the result from a spatial statistical model indicated that the disturbance of mangrove habitats was influenced the distribution pattern of shrimp. The total CpUE of small-scale fishery in the study area was relatively small, and the area was probably not overexploited.

As a conclusion, mangroves habitat in the Berau Delta played a significant role in sustaining coastal fisheries. This important ecosystem supports a primary source of marine protein. Mangrove forests can only guarantee these marine resources if the people consciously maintain its viability through a strong management policy.

The ecological effects of deep sand extraction on the Dutch continental shelf : Implications for future sand extraction
Jong, M.F. de - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han Lindeboom; P. Hoekstra, co-promotor(en): Martin Baptist. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576834 - 164 p.
sand - coastal areas - ecology - marine environment - marine ecology - aquatic ecosystems - netherlands - zand - kustgebieden - ecologie - marien milieu - mariene ecologie - aquatische ecosystemen - nederland
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2014
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C123/15) - 55 p.
marine environment - water pollution - pollution - wastes - monitoring - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - verontreiniging - afval
A review of blue carbon in the Netherlands
Tamis, J.E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C151/15) - 29
carbon - marine environment - coastal areas - biodiversity - carbon sequestration - climatic change - north sea - wadden sea - netherlands - koolstof - marien milieu - kustgebieden - biodiversiteit - koolstofvastlegging - klimaatverandering - noordzee - waddenzee - nederland
Blue carbon (the carbon stored in marine and coastal ecosystems – in biomass, buried in sediments and sequestered from the atmosphere and ocean) is considered as an issue of interest regarding its potential as a climate change mitigation measure in the OSPAR maritime area (OSPAR, 2015). Because blue carbon has not yet been properly explored in the North East Atlantic, OSPAR requested the Dutch government to provide information about blue carbon in the Netherlands and opportunities to enhance blue carbon in the Netherlands.
Sea floor litter monitored using catches of the International Bottom Trawl Survey
Hal, R. van - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C083/15) - 26
marine environment - wastes - water pollution - monitoring - marien milieu - afval - waterverontreiniging
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires from the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state and trends of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring program for this descriptor includes amongst others the collection of data on the presence and distribution on litter on the seafloor. This data should be collected by statutory task fish surveys using standardized bottom trawling gears, as used in the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). This report presents the results of the seafloor litter monitoring during the IBTS survey of Quarter 1 2015. Seafloor litter data is collected during this survey since 2013, and the new data is presented in perspective of the data collected in previous years. This is done for the composition and the spatial distribution of the seafloor litter from the catch.
User guide: Handheld hydrophone for recording cetaceans at sea (version 1.0)
Verdaat, J.P. ; Lucke, K. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES ) - 18
handleidingen - geluidsopnames - cetacea - marien milieu - opnameapparatuur - guide books - recordings - marine environment - recording instruments
Marine mammals spend most of their time underwater which sometimes makes it difficult to detect them from the surface. At the same time, most cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales) produce a variety of sounds underwater and since sound travels easily in water, these sounds can normally be picked up even at distances beyond those of visual detection. Several studies have shown that the analysis of underwater sound recordings can complement the existing research efforts to assess the presence and distribution of cetacean species in the Caribbean waters and elsewhere. We hope the system will be easy to use even by untrained personnel and robust enough to withstand the strain of being used in the marine environment. This user’s guide is intended to serve as a practical illustrated step by step users guide useful information in addition to the manual provided with every recording system.
Noise logger overview
Lucke, K. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES ) - 44
marien milieu - caribische zee - geluidsopnames - opnameapparatuur - zeezoogdieren - cetacea - marine environment - caribbean sea - recordings - recording instruments - marine mammals
In our attempt to monitor the presence of marine mammals, especially cetaceans, their acoustic activity opens the opportunity for us to eavesdrop and to study their behaviour passively through listening and detecting their sounds and vocalisations. This overview of underwater sound recording systems which can be used to study the life of the mainly cryptic marine mammal species is intended to facilitate researchers, potential funding bodies and finally regulators with information on the potential of this technique, its limitations and most importantly with technical details and a market overview.
Proximate response of fish, conch, and sea turtles to the presence of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Bonaire
Becking, L.E. ; Bussel, T. ; Engel, M.S. ; Christianen, M. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C118/14) - 35
lespedeza stipulacea - invasieve soorten - marien milieu - zeeplanten - bonaire - invasive species - marine environment - marine plants
In this report we examined the proximate response of fish assemblages, queen conch, and sea turtles on H. stipulacea meadows in Lac Bay, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Here we primarily focused on the differences between the invasive species H. stipulacea and the principal species of native sea grass in Lac Bay, namely turtle grass Thalassia testudinum.
Resultaten van het Rijkswaterstaat JAMP 2013 monitoringsprogramma van milieukritische stoffen in schelpdieren
Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, M. van - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C051/14) - 33
mossels - ecotoxicologie - westerschelde - eems-dollard - marien milieu - mussels - ecotoxicology - western scheldt - marine environment
Monitoring in het kader van het Joint Assessment and Monitoring Program van de OSPARCOM. Door RWS zijn schelpdieren (mosselen en Japanse oesters) afkomstig van twee locaties aangeleverd (Westerschelde en Eems-Dollard). De schelpdieren zijn gekarakteriseerd, waarna schelpdiervlees is verzameld voor het chemisch onderzoek door IMARES.
Assessing performance of management strategies for regional case studies
Paijmans, A.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Piet, G.J. - \ 2013
Liverpool : University of Liverpool - ISBN 9780906370858 - 65
ecosysteembeheer - marien milieu - eu regelingen - gevalsanalyse - descriptoren - noordoost atlantische oceaan - zwarte zee - oostzee - middellandse zee - ecosystem management - marine environment - eu regulations - case studies - descriptors - northeast atlantic - black sea - baltic sea - mediterranean sea
This synthesis report identified in a number of regional case studies which descriptors are at high risk of not achieving Good Environmental Status (GES). From those two descriptors where selected that would require the project to apply specific aspects of EBM in their management options to achieve the MSFD objectives. The case study areas were based on the four European marine regions identified in the MSFD; the Northeast Atlantic, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
Marine and coastal ecological potential for the economic development of Colombia
Rozemeijer, M.J.C. - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C179/13) - 16
coastal management - marine environment - ecosystem services - economics - colombia - kustbeheer - marien milieu - ecosysteemdiensten - economie
Verslag studiereis aquacultuur Spanje
Hiele, T. van der; Malta, E.J. ; Heringa, J. ; Houcke, J. van - \ 2013
Aquacultuur 28 (2013)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 20 - 27.
aquacultuur - zeeaquacultuur - marien milieu - viskwekerijen - algenteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - spanje - aquaculture - marine aquaculture - marine environment - fish farms - algae culture - shellfish culture - shellfish fisheries - spain
Zeeuwse aquacultuurondernemers zijn in januari 2013 vier dagen naar de regio Cadiz en Huelva in Spanje afgereisd om kennis te maken met de aquacultuuractiviteiten en te leren van de ervaringen daar. Deze studiereis is georganiseerd in het kader van het inmiddels afgeronde RAAK Internationaal project 'Het zoute goud', waarvan HZ University of Applied Sciences penvoerder was. De studiereis naar Spanje vormde samen met een slotsymposium de afsluiting van dit project.
Tellen en meten, de pijlers onder het weten (interview met Martin Poot, Cindy van Damme en Corina Hinrichs)
Bijnsdorp, R. ; Poot, M.C. ; Damme, C.J.G. van; Hinrichs, C.S. - \ 2013
Magazine Over de Zee 1 (2013)October 2013. - p. 27 - 31.
mariene gebieden - marien milieu - kennisvalorisatie - kennissystemen - kennisoverdracht - monitoring - strategisch management - marine areas - marine environment - knowledge exploitation - knowledge systems - knowledge transfer - strategic management
Alles wat op en in de zee gebeurt, is de moeite van het weten waard. Maar er is ook een soort kennis die niet allen nice to know is, maar ‘verplicht ‘voor elk land dat aan zee grenst. Kennis om te kunnen beoordelen of economische of maatschappelijke activiteiten schade (kunnen) toebrengen aan het milieu of het ecosysteem van de zee. Die kennis omvat veel verschillende terreinen en je kunt hem niet ad hoc even boven water halen wanneer je hem nodig hebt. Weten hoe het ervoor staat met de natuur en het milieu van de zee is een zaak van jaren achtereen, systematisch, dezelfde waarnemingen doen. Dan pas zijn trendmatige ontwikkelingen in kaart te brengen.
Marine policy research : A reflection on CMP projects 2009-2013
Soma, K. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum / LEI Wageningen UR 13-062) - 46
milieubeleid - marien milieu - mariene gebieden - environmental policy - marine environment - marine areas
Marine policy can be interpreted broadly as governmental interventions targeting any activity located in marine areas. A large share of marine policy research is related to fisheries policy and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in particular. Although the research targeting the fisheries policy is still of high relevance, a more integrated research approach that comprehends multiple sectors in marine spatial planning (MSP) simultaneously, is a new emerging field of interest often referred to in the context of ecosystem-based management. The different research approaches have in common that they deal with challenges of intensified demands for the marine areas for traditional as well as for newer purposes. New activities that are claiming marine space more recently include, for instance, nature conservation and green energy sources such as wind and waves. The main aim of this report is to provide an overview of some main theoretical and methodological contributions to the scientific literature stemming from CMP-related work. As the material to choose from is comprehensive, we have selected as the basis for the reflections relevant peer-reviewed articles that focus on marine policy issues in the area of the Dutch North Sea. The report draws on texts from various publications (References). Moreover, short descriptions of and links to relevant EU projects in which the CMP researchers collaborated - such as JAKFISH, MESMA, MASPNOSE, ODEMM, WINDSPEED and COEXIST - are provided (Appendix).
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