Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove; Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Machiel Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden

Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.

Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.

This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.

The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.

The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?

1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?

2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?

A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.

Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.

Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.

In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.

Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.

In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.

In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.

Monitoring Groningen Sea Ports : non-indigenous species and risks from ballast water in Eemshaven and Delfzijl
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Gittenberger, A. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Bos, O.G. ; Rensing, M. ; Groot, G.A. de - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C045/17 A) - 81
havens - mariene gebieden - geïntroduceerde soorten - ballast - water - mariene ecologie - harbours - marine areas - introduced species - marine ecology
Marine complex adaptive systems : theory, legislation and management practices
Bigagli, Emanuele - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Craglia. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431255 - 160
marine areas - marine environment - adaptation - environmental management - oceans - climate - environmental legislation - global warming - climatic change - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - adaptatie - milieubeheer - oceanen - klimaat - milieuwetgeving - opwarming van de aarde - klimaatverandering

Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodiversity. Moreover, they have a negative impact on maritime economic sectors and on the social welfare of dependent coastal populations. In order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional single-sector management, in the recent decades several scientific approaches emerged, based on the view of marine systems as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), i.e. systems where components interact in non-linear, path dependent ways, with lock-in and feedback loop mechanisms, and unpredictable effects also across scales. These approaches have been introduced into the texts of several international agreements related to marine CAS, and related management practices, with contrasting results in relation to effectiveness and integration of governance.

This thesis evaluates for the first time the current international and European legal frameworks from the perspective of marine CAS. To accomplish this objective, four research objectives are formulated: (1) Develop a framework for marine CAS assessment and management; (2) Evaluate the entire European Union (EU) legal framework against the framework developed; (3) Evaluate the international legal framework for the assessment and management of the global oceans against the framework developed; and (4) Evaluate the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into practice.

Chapter 2 develops a framework for marine CAS, based on the combination of two promising theoretical approaches: Adaptive Management (AM) and Transition Management (TM). The framework is based on the idea that AM and TM have the potential to overcome each other’s limitations, which are related to the insufficient attention to micro-level socio-economic components, and to the limited incorporation of environmental aspects into socio-technical assessments, respectively. More into detail, the proposed framework is articulated into three components. First, the two sets of marine social-ecological systems and connected socio-technical systems (e.g. fisheries, maritime transportation, coastal tourism and energy) must be clearly identified, and the complex interactions and influences between socio-economic patterns of production and consumption, and ecological components must be assessed. Second, the achievement of ecological resilience of a marine social-ecological system should be performed in coordination with transitions of unsustainable connected socio-technical systems. This implies that sustainability should be evaluated in relation to the pressures socio-technical systems generate on the ecological resilience of connected social-ecological systems, and related impacts. Third, the implementation of the two approaches should be articulated into iterative, learning- and science-based policy cycles, with mechanisms to foster coordination between the policy cycles of social-ecological and socio-technical systems. The benefits of this framework are threefold. First, the assessment of the two sets of social-ecological and socio-technical systems, taken together, allows to overcome current AM limitations and include micro-level socio-economic components into the assessment of ecological resilience. Second, by linking AM managers with established transition arenas, it is possible to overcome TM limitations and streamline the consideration of ecological aspects into the TM process. Third, by linking AM and TM policy cycles, it is possible to reduce the current legal and policy fragmentation.

Chapters 3 and 4 apply the framework proposed in Chapter 2 to evaluate the EU and global legal frameworks for the assessment and management of marine CAS. Chapter 3 presents the first comprehensive review ever realised of the entire EU legal framework, composed of more than 12,000 EU legal acts, from the perspective of marine CAS assessment and management. It concludes that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the assessment and management of EU marine CAS. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and integrate ecological resilience into the objectives of sector-based laws and policies.

Chapter 4 reviews 500 multilateral agreements, evaluated for the first time from the perspective of marine CAS. It shows that there is no international agreement aiming at the ecological resilience of the global oceans social-ecological system. Instead, the international legal framework is fragmented along two dimensions. On the one side, global agreements focus on specific objectives for determined socio-economic activities, ecological features or anthropogenic pressures. On the other side, regional agreements are in place for 18 ocean regions of the world, with a varying level of inclusion of elements of marine CAS assessment and management. The need is highlighted for a reformed global ocean governance framework, which should be based on a bio-geographical approach to the ecological resilience of the global oceans, and build on iteration, learning, and science-based advice to policy and management.

Chapter 5 evaluates the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into the practice of assessment and management of a case-study area, the Adriatic Sea. It shows the importance of the MSFD as the first policy trying to deliver a CAS approach to marine assessment and management. However, the case-study investigation confirms the three limitations of the MSFD, laying in: 1) an insufficient geographical approach, where implementation is driven at national level and the requirement of cross-border cooperation is weak; 2) the vagueness of legal requirements, and the limited capacity to include socio-economic aspects into the required assessment; and 3) an insufficient capacity to coordinate with other laws, policies and programmes at various levels of governance. Based on the identified limitations, suggestions are advanced on how to strengthen the implementation of the MSFD, both at Adriatic and EU level. These suggestions are further advanced in Chapter 6, which includes detailed proposals on how to foster integrated large-scale marine monitoring in the EU, in order to contribute to the implementation of the MSFD in an efficient and effective way, also in relation to costs.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the major findings of this thesis and evaluates the capacity of the framework to deliver a CAS approach to marine systems. It concludes that AM and TM, although holding different visions on sustainability and referring to different principles, have the potential to be put in synergy at the practical level. Further scientific research and management practices should focus on the need for AM and TM to overcome the relative isolation and foster synergies across sector-based management, in order to integrate environmental considerations into economic sectors. Suggestions are advanced to improve legal frameworks and policy practices at the global and EU level. They focus on the need: (i) to fill the gaps in the geographical scope of legal texts and to foster international cooperation at the right social-ecological scale; (ii) to increase guidance in translating complex scientific requirements into clear management objectives, and improve related data collection and sharing; and (iii) to reduce current legal and policy fragmentation through targeted, ecological resilience-based marine environmental impact assessments and maritime spatial planning. Lines for further scientific research are suggested, focusing on: (i) improving the evidence-base through additional case-studies; (ii) analysing legal frameworks and governance regimes in place for other marine social-ecological systems, like e.g. the United States of America, Canada, Australia and China; (iii) improving existing tools, or creating new ones for marine ecological resilience assessment; and (iv) developing innovative instruments and mechanisms to strengthen global oceans governance.

Sababank: onderzoek 2011 -2016
Bos, O.G. ; Becking, L.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen Marine Research - 66 p.
mariene ecologie - mariene gebieden - zee-organismen - vissen - koralen - biodiversiteit - caribisch gebied - marine ecology - marine areas - marine organisms - fishes - corals - biodiversity - caribbean
Saba Bank: Research 2011 - 2016
Bos, O.G. ; Becking, L.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen Marine Research - 66 p.
marine ecology - marine areas - marine organisms - fishes - corals - biodiversity - caribbean - mariene ecologie - mariene gebieden - zee-organismen - vissen - koralen - biodiversiteit - caribisch gebied
Food from the Sulawesi Sea, the need for integrated sea use planning
Siahainenia, Audrie J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578869 - 180
mangroves - mangrove forests - fishes - habitats - marine areas - marine environment - fish stocks - environmental management - ecological disturbance - disturbance - sulawesi - mangrovebossen - vissen - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - visstand - milieubeheer - ecologische verstoring - verstoring - celebes

Mangroves occur in the tropics and subtropics region and an important coastal habitat for the artisanal fisheries along the coast of Indonesia. Around 19% of the total mangrove area in the world is located in Indonesia. Besides providing a barrier against coastal/Delta erosion, mangrove forest plays a significant role as a nursery area for most of the marine communities. Unluckily, 57% of the ±3.2 million ha of the mangroves in Indonesia is currently in degraded, mostly because of human activities (anthropogenic disturbance). The primary sources of anthropogenic disturbances to mangroves are increasing population growth rate and demand for seafood products as an essential protein, especially the wild shrimp, in the world market. These resulted in land-use conversion along estuarine areas not only for settlements and plantations but also for aquaculture ponds. The lack of awareness and understanding of the value and function of mangrove ecosystems contributed to the loss and damage the mangroves area.

Therefore, my research and field experiment aimed to quantify the effects of human disturbance on mangroves associated trophic cascades in Indonesia estuarine areas. The study was performed in the Berau District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia between 2005 and 2010. Data of mangrove extent from 1990 in the Berau Delta was used as base data with low human disturbance. We also interviewed the artisanal fishermen about their catches, origins, and fishing locations, in relation to the total catch per unit effort (CpUE).

The results had shown that the total mangroves area in the Berau Delta decreased by 54% between the 1990 and 2009, which led to fragmentation and alteration in the structural complexity of mangroves. The field experiment conducted at three locations with different levels of human disturbances revealed that the species richness was decreased with increased the level of human interference and the marine community tended to be dominated by only a few species. In the highly disturbed areas, the catch of small-scale fishermen tended to be lower. Furthermore, the result from a spatial statistical model indicated that the disturbance of mangrove habitats was influenced the distribution pattern of shrimp. The total CpUE of small-scale fishery in the study area was relatively small, and the area was probably not overexploited.

As a conclusion, mangroves habitat in the Berau Delta played a significant role in sustaining coastal fisheries. This important ecosystem supports a primary source of marine protein. Mangrove forests can only guarantee these marine resources if the people consciously maintain its viability through a strong management policy.

Er valt veel te leren van rotte kadavers : Raadselachtige ' mini-massastranding' bruinvissen
Leopold, M.F. ; Hesse, E. ; Mielke, L. ; Begeman, L. ; Hiemstra, S. - \ 2015
Zoogdier 26 (2015)2. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 4 - 6.
marine mammals - fauna - mortality - marine areas - inventories - north sea
In mei 2013 spoelden bij Camperduin vijf bruinvissen tegelijkertijd aan: vier grote dieren en een voldragen foetus. De vier grote bruinvissen waren allemaal erg rot, maar waren op het moment van hun dood in uitstekende voedingsconditie. Ze hadden zich volgegeten met zandspieringen en vlak voor de dood is voedsel uitgespuwd. Pathologisch en voedsel-ecologisch onderzoek komen tot dezelfde - voorzichtige - conclusie: deze dieren zijn als groep verdronken.
Het ecologisch belang van het Friese Front
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Witbaard, R. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C137/15A) - 24
bodembescherming - mariene gebieden - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - noordzee - nederland - soil conservation - marine areas - government policy - nature conservation - north sea - netherlands
Plastic raakt zoek in de oceaan (interview met Jan Andries van Franeker)
Kleis, R. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 18 - 19.
mariene gebieden - microplastics - oceanen - ecotoxicologie - vogels - vergelijkingen - marine areas - oceans - ecotoxicology - birds - comparisons
De plastic eilanden op de oceanen verliezen in hoog tempo .....plastic. Jan Andries van Franeker toont dat aan door plastic vangsten in die eilanden te vergelijken met de maaginhoud van Noordse stormvogels op de Noordzee. Waar al dat plastic blijft, is vooralsnog een raadsel.
Zeewier voor de toekomst
Ramaker, R. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Wald, J. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 12 - 15.
mariene gebieden - zeewierenteelt - zeewieren - voedselproducten - oosterschelde - noordzee - toegepast onderzoek - aquatische biomassa - eiwit - financieren - marine areas - seaweed culture - seaweeds - food products - eastern scheldt - north sea - applied research - aquatic biomass - protein - financing
In 2050 moeten grote zeewierplantages op zee voorzien in onze behoefte aan voedsel en grondstoffen. In de Oosterschelde doen Wageningse onderzoekers nu experimenten met duurzame zeewierteelt.
Options in dealing with marine alien species
Pelt-Heerschap, H.M.L. van; Sneekes, A.C. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C082/15) - 45
mariene gebieden - invasieve exoten - moleculaire detectie - monitoring - preventie - plagenbestrijding - marine areas - invasive alien species - molecular detection - prevention - pest control
Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention is preferable and less costly than controlling species. Especially for marine environments, invasive species can disperse rapidly and can be particularly hard to detect.
Flyshoot visserij in relatie met de instelling van bodem beschermende maatregelen voor het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden
Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/15) - 23
visserij - bodemecologie - onderwatergronden - vissersschepen - vismethoden - vistuig - waterbodems - mariene gebieden - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - bodembescherming - milieueffect - fisheries - soil ecology - subaqueous soils - fishing vessels - fishing methods - fishing gear - water bottoms - marine areas - adverse effects - north sea - soil conservation - environmental impact
Dit rapport geeft een samenvatting van de ‘state of the art’ kennis met betrekking tot de impact van bodemberoerende vistuigen en bespreekt de te verwachte effecten van de flyshoot methode in vergelijking met de andere vismethoden.
A review of coral reef restoration techniques
Meesters, H.W.G. ; Smith, S.R. ; Becking, L.E. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C028/14) - 37
koraalriffen - herstel - mariene gebieden - caribische eilanden - coral reefs - rehabilitation - marine areas - caribbean islands
In this review the following three reef restoration techniques are discussed: 1. Coral gardening, 2. Larval seeding, and 3. Reef balls. In this report we provide a description of each method and review the pro/cons using the following criteria: 1. Survival of fragments and larvae before transplantation to the reef; 2. Survival of transplants at the restoration site; 3. Introduction of exonogous material; 4. Indirect effects of coral restoration on the reef; 5. Genetic diversity; 6. Feasibility and effectiveness. We also suggest further research to answer current gaps in our knowledge in the Dutch Caribbean.
Greening the construction of marine infrastructure: a governance approach
Korbee, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Jan van Tatenhove. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571747 - 153
mariene constructies - governance - natuurbeleid - havens - groene infrastructuur - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - infrastructuur - natuur - projecten - overheidsbeleid - particuliere sector - marine structures - nature conservation policy - harbours - green infrastructure - marine areas - marine ecology - infrastructure - nature - projects - government policy - private sector

Greening the construction of marine infrastructure: A governance approach

The (re)development of marine infrastructure has consequences for the natural environment. To reduce these impacts innovative approaches to integrate infrastructure construction and nature are being developed. These new approaches, such as Building with Nature, require alterations in the governance of marine infrastructural projects. The analysis in this thesis focuses on how different governance settings of marine infrastructural projects affect these innovative approaches. Of specific interest are processes of privatization and globalization.

The analysis, guided by the Marine Infrastructural Project Arrangement approach, is based on three marine infrastructural projects: the extension of the port of Rotterdam (Second Maasvlakte), the deepening of the entrance channels of the port of Melbourne and the construction of a cruise terminal in Jamaica.

A main conclusion is that processes of globalization and privatization have resulted in a diversity of project arrangements. A consequence of this diversity is that the applicability of innovative, ecosystem based approaches is dependent on the specific governance setting of the marine infrastructural projects. The case studies indicate that the increasing input of private and global actors, rules, resources and discourses has enabling consequences for the diffusion and acceptance of these innovative approaches.

Samenvatting

De uitbreiding en nieuwbouw van havens heeft een impact op de natuurlijke omgeving. Om de negatieve gevolgen hiervan te verkleinen wordt geëxperimenteerd met innovatieve ontwerpmethoden, die erop gericht zijn havenontwikkeling en natuurontwikkeling te integreren. Deze nieuwe methoden vragen om een veranderende sturing (governance) van haven(uitbreidings)projecten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op de vraag op welke wijze de sturing van deze projecten kan bijdragen aan de vergroening van de aanleg van havens. In het bijzonder is gekeken naar de rol van privatisering en mondialisering.

Om antwoorden op deze vragen te krijgen zijn drie havenprojecten in detail geanalyseerd: de uitbreiding van de Rotterdamse haven (tweede maasvlakte), het uitdiepen van het toegangskanaal in Melbourne en de aanleg van een cruiseschip haven in Jamaica.

Dit onderzoek laat zien dat er een verscheidenheid aan project arrangementen bestaat, wat versterkt wordt door processen van mondialisering en privatisering. Deze verscheidenheid leidt ertoe dat de toepassing van innovatieve methoden afhankelijk is van de governance setting. De case studies laten zien dat de toegenomen input van mondiale en private actoren, regels, hulpbronnen en discoursen een positieve uitwerking heeft op de verspreiding en acceptatie van innovatieve, groene ontwerpmethoden.

Protecting with nature (PwN) PwN concept (bio-) corrosion prevention
Mijle Meijer, H. van der; Foekema, E.M. ; Leon, F. - \ 2014
Delft : TNO (TNO report TNO 2014 R11887) - 18
corrosiebescherming - staal - biofilms - mariene gebieden - havens - mariene constructies - innovaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - corrosion protection - steel - marine areas - harbours - marine structures - innovations - sustainability
Harbour infrastructures, civil engineering structures and offshore structures are exposed to a very aggressive maritime environment. The local corrosion mechanism bio-corrosion or microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) seems to be the life determining failure mechanism for these structures. There is a need for durable solutions to protect and maintain these structures. Different corrosion protection methods and systems are commercially available but each application requires a specific protection system. The optimal solution is not available yet
Habitat quality for Grey Seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea
Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Kirkwood, R.J. - \ 2014
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C090/14) - 77
zeehonden - fauna - wildbescherming - mariene gebieden - waddenzee - seals - wildlife conservation - marine areas - wadden sea
Growth in numbers has seen the Netherlands become a strong-hold for grey seals in continental Europe. This report has the following subjects (questions posed by the Dutch Ministry): “Is a favourable status of the habitat quality of the grey seal in the Netherlands dependant on the presence of undisturbed, permanently dry breeding sites, or do the current sites, which are considered sub optimal, suffice for a long term survival of the species in the Netherlands?” and "How is the growth influenced by immigration from other areas (i.e. the UK)?”
Efficacy and production of disinfection by-products of ozone treated ballast water
Sneekes, A.C. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C156/14) - 51
waterballast - desinfecteren - waterkwaliteit - mariene gebieden - richtlijnen (guidelines) - water ballasting - disinfestation - water quality - marine areas - guidelines
AirTree is preparing for land-based testing at the NIOZ/IMARES test facility. As the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) developed by AirTree uses ozone as active substance, IMO Guideline G9 applies and Basic and Final Approval are also required. In preparing the Basic Approval dossier, it appeared that too little is known about the development of disinfection by-products (DBP) during the treatment process.
Rapportage werkbezoek Zuid-Korea
Baptist, M.J. - \ 2014
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES ) - 22
mariene gebieden - republiek korea - wadden - wetlands - informatieverspreiding - internationale samenwerking - nederland - marine areas - korea republic - tidal flats - diffusion of information - international cooperation - netherlands
Sinds 2009 bestaat er een samenwerkingsovereenkomst tussen de trilaterale waddenzeestaten en Korea. In de afgelopen vijf jaar is er veel bereikt, vooral op het gebied van educatie en voorlichting, en zijn diverse MoU bijeenkomsten gehouden. Voor de komende jaren is de doelstelling om meer aan wetenschap, management en monitoring te doen. In dat kader is een nadere samenwerking op de vakgebieden van monitoring en onderzoek naar benthische ecologie en morfologie gevraagd.
Inktvis luistert mogelijk naar vijanden
Ramaker, R. ; Samson, J.E. - \ 2014
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
zeedieren - diergedrag - gehoorvermindering - geluidshinder - mariene gebieden - marine animals - animal behaviour - hearing impairment - noise pollution - marine areas
De zeekat, een inktvis die voor onze kust leeft, blijkt een goed gehoor te hebben. Mogelijk luisteren de dieren hiermee of ze vijanden horen aankomen. Dit blijkt uit geluidtesten die de Wageningse biologiestudent Julia Samson uitvoerde. Ze schrijft erover in the Journal of Experimental Biology. De laatste jaren is er steeds meer aandacht voor ‘geluidsoverlast’ in zee.
Monitoring plastic waste using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy
Franeker, Jan Andries van - \ 2014
water pollution - solid wastes - plastics - recycling - spectroscopy - marine areas - monitoring - waste treatment
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