Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Dusan Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven

This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.

The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.

The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.

Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.

In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.

Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review
Sisay, D.T. ; Verhees, F.J.H.M. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2017
Journal of Crop Improvement 31 (2017)3. - ISSN 1542-7528 - p. 323 - 355.
Economic development - markets - seed security - seed systems
The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the seed sector development. In this paper, we review and discuss the SPCs in the Ethiopian seed sector. Specifically, we reflect on the contribution of SPCs to improving seed availability and access in the country. The current liberal market system of Ethiopia creates new opportunities for growth as successful enterprises, but also brings new challenges, such as more intense competition for smallholder producers. The government policy encourages SPCs to engage in seed business. We draw on scientific literature, reports, white papers, project documents, and websites. The review reveals that the seed sector in Ethiopia consists of three seed systems: formal, informal, and intermediary seed systems. Each seed system has a specific contribution to the delivery of seed to farmers, but they vary in their approach and respective strategies. The SPCs are categorized in the intermediary seed system because they have features of both formal and informal seed systems. They play a key role in meeting seed demand and contribute greatly to seed supply improvement through high-volume production of seed, crop, and variety diversification, and seed delivery to farmers. They produce and market the seed through various market channels, including direct sales to farmers, sales through contractual agreement, and sales directly to institutional buyers. Their contribution to improving the seed supply and seed security has received considerable recognition by policymakers and development practitioners. Therefore, government and development partners should support and strengthen SPCs to maximize their success in the seed business and their contribution to improving the seed supply in Ethiopia.
Background analysis for a Temporary Measure (State aid) aimed at restructuring the Dutch Dairy Sector
Jongeneel, Roel ; Silvis, Huib ; Daatselaar, Co ; Everdingen, Walter van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Economic Research memorandum 2017-054) - 20
dairy farming - agricultural sector - milk - markets - crises - agricultural crises - netherlands - melkveehouderij - landbouwsector - melk - markten - landbouwcrises - nederland
The EU dairy sector is facing a crisis, which also affects Dutch dairy farmers. Low milk prices have negatively affected dairy farm profitability. At the same time, the structural adjustment in the Dutch dairy sector has slowed down: the reduction in the rate of farm exits was below normal levels and in contrast with the pattern observed in several other EU Member States. Now the Dutch government would like to consider a temporary support programme aimed at restructuring the dairy sector. The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested Wageningen Economic Research to provide a background analysis with respect to such a temporary measure. This analysis is requested because the proposed measure would imply state aid to the Dutch dairy sector, which is only allowable in case a number of criteria are satisfied. This research should provide insight into this matter.
Ruimte voor exploratie : agrarische ondernemers op zoek naar klantbehoefte : eindrapportage project Marktgericht Ondernemen 2012-2015
Valk, O.M.C. van der; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-040) - ISBN 9789462577923 - 19 p.
tuinbouw - agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - markten - marktconcurrentie - ondernemerschap - innovaties - creativiteit - nederland - horticulture - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - markets - market competition - entrepreneurship - innovations - creativity - netherlands
Het project Marktgericht Ondernemen (2012-2015) heeft als doel om de positie van telers en ketenpartners in de tuinbouw te versterken. Via verschillende sporen is er gewerkt aan het creëren van (nieuwe) waarde omdat een lage kostprijs alleen niet meer voldoende is om het verschil te maken. Bijvoorbeeld door het ontwikkelen van onderscheidende producten, productconcepten en duurzame verdienmodellen, het vertalen van markt- en consumententrends naar marktkansen, het versterken van ondernemerschap en het aanjagen van een cultuurverandering. Het project heeft een aantal inzichten opgeleverd. Deze inzichten zijn niet alleen relevant voor tuinbouwondernemers, maar feitelijk voor iedereen binnen de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen die zich betrokken voelt bij het innovatiethema ‘Samenwerkende waardeketens’.1 Dit document is een verslag van vier jaar innoveren en exploreren met ondernemers. Een gezamenlijke ontdekkingstocht die niet stopt na het afsluiten van dit project.
Vermarkten van haantjes van legrassen : Samenvatting van en vervolg op rapport 739 (2013,Wageningen UR Livestock Research)
Leenstra, F.R. ; Steverink, M.H.A. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 937) - 29 p.
kuikens - hanen - hennen - slachtdieren - dubbel-doel rassen - markten - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - dierethiek - diergezondheid - chicks - cocks - hens - meat animals - dual purpose breeds - markets - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal ethics - animal health
Manuel - L’entrepreneuriat semencier
Burg, H. van den; Roo, N. de; Barikore, C. ; Haizuru Zamu, G. ; Ndyanabo, E. ; Simbashizubwoba, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Guide manuel ) - 128
businesses - small businesses - seeds - seed quality - seed certification - certification - markets - storage - africa - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - zaadkeuring - certificering - markten - opslag - afrika
Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - zuidoost-azië - azië
The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
Exit strategies for social venture entrepreneurs
Nuer, A.T.K. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Gert van Dijk; Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575684 - 227
ondernemerschap - bedrijfsmanagement - markten - marktstructuur - marketing - ontwikkelingslanden - entrepreneurship - business management - markets - market structure - developing countries

Key Words: Social Venture Entrepreneurs, Exit, Ownership

Social Venture Entrepreneurs invest in local and mostly bottom of pyramid (BoPs), and more so in developing economies. Different understanding and meanings given to the term exit and ownership, by social venture entrepreneurs and local communities with varied cultural business practices, are highlighted in this thesis. Results from this thesis show that it is important to factor in local and cultural practices into current social venture business models. This will help to ensure the sustainability and scale up of social ventures.

The study explores exit options within business and development management literature. There were limited scientific related social entrepreneurship literatures on the subject matter at the inception of this study. The choice to conduct a qualitative case study was made in order to bring to out the forms and meanings of exit, as well as perceived exit, and ownership forms expected or anticipated by both the social venture entrepreneur and related stakeholders, such as communities and local partners, covered in this study

Outlook on microalgae production chains
Barbosa, Maria - \ 2015
algae - algae culture - biomass production - applications - biorefinery - agro-industrial chains - economic viability - markets - biobased economy
Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - export - europese unie - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Vulsteke, E. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
EnAlgae Swansea University - 47
marktonderzoek - algen - macro-economische analyse - markten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - market research - algae - macroeconomic analysis - markets - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - biofuels
This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.
Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in Calabria : a sociological exploration of interaction dynamics
amico, S. D' - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; G. Gulisano, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock; Stefano Pascucci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572713 - 269
voedsel - sociale netwerken - gemeenschappen - voedselvoorziening - voedselgroepen - consumenten - participatie - boeren - markten - landbouw - calabrië - italië - food - social networks - communities - food supply - food groups - consumers - participation - farmers - markets - agriculture - calabria - italy
Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Chebet, A. ; Muwanika, C.T. ; Adong, C.J. ; Okot, F. ; Otim, G. ; Birungi, J. ; Kansiime, M. ; Oyee, P. ; Ninsiima, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 273
seed production - seed development - seed quality - rural development - farming - markets - businesses - small businesses - regional development - training courses - training - agricultural development - uganda - west africa - africa - zaadproductie - zaadontwikkeling - zaadkwaliteit - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw bedrijven - markten - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - regionale ontwikkeling - scholingscursussen - opleiding - landbouwontwikkeling - west-afrika - afrika
The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering selection, monitoring and sustaining local seed businesses; technically equipping local seed businesses, professionally organising LSBs; orienting LSBs to the market and strategically linking them to service providers.
The policy and practice of sustainable biofuels: Between global frameworks and local heterogeneity. The case of food security in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Florin, M.J. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 72 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 123 - 135.
bio-energy - governance - ethanol - certification - countries - markets - trade
This study explores the relationship between different biofuel production systems, the context in which they operate, and the extent to which various types of frameworks and schemes are able to monitor and promote their sustainability. The paper refers to the European Union Renewable Energy Directive and two international certification schemes (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels and NTA 8080/81) that can provide a ‘licence to sell’ biofuels on the EU market, and to the Mozambican policy framework for sustainable biofuels that provides a ‘licence to produce’ biomass for biofuels in Mozambique. Food security is used as a case study, and the food security impacts of two agro-industrial and two smallholder biofuel projects in Mozambique are described and analysed. The sustainability frameworks and schemes used in this study are able to address some, but not all, of the heterogeneity between and within different biofuel production systems. The emphasis is on monitoring agro-industrial projects while smallholder projects tend to slip through the net even when their negative impacts are evident. We conclude that globally applicable sustainability principles are useful, however, they should be operationalised at local or production system levels. This approach will support balancing between global frameworks and local heterogeneity.
Farmland Protection and Agricultural Land Values at the Urban-Rural Fringe: British Columbia's Agricultural Land Reserve
Eagle, A.J. ; Eagle, D.E. ; Stobbe, T.E. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2015
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 97 (2015)1. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 282 - 298.
spatial hedonic approach - preservation programs - property-values - real-estate - prices - models - markets - options
Farmland conservation policies typically use zoning and differentiated taxes to prevent urban development of farmland, but little is known about the effectiveness of these policies. This study adds to current knowledge by examining the impact of British Columbia's Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR), established in 1973, which severely restricts subdivision and nonagricultural uses for more than 4.7 million hectares of farmland. To determine the extent to which the ALR preserves farmland by reducing or removing the development option, a multilevel hedonic pricing model is used to estimate the impact of land use, geographic, and zoning characteristics on farmland value near the capital city of Victoria on Vancouver Island. Using sales data from 1974 through 2008, the model demonstrates a changing ALR impact over time that varies considerably by improved and unimproved land types. In 2008, landowners paid 19% less for the typical improved farmland parcel within the ALR versus that outside it. This suggests that would-be developers expect permanency in the zoning law, and prefer non-ALR zoned land. However, ALR land that is unimproved has a premium of 55%, suggesting that this land is more valuable for agriculture than for development. Farmland located closer to the city or the commuting highway commands a premium if it has a residence on it, with a residence also explaining why smaller agricultural properties sell at higher prices. However, it appears that zoning by itself is insufficient to protect farmland; other policies likely need to be implemented in conjunction with zoning to protect agricultural land.
Vegetables Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2014
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Elings, A. ; Glover-Tay, J. ; Koomen, I. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Nkansah, G. ; Obeng, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : GhanaVeg - 52
vegetables - market competition - markets - entrepreneurship - agricultural trade - farm management - ghana - groenten - marktconcurrentie - markten - ondernemerschap - agrarische handel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
This report addresses the current performance, overall business climate of the vegetable sector and tries to come up with a number of business opportunities. These include business opportunities for high-quality exports, greenhouse technology, and healthy food for the domestic market. It equally advocates for a ‘system change’, both in the enabling environment and the way business is done, both in the export and domestic sectors: shifting from business as usual to new ways of doing business.
Microalgae-based products for food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe
Enzing, C. ; Ploeg, M. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Sijtsma, L. - \ 2014
Luxembourg : Joint Research Centre (JRC scientific and policy reports JRC 85709) - ISBN 9789279340376 - 82
algen - algenteelt - voedsel - voer - markten - marktanalyse - europese unie - biobased economy - algae - algae culture - food - feeds - markets - market analysis - european union
This report presents the results of an analysis of the technological and market developments in the field of micro-algal production systems, especially for food and feed products. Based on literature search and on interviews and survey to experts, the report provides the current state-ofthe- art of microalgae as systems for producing food/feed products and discusses the future challenges for Europe to become a key player in this field.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
Algae cultivation profitable by 2025
Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2014
voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - maling - voedertoevoegingen - ingrediënten - markten - statistiek - veevoederindustrie - voedermiddelbewerking - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - feed technology - milling - feed additives - ingredients - markets - statistics - feed industry - feed processing
www.AllAboutFeed.net is tailored towards the information needs of the international feed business community and is complementary to our print publications Feed Tech and Feed Mix. The site offers the worldwide feed industry: news, industry opinions, a newsletter, article archives, market information, and statistics, and much more
Nog meer te winnen met multiproduct outlet : statusrapport bioraffinage door Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research
Vaartjes, J. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2014
Fluids Processing Benelux 9 (2014)6. - ISSN 1874-7914 - p. 36 - 37.
bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - bio-energie - markten - europese unie - biobased economy - biorefinery - biomass conversion - bioenergy - markets - european union
Wageningen UR heeft in nauwe samenwerking met tien andere landenvertegenwoordigers en in opdracht van het Internationaal Energie Agentschap (IEA Bioenergy Task42) een uitgebreid rapport gepubliceerd over duurzame en synergetische raffinage van biomassa. Dat biedt een overzicht van de status en uitdagingen bij toepassing van efficiënte bioraffinaderijen voor de duurzame valorisatie van biomassa, zowel voor voedsel als nietvoedsel toepassingen. Doel is verbetering van de co-productie van vermarktbare, humane voedings- en veevoeringrediënten, chemicaliën, materialen, brandstoffen, elektriciteit en warmte. Fluids Processing vroeg René van Ree van Wageningen UR naar het hoe en wat.
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