Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Fleisch ist Macht! Zur Politik des Fleisches für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung
Wahlen, Stefan - \ 2018
meat - eating - biopolitics - consumption governance
In der Nachhaltigkeitsdebatte wird angenommen, dass Konsumakteure in Bezug auf Energie, Mobilität und Ernährung einen signifikanten Beitrag leisten können. Im Bereich der Ernährung nimmt diesbezüglich Fleisch eine prominente Position ein. In meinem Vortrag möchte ich sozio-politische Dimensionen von Fleischkonsum im Lichte der Debatte für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung diskutieren. Dabei gehe ich von einem Konsumverständnis aus welches soziale und politische Dimensionen des Fleischkonsums unterstreicht. Dementsprechend wird Konsum nicht auf Akte des Kaufens reduziert, sondern als Teil sozialer Praktiken verstanden. Das (Nicht-)Essen von Fleisch ist demgemäß als Politik des Alltags zu verstehen. In ebendieser Politik des Alltags sind soziale Praktiken des Essens als performative Macht zu verstehen. Ferner sind verschiedene Akteure und Institutionen zu unterscheiden, z.B. Regierungen und Unternehmen, welche durch ihre Praktiken Macht ausüben können das Konsumverhalten zu beeinflussen.
Occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal- and plant-derived food : results of a survey across Europe
Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Castelari, Massimo ; Bodi, Dorina ; Ronczka, Stefan ; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika ; These, Anja - \ 2018
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 35 (2018)1. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 118 - 133.
eggs - herbal supplements - mass spectrometry - meat - milk - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - survey - tea

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and particularly in tea. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the PA content in animal- and plant-derived food from the European market, and to provide a basis for future risk analysis, a total of 1105 samples were collected in 2014 and 2015. These comprised milk and milk products, eggs, meat and meat products, (herbal) teas, and (herbal) food supplements collected in supermarkets, retail shops, and via the internet. PAs were detected in a large proportion of plant-derived foods: 91% of the (herbal) teas and 60% of the food supplements contained at least one individual PA. All types of (herbal) teas investigated were found to contain PAs, with a mean concentration of 460 µg kg−1 dry tea (corresponding to 6.13 µg L−1 in [herbal] tea infusion). The highest mean concentrations were found in rooibos tea (599 µg kg−1 dry tea, 7.99 µg L−1 tea infusion) and the lowest in camomile tea (274 µg kg−1 dry tea, 3.65 µg L−1 tea infusion). Occurrence of PAs in food supplements was found to be highly variable, but in comparable ranges as for (herbal) tea. The highest concentrations were present in supplements containing plant material from known PA-producing plants. In contrast, only 2% of the animal-derived products, in particular 6% of milk samples and 1% of egg samples, contained PAs. Determined levels in milk were relatively low, ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 µg L−1 and only trace amounts of 0.10–0.12 µg kg−1 were found in eggs. No PAs were detected in the other animal-derived products.

De vleeswereld : Toenemend bewustzijn over dierenwelzijn en milieu zorgt voor lagere vleesconsumptie
Veluw, K. van - \ 2017
Ekoland (2017)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 13 - 15.
vlees - vleeswaren - dierenwelzijn - vleesproductie - biologische voedingsmiddelen - milieueffect - meat - meat products - animal welfare - meat production - organic foods - environmental impact
Vlees eten doe je niet meer zomaar. Vlees en alles daarom heen staat enorm in de schijnwerpers. Vanuit voedingsoogpunt blijft vlees zeer waardevol hoewel teveel consumptie van rood vlees de kans op darmkanker verhoogt. Vlees blijft echter ontzettend lekker maar productie en consumptie ervan is te ver doorgeslagen. Het moet anders en duurzamer. Een reis langs de vleeswereld.
Transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various herbs to eggs and meat in laying hens
Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Witte, Susannah L. de; Stoopen, Geert M. ; Meulen, Jan van der; Wikselaar, Piet G. van; Gruys, Erik ; Groot, Maria J. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2016
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 33 (2016)12. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1826 - 1893.
eggs - laying hens - liver - meat - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - transfer

To investigate the potential transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), laying hens were fed for 14 days with diets containing 0.5% of dried common ragwort, common groundsel, narrow-leaved ragwort or viper’s bugloss, or 0.1% of common heliotrope. This resulted in total PA levels in feed of respectively 5.5, 11.1, 53.1, 5.9 and 21.7 mg kg 1, with varying composition. PAs were transferred to eggs, in particular yolk, with steady-state levels of respectively 12, 21, 216, 2 and 36 µg kg 1. Overall transfer rates for the sum of PAs were estimated between 0.02% and 0.23%, depending on the type of PAs in the feed. In animals slaughtered shortly after the last exposure, levels in meat were slightly lower than those in eggs, levels in livers somewhat higher. When switched to clean feed, levels in eggs gradually decreased, but after 14 days were still above detection limits in the hens exposed to higher PA levels. Similar was the case for meat and especially kidneys and livers. It is concluded that the intake of PA containing herbs by laying hens may result in levels in eggs and meat that could be of concern for consumers, and as such should be avoided.

Disentangling the domestic contract : understanding the everyday-life construction of acceptability -or non-acceptability- of keeping and killing animals for food
Nijland, Hanneke J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Noelle Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578296 - 325
meat - vegetarians - vegetarianism - vegetarian diets - killing of animals - meat animals - meat production - households - environmental impact - sustainability - animal welfare - animal production - animal ethics - food - dairy cattle - beef cattle - pigs - poultry - broilers - hens - vlees - vegetariërs - vegetarisme - vegetarische diëten - doden van dieren - slachtdieren - vleesproductie - huishoudens - milieueffect - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - dierethiek - voedsel - melkvee - vleesvee - varkens - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - hennen

When we were children learning the names of animals, farm utensils and food products from picture books, talking about farming animals and related food products appeared simple. However, the intricate realities of modern-day farming practices differ momentously from this primary reference - the picture books. The topic brings about polarized responses, both rationally and emotionally, reflecting very diverse outlooks on the world. This dissertation reports on a research, set in the Netherlands and Turkey, that was designed to improve our understanding of the everyday-life construction of the acceptability -or non-acceptability- ofkeeping and killing animals for food, or in other words: to disentangle the domestic contract.

Vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland, 2005-2014
Verhoog, A.D. ; Wijsman, J.C.G. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-120) - 9
voedselconsumptie - vlees - vleeswaren - consumentengedrag - nederland - food consumption - meat - meat products - consumer behaviour - netherlands
Wakker Dier wil graag de omvang van de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland weten. Tot en met 2012 leverde het Productschap voor Vee, Vlees en Eieren deze informatie. Door de opheffing van het Productschap zijn er geen cijfers over de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking na 2012 beschikbaar. Wakker Dier heeft daarom het LEI gevraagd om de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland in 2013 en 2014 te berekenen. Ook heeft Wakker Dier gevraagd de cijfers voor 2013 en 2014 te vergelijken met de jaren daarvoor, zodat trends in de vleesconsumptie zichtbaar worden. In deze notitie geven we een overzicht van de vleesconsumptie per hoofd van de bevolking in Nederland in de jaren 2005-2014 en maken daarbij onderscheid naar de volgend vleessoorten: rundvlees, varkensvlees, schapen- en geitenvlees, paardenvlees, pluimveevlees en totaal vlees.
Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes
Dabade, D.S. ; Azokpota, P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Zwietering, M.H. ; Besten, H.M.W. den - \ 2015
International Journal of Food Microbiology 210 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 121 - 130.
shelf-life prediction - bacterial-growth - sensory characteristics - listeria-monocytogenes - pseudomonas-fragi - microbial model - water activity - packed fish - fresh fish - meat
The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and showed a higher spoilage activity at temperatures from 0 to 15 °C, while at 28 °C, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. The spoilage activity of P. psychrophila was found to be higher in cooked shrimp than in fresh shrimp. Observed shelf-life data of shrimps stored at constant temperatures were used to validate a previously developed model that predicts tropical shrimp shelf-life at constant storage temperatures. Models predicting the growth of the spoilage organisms as a function of temperature were constructed. The validation of these models under dynamic storage temperatures simulating temperature fluctuation in the shrimp supply chain showed that they can be used to predict the shelf-life of cooked and fresh tropical shrimps.
Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock
Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
dairy farms - management - intensification - welfare - trends - impact - costs - meat - pig
Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when changing to organic farming. We conclude that in Europe extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets and externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
Wat betekent de Russische boycot voor Nederland?
Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2015
agricultural economics - exports - agricultural prices - meat - milk products - vegetables - fruit - international trade - netherlands
Effecten van Russische boycot op invoer van Europees vlees, zuivel, groente en fruit ; stand van zaken in juni 2015
Berkum, S. van; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 7
agrarische economie - export - landbouwprijzen - vlees - groenten - fruit - nederland - internationale handel - agricultural economics - exports - agricultural prices - meat - vegetables - netherlands - international trade
Op 7 augustus 2014 heeft Rusland een invoerverbod ingesteld op de invoer van vlees, zuivel en groente en fruit uit de EU. Door deze boycot moest de export een andere bestemming vinden. Niet alleen gold/geldt dat voor Nederlandse afzet, maar ook voor andere EU-landen. Hierdoor ontstond een fors prijseffect voor met name de verse groente en fruitproducten op de Europese markt, die na een korte periode overigens ook al weer afzwakte. Deze korte notitie gaat in op in hoeverre de Nederlandse export van de geboycotte producten zich met name na het afkondigen van de Russische importstop heeft ontwikkeld.
The assessment of selectivity in different quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry acquisition
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Wegh, R.S. ; Meijer, T. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2015
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 26 (2015)2. - ISSN 1044-0305 - p. 337 - 346.
performance liquid-chromatography - veterinary drugs - confirmation - metabolites - residues - plasma - food - meat
Selectivity of the confirmation of identity in liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry using Q-Orbitrap instrumentation was assessed using different acquisition modes based on a representative experimental data set constructed from 108 samples, including six different matrix extracts and containing over 100 analytes each. Single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, and product ion scanning were applied. By generating reconstructed ion chromatograms using unit mass window in targeted MS(2), selected reaction monitoring (SRM), regularly applied using triple-quadrupole instruments, was mimicked. This facilitated the comparison of single stage full scan, all ion fragmentation, (mimicked) SRM, and product ion scanning applying a mass window down to 1 ppm. Single factor Analysis of Variance was carried out on the variance (s(2)) of the mass error to determine which factors and interactions are significant parameters with respect to selectivity. We conclude that selectivity is related to the target compound (mainly the mass defect), the matrix, sample clean-up, concentration, and mass resolution. Selectivity of the different instrumental configurations was quantified by counting the number of interfering peaks observed in the chromatograms. We conclude that precursor ion selection significantly contributes to selectivity: monitoring of a single product ion at high mass accuracy with a 1 Da precursor ion window proved to be equally selective or better to monitoring two transition products in mimicked SRM. In contrast, monitoring a single fragment in all ion fragmentation mode results in significantly lower selectivity versus mimicked SRM. After a thorough inter-laboratory evaluation study, the results of this study can be used for a critical reassessment of the current identification points system and contribute to the next generation of evidence-based and robust performance criteria in residue analysis and sports doping.
Effect of crosslink density on the water-binding capacity of whey protein microparticles
Peters, J.P.C.M. ; Luyten, H. ; Alting, A.C. ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2015
Food Hydrocolloids 44 (2015). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 277 - 284.
microbial transglutaminase - statistical-mechanics - beta-lactoglobulin - moisture transport - gels - particles - genipin - isolate - meat - disulfide
The ability of whey protein microparticles (MPs) to bind water and consequently to swell is, amongst others, determined by the crosslink density of the MPs. The Flory-Rehner model states that a decrease in crosslink density should lead to an increased swelling of the MPs. Decreasing the crosslink density of MPs with dithiothreitol (DTT) decreased the amount of disulphide bridges and increased the water-binding capacity (WBC) from 6 to 9 g water/g protein. Increasing the crosslink density with transglutaminase or genipin resulted in a decreased number of primary amino groups, although the WBC did not change significantly. The WBC of the MPs was determined using a centrifugation method that resulted in the formation of a pellet, so water inside and between the MPs was measured simultaneously. Therefore, additional microscopy and swelling tests were performed, which suggested that an increased WBC of the pellet of MPs was not only related to an increased swelling of the MPs, but also to an increased amount of water between the MPs.
Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study
Luning, P.A. ; Kirezieva, K. ; Hagelaar, G. ; Rovira, J. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Jacxsens, L. - \ 2015
Food Control 49 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 11 - 22.
critical control point - hazard analysis - processing plants - united-states - microbial-contamination - haccp implementation - escherichia-coli - pasteurized milk - quality - meat
Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their typical context characteristics. Hundred European companies (from Belgium, Spain, The Netherlands, Greece, Italy, and Hungary) varying in company size, and producing different types of fresh and processed animal-derived products (dairy, beef/lamb, poultry, and pork) were assed using a diagnostic instrument. Results indicated that most participating companies adapted adequately their food safety management systems to the riskiness of their context characteristics resulting in rather good safety output scores. Only a small group have overall basic systems and operate in a moderate or moderate-high risk context, which was reflected in lower safety output scores. Companies tend to invest first in the control strategies whereas assurance activities such as verification and validation seem to require more time and effort to achieve advanced levels. Our study demonstrated that also small and medium enterprises managed to have advanced systems, and achieve a good safety output. However, their typical organisational characteristics such as less resources (educated staff, laboratory facilities, time), more restricted formalisation (restricted use of procedures and formal meetings), limited information systems, but more stable workforce, might require more tailored support from government and/or branch organisations to develop towards advanced systems in the case of high-risk products and processes. More in-depth studies to successful SMEs could give insight in best practices to improve FSMS performance.
The Kenyan meat sector Opportunities for Dutch agribusiness
Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Engelen, A. - \ 2014
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-032) - 64 p.
meat and livestock industry - meat - livestock - agribusiness - investment - netherlands - kenya - vee- en vleesindustrie - vlees - vee - landbouwindustrie - investering - nederland
This study identifies opportunities for the Dutch agribusiness sector (industry as well as research and education) in Kenyan meat value chains at all levels. It can serve as a background document for Dutch agro-food business companies as well as other stakeholders. At the moment there is increased interest in exploring agro-food business opportunities in Kenya. This report will guide potential and interested investors to areas of interest and potential business partners within the Kenyan meat sector, and indicates a number of areas and directions in which Dutch experience and capacity can assist in all aspects of the further development of the Kenyan meat sector.
Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits
Gonzalez, J. ; Gispert, M. ; Gil, M. ; Hviid, M. ; Dourmad, J.Y. ; Greef, K.H. de; Zimmer, C. ; Fabrega, E. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2038 - 2046.
meat - ph
A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at nn. gluteus nnedius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissinnus lunnborunn and senninnennbranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissinnus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at nn. longissinnus or senninnennbranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus nnedius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissinnus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good correlation and the results obtained were similar. The tool could be considered as robust enough to discriminate among different systems, since it was tested in a wide range of them. It also can be used to detect improvement opportunities to enhance sustainability of pig farming systems. The final objective of the study was achieved, since the market suitability tool could be used in an integrated sustainability analysis of pig farming systems.
Extended-spectrum and AmpC B-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and peoplelivingand/or working on broiler farms: prevalence, risk factors and molecular characteristics
Huijbers, P.M.C. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Haenen, A.P.J. ; Santen, M.G. van; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Mevius, D.J. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van - \ 2014
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 69 (2014)10. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 2669 - 2675.
livestock-associated mrsa - enterobacteriaceae - netherlands - humans - identification - plasmids - poultry - genes - meat - pcr
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli carriage among broiler farmers, their family members and employees; identify and quantify risk factors for carriage, with an emphasis on contact with live broilers; and compare isolates from humans and broilers within farms with respect to molecular characteristics to gain insight into transmission routes. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted on 50 randomly selected Dutch broiler farms. Cloacal swabs were taken from 20 randomly chosen broilers. Faecal swabs were returned by 141 individuals living and/or working on 47 farms. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were isolated and, for selected isolates, phylogenetic groups, plasmids and sequence types were determined. Questionnaires were used for risk factor analysis. RESULTS: All sampled farms were positive, with 96.4% positive pooled broiler samples. The human prevalence was 19.1%, with 14.3% and 27.1% among individuals having a low and a high degree of contact with live broilers, respectively. Five pairs of human-broiler isolates had identical genes, plasmid families and E. coli sequence types, showing clonal transmission. Furthermore, similar ESBL/AmpC genes on the same plasmid families in different E. coli sequence types in humans and broilers hinted at horizontal gene transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence among people on broiler farms was higher than in previous studies involving patients and the general population. Furthermore, an increased risk of carriage was shown among individuals having a high degree of contact with live broilers. The (relative) contribution of transmission routes that might play a role in the dissemination of ESBL/AmpC-encoding resistance genes to humans on broiler farms should be pursued in future studies.
Heterogeneity in consumer perceptions of the animal friendliness of broiler production systems
Jonge, J. de; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014)Pt. 1. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 174 - 185.
welfare - preferences - meat - standards - stakeholder - interests - attitudes - chickens - values - food
Animal welfare-based product differentiation through private sector initiatives has led to the introduction of ‘compromise’ meat products, which are produced at beyond regulatory standards for animal welfare, but are cheaper than organic meat. A variety of production system characteristics serve as parameters to achieve higher animal welfare standards. Food policies will be more effective if they position compromise products on those production system characteristics that really matter to (segments of) consumers. The present study identifies that three market segments may be discerned; one that takes a more inclusive perspective on animal welfare, and two that take a more heuristic approach by viewing animal friendliness from a more uni-dimensional perspective (animal space vs. slaughter method). These segments do not only differ in their perception of animal welfare, but also regarding their background characteristics. An interesting finding of the research is that the different segments accord in their perceptions of overall animal welfare levels, but do so for different reasons. In terms of food policy implications this means that the further development of compromise products would benefit from communicating more specific information on animal space and slaughter method, in addition to the overall star-based animal welfare classification. Such communication would serve well to both 50% of the market that takes a more balanced and integrated view on animal welfare and the other half of the market that takes a more uni-dimensional perspective (space vs. slaughter method).
Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.
Thiry, D. ; Mauroy, A. ; Saegerman, C. ; Thomas, I. ; Wautier, M. ; Miry, C. ; Czaplicki, G. ; Berkvens, D. ; Praet, N. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Cariolet, R. ; Brochier, B. ; Thiry, E. - \ 2014
Veterinary Microbiology 172 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 407 - 414.
antibodies - swine - transmission - infection - netherlands - populations - prevalence - france - meat - farm
Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence data on HEV infection in swine in Belgium and to phylogenetically compare Belgian human HEV sequences with those obtained from swine. An ELISA screening prevalence of 73% (95% CI 68.8–77.5) was determined in Belgian pigs and a part of the results were re-evaluated by Western blot (WB). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed and scenarios varying the ELISA specificity relative to WB were analysed. The seroprevalences estimated by the different scenarios ranged between 69 and 81% and are in agreement with the high exposure of the European pig population to HEV. Pig HEV sequences were genetically compared to those detected in humans in Belgium and a predominance of genotype 3 subtype f was shown in both swine and humans. The high HEV seroprevalence in swine and the close phylogenetic relationships between pig and human HEV sequences further support the risk for zoonotic transmission of HEV between humans and pigs.
Quantification of transfer of Listeria monocytogenes between cooked ham and slicing machine surfaces
Chaitiemwong, N. ; Hazeleger, W.C. ; Beumer, R.R. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2014
Food Control 44 (2014). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 177 - 184.
bacterial cross-contamination - modeling transfer - stainless-steel - salmonella-typhimurium - exposure assessment - turkey breast - meat - environments - adherence - strains
Transfer of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated from surface-inoculated cooked ham to commercial slicing machine surfaces, from spot-inoculated ham to the slicing machine blade, and vise-versa from a contaminated slicer to clean ham. With balances the proportion transfer from the source to the various destinations were investigated as well as the kinetics of transfer during successive slicing, using a difference equation. For inoculated ham, the transfer ratio to the machine was highest to the table (0.06), followed by the handle board (0.01) and plate, guard, and front and back of the blade (
Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods
Tzompa Sosa, D.A. ; Yi, L. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Lakemond, C.M.M. - \ 2014
Food Research International 62 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 1087 - 1094.
edible insects - fatty-acids - nutrient composition - food - invertebrates - meat - seed - oils
In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted by two industrial extraction processes (aqueous and Soxhlet) and one laboratory method (Folch extraction). Chemical characterization in terms of fatty acid composition (GC-FID), triacylglycerol profile (GC) and lipid classes (TLC) was performed on all the extracted lipids. The major findings on lipid chemical characterization were the following: (1) T. molitor had the highest lipid content around 13%; (2) the highest yield was obtained using Folch extraction, and the lowest yield using the aqueous method (from 19 to 60% related to the lipid recovery of Folch extraction); (3) ¿-3 fatty acids,which are related to health benefits, weremost abundant in lipids fromaqueous extraction,while¿-6 fatty acids were most abundant in Folch extractions, except for B. dubia; (4) lipids from Folch and Soxhlet extractions contained free fatty acids and partial glycerides, which were absent in aqueous extractions; (5) triacylglycerol distribution is similar among insect species, with high levels of ECN 50–54 and low amounts of ECN 36–38. In conclusion, aqueous extraction gave the lowest lipid yield, but provided a lipid extract low in ¿-6/¿-3 ratio and with less polar lipids than Soxhlet and Folch extractions. These characteristics are desirable in edible lipids. This is the first time that the triacylglycerol profile of insect lipids is reported. It is also the first time that C18:1 and C18:2 are reported as separated isomers and that trans isomers of C16:1 and C18:1 are reported in insect lipids.
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