Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Exploring opportunities for on-farm innovations in smallholder dairy systems of Michoacán, Mexico
Cortez Arriola, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pablo Tittonell, co-promotor(en): Walter Rossing; R.D. Améndola Massiotti; Jeroen Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577473 - 162 p.
dairy farming systems - dairy farming - innovations - small farms - family farms - mexico - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkveehouderij - innovaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - familiebedrijven, landbouw

Taking into consideration the population growth, farmers are challenged to produce enough to feed the population. To increase productivity, normally small dairy farmers intensify their production systems by increasing livestock density and inputs, but inadequate management results in economic, technical, and environmental inefficiencies. This work aims to support decision making by farmers and technicians, and to provide information that can aid local governments to establish policies that are effective at improving farmers’ livelihoods. To achieve this, and intensive field work was implemented in Marcos Castellanos, Michoacán, Mexico, to gather the information needed to analyze the dairy farming systems of the region. The exploration analysis showed that simple re-arrangement of existing farm resources may considerably improve current dairy farm performance across family-based on semi-specialized farm types. To actually implement these changes requires breaking away from current mainstream thinking about farming methods and considerable farming skills.

Economic and environmental analysis of energy efficiency measures in agriculture, Case Studies and trade offs
Visser, C.L.M. de; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Stanghellini, C. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Klop, A. ; Wemmenhove, H. - \ 2013
agrEE - 157
landbouw - landbouw en milieu - energie - energiegebruik - efficiëntie - akkerbouw - gewasproductie - tarwe - aardappelen - katoen - rotaties - bedrijfssystemen - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkveehouderij - rundvleesproductie - pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - varkenshouderij - europa - glastuinbouw - agriculture - agriculture and environment - energy - energy consumption - efficiency - arable farming - crop production - wheat - potatoes - cotton - rotations - farming systems - dairy farming systems - dairy farming - beef production - poultry farming - broilers - pig farming - europe - greenhouse horticulture
This report illustrates case studies with an in-depth analysis of the interactions of energy efficiency measures with farm economics and the environmental impact (GHG) of the measures across Europe. The analyses followed a common methodology considering the farm gate as the system boundary. Therefore, considerable energy use in the post-processing of agricultural products were only taken into account, when they can be assumed to be realized on the farm. The analyses of the energy use, economic and environmental effects follow an LCA approach taking into account all costs of the production, including those for machines according to the concept of “useful life” of the machines used. The environmental effects of energy saving were illustrated with the greenhouse gas emission effect of the energy efficiency measures. The case studies are only a selection of specific energy saving measures across Europe and therefore cannot be regarded as representative for all Europe. Nevertheless, they will help to understand constraints and opportunities for increased energy efficiency in agriculture, which can be used to translate to an agenda of practical action or applied research. The findings are valid sometimes only in the specific regional settings, sometimes they are of general validity.
Sustainability of dairy farming and the implementation of EU environmental directives in the northwest of Europa
Vries, M. de; Debruyne, L. ; Aarts, H.F.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 64
melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - duurzame veehouderij - milieu - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - sustainable animal husbandry - environment
Climatic and soil conditions in North-Western Europe are excellently suited for dairy farming and an extensive market for dairy products is close at hand. As a result, dairying is an important economic sector in this region. The downside is that nutrient and greenhouse gas emissions from the dairy sector tend to be high owing to too low efficiencies in the use of fertilizers, feed, energy and water. These inefficiencies are hampering the delivery of key public services such as clean water, clean air and recreation facilities, all of which are being demanded by policy makers and by society. In addition to these environmental pressures, dairy farmers are also facing the financial crisis in the Euro zone, milk price volatility, high investment costs, and narrow profit margins. All this puts the sustainability of dairy farming in NW Europe under threat, both environmentally and economically.
Hogere energie- en onderhoudskosten voor bedrijven met melkrobot
Jager, J.H. ; Everdingen, W.H. van - \ 2012
Agri-monitor 2012 (2012)sept. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkrobots - melkstandinrichtingen - kosten - bedrijfskosten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - rendement - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - milking robots - milking parlours - costs - operating costs - farm management - returns - farm income
De laatste jaren hebben veel melkveebedrijven in een nieuw melksysteem geïnvesteerd. De bedrijven die een melkrobot kochten, realiseren dezelfde kasstroom per 100 kg als de bedrijven die in een zij-aan-zijstal investeerden. Wel vallen ze op door hogere kosten voor onderhoud en energie. Bedrijven met een draaimelkstal zijn gemiddeld veel groter dan de andere twee groepen en hebben gemiddeld het hoogste inkomen uit bedrijf, ondanks de forse investeringen. De bedrijven met een zij-aan-zijmelkstal produceren relatief goedkoop en passen vaker dan gemiddeld weidegang toe.
Familiekudde: dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid optimaal
Galama, P.J. - \ 2011
In: BioKennis innovatie magazine / Wijnands, F.G., van Keulen, H., Dubbeldam, R., - p. 10 - 11.
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - kuddes (herds) - melkveehouderij - rundveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - biologische landbouw - animal welfare - animal health - herds - dairy farming - cattle husbandry - dairy farming systems - organic farming
Koeien houden in een vaste kudde geeft zoveel rust, dat hun welzijn en gezondheid flink vooruit gaat. Dat is de verwachting van een groep melkveehouders en onderzoekers. De twintig biologische en gangbare veehouders van het netwerk ‘familiekudde’ ontwerpen daarom samen met onderzoekers een economisch rendabel veehouderijsysteem, waarin de behoeften van de koe centraal staat.
Re-designing as starting point for more sustainable dairy farming
Bos, A.P. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2011
Syscope Magazine 2011 (2011)summer. - p. 10 - 13.
melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - systeeminnovatie - innovaties - huisvesting van koeien - duurzame veehouderij - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - system innovation - innovations - cow housing - sustainable animal husbandry
Measures that make economic sense for a dairy farm often turn out to be less beneficial for the welfare of the cows. On the other hand, an improvement in animal welfare can turn out to be bad for the environment. ‘These intractable cause and effect connections occur frequently in modern cattle farming systems, but they could be disconnected from one another by a completely new approach’, argues Bram Bos from Wageningen UR. This is what the project Cow Power, that ran from 2007-2009 was all about.
Kalveren bij de Koe
Verwer, C.M. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees 2011 (2011)24. - 4 p.
kalveren - dierenwelzijn - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkveehouderij - zoogkoeien - diergezondheid - calves - animal welfare - dairy farming systems - dairy farming - nurse cows - animal health
'Kalveren bij de koe’ is een heel aaibaar concept om dierenwelzijn te bevorderen. Het project was de afgelopen jaren goed voor veel aandacht. Het principe lijkt simpel, maar in de praktijk komt er veel bij kijken om succesvol kalveren bij de moeder op te fokken. In dit BioKennisbericht ervaringen van deelnemende boeren uit de periode 2009 tot 2011.
Duurzaamheid regionaal grondgebonden grootschalige melkveehouderij : 3P Businessplan Koe-Landerij in samenhang met Voer-Landerij ZO Drenthe
Galama, P.J. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 424) - 55
melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - melkveebedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - boeren - samenwerking - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame veehouderij - innovaties - drenthe - loopstallen - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - dairy farms - farm management - farmers - cooperation - sustainability - sustainable animal husbandry - innovations - loose housing
In dit rapport wordt de duurzaamheid van de Koe-Landerij beschreven, het toekomstig melkveebedrijf van Berend Jan en Bouke Durk Wilms in Schoonebeek (Drenthe). De koeien worden gehouden in vrijloopstallen die veel ruimte bieden voor natuurlijk gedrag van het vee. De vrijloopstallen krijgen een organische bodem waarop de koeien lekker kunnen lopen en liggen en waarin de mest wordt gehumesteerd. In elke vrijloopstal lopen twee groepen van ongeveer 60 dieren. In deze opzet kan één arbeidskracht vier groepen managen. Volgens het in dit rapport beschreven groeiscenario kan het melkveebedrijf vanaf 2015 in een periode van circa 10 jaar met eigen aanwas groeien naar ongeveer 1000 melkkoeien. Hiervoor begint men vanaf begin 2013 met jongveeopfok. De stallen bevinden zich in een parkachtig landschap van 20 ha. Het bedrijf heeft geen grond in eigendom voor de teelt van voer en afzet van mest verrijkt met compostmateriaal (humest). Het bedrijf is regionaal grondgebonden door de samenwerking met melkveehouders en akkerbouwers die voer telen en humest afnemen. Een voercentrum is hierbij tussenschakel. Het voercentrum koopt gewassen van melkveehouders en akkerbouwers, slaat dit centraal op, verwerkt het tot complete rantsoenen en levert het voer aan verschillende melkveebedrijven. Deze samenwerking heet de Voer-Landerij. In het 3P-businessplan is de duurzaamheid van People, Profit en Planet uitgewerkt voor de Koe-Landerij en de Voer-Landerij. Dit businessplan is gebaseerd op de visie en strategie van de ondernemers in Schoonebeek. Hierin staan een aantal punten centraal: Sterk gericht op community denken; samenwerking met en waardering door omgeving. Streven naar minder kapitaalintensieve melkveehouderij door goedkope huisvesting en geen eigen grond voor voerteelt en mestafzet. Regionaal grondgebonden door samenwerking met melkveehouders en akkerbouwers.
Livestock production systems in relation with feed availability in the highlands and Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Wondatir, Z. - \ 2010
[S.l.] : S.n. - 140 p.
rundvee - melkveehouderij - melkveehouderijsystemen - agrarische productiesystemen - veevoeding - voer - melkresultaten - marketing - ethiopië - cattle - dairy farming - dairy farming systems - agricultural production systems - livestock feeding - feeds - dairy performance - ethiopia
Familiekudde - natuurlijk houderijsysteem voor melkvee
Verwer, C.M. - \ 2010
BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2010)16. - 4 p.
biologische landbouw - kuddes (herds) - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderijsystemen - bedrijfsmanagement - bedrijfseconomie - organic farming - herds - animal welfare - animal health - management - dairy farming systems - business management - business economics
De Familiekudde is een innovatief concept dat bijdraagt aan een duurzame (biologische) melkveehouderij. Veehouders uit het praktijknetwerk ‘Familiekudde’ staan op het punt om dit totaal nieuwe houderijsysteem toe te passen op hun bedrijf. In de Familiekudde ligt de nadruk op een natuurlijke leefomgeving. Het concept werkt met stabiele kuddes, kalveren bij de koe en zonder onthoornen. Het dier krijgt de ruimte en mogelijkheid om haar natuurlijke gedrag te vertonen. Er wordt rekening gehouden met bedrijfseconomische randvoorwaarden, milieu, diergezondheid en bedrijfsmanagement. In dit bioKennisbericht een introductie van het Familiekuddeconcept, de consequenties en oplossingen voor mogelijke knelpunten.
Supply chain analysis of peri-urban dairy chain around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2009
[Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 43
melkproducten - bedrijfssystemen - melkveehouderijsystemen - ketenmanagement - melkconsumptie - analyse - ethiopië - milk products - farming systems - dairy farming systems - supply chain management - milk consumption - analysis - ethiopia
Despite this large number of animals in Ethiopia, the consumption of milk per capita is amongst the lowest in the continent. There is an unmet and growing demand for fresh milk in urban centres whilst processing plants still operate at under-capacity. To ease this problem, donors and NGO’s undertake various support efforts aimed at strengthening production an improving access to markets; however there is hardly any rise in production and volume of marketed milk. While in the urban retail market, the perception exists that processed and packed dairy products are sold out quickly, small scale milk producers have difficulties entering the formal market chain. This report distinguish three areas of research: market and marketing issues (number and type of outlets for dairy products), organizational issues in the supply chain and technological issues (infrastructure; quality of inputs; farming systems).
The cattle sector in Central and Eastern Europe : developments and opportunities in a time of transition
Peters, K.J. ; Kuipers, A. ; Keane, M.G. ; Dimitriadou, A. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP technical series no. 10) - ISBN 9789086861040 - 179
rundvee - economische sectoren - vleesvee - vlees - rundvlees - melkvee - melkveehouderij - economische ontwikkeling - markten - centraal-europa - melkveehouderijsystemen - ketenmanagement - cattle - economic sectors - beef cattle - meat - beef - dairy cattle - dairy farming - economic development - markets - central europe - dairy farming systems - supply chain management
Countries in Eastern-Europe are in a lengthy period of rapid changes. Ten Central and Eastern European countries entered the European Union in 2004 and two more entered in 2007. Surrounding countries to the east are in a similar process of change following the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The transition processes were studied in a recent workshop resulting in this book. It is comprised of 13 contributions: four overview articles, one on the topic of animal welfare and eight country reports. The country reports come from a wide variety of countries in Eastern Europe and Asia: Slovakia, Poland, Baltic States, Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Caucasian countries and Central Asian countries. The country reports describe the transitions taking place in these countries. Both developments in the beef cattle sector and in the dairy chain are described with emphasis on the dairy chain situation. The authors are from a range of academic and professional backgrounds including universities, research and developmental institutions, farmers' organisations, agribusiness and a marketing board. Some analyses are made and several critical points in development are signalled. Thus, barriers as well as opportunities for further development are mentioned and described in this book.
Weidegang in Nederland anno 2008 : Eindmeting Koe & Wij
Well, E. van; Schans, F.C. van der - \ 2008
Culemborg : CLM Onderzoek en Advies BV (Publicatie / CLM 679-2008) - 62 p.
melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - melkkoeien - begrazing - graastijd - weiden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - vragenlijsten - nederland - voedersystemen - melkveehouderijsystemen - dairy farming - dairy farms - dairy cows - grazing - grazing date - pastures - farm management - farm development - questionnaires - netherlands - feeding systems - dairy farming systems
Het project Koe & Wij werkt aan een sectorbrede bewustwording van het belang van weidegang en enthousiasmeert melkveehouders voor weidegang door het bieden van technische en economische oplossingen voor knelpunten bij weidegang. Het effect van het project Koe & Wij is gemonitord middels een nulmeting bij de start en een eindmeting na afloop. Doel van deze eindmeting is: de verandering (voorjaar 2008 ten opzichte van zomer 2006) van bewustzijn, houding en gedrag van melkveehouders ten aanzien van weidegang vast te leggen; inzicht in de (spreiding van) persoonlijke waarden van melkveehouders; inzicht krijgen in de resultaten van het project Koe & Wij voor een beoordeling van de effectiviteit van het project; ideeën en suggesties voor de invulling van een eventueel vervolgproject. Dit is de rapportage van de eindmeting welke CLM Onderzoek en Advies in het kader van het project Koe & Wij heeft uitgevoerd. Deze eindmeting is uitgevoerd middels een telefonische enquête onder een representatieve groep van 600 melkveehouders verdeeld over het gehele land
Landbouwkundige gevolgen van het aanscherpen en differentiëren van fosfaatgebruiksnormen voor de melkveehouderij
Aarts, H.F.M. ; Boer, D.J. den; Middelkoop, J.C. van; Oenema, J. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Plant Research International [etc.] (Rapport / Plant Research International 166) - 46
fosformeststoffen - fosfaat - mestbehoeftebepaling - melkveehouderij - landbouwbeleid - nederland - fosfaatuitspoeling - melkveehouderijsystemen - phosphorus fertilizers - phosphate - fertilizer requirement determination - dairy farming - agricultural policy - netherlands - phosphate leaching - dairy farming systems
CO2 exchange and carbon balance in two grassland sites on eutrophic drained peat soils
Veenendaal, E.M. ; Kolle, O. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Schrier-Uijl, A.P. ; Huissteden, J. van; Walsem, J.D. van; Moller, F. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2007
Biogeosciences 4 (2007)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1027 - 1040.
kooldioxide - netto ecosysteem koolstofbalans - veengebieden - eddy-covariantie - melkveehouderijsystemen - graslanden - nederland - carbon dioxide - net ecosystem carbon balance - peatlands - eddy covariance - dairy farming systems - grasslands - netherlands - ecosystem-atmosphere exchange - dioxide exchange - interannual variability - spatial variability - seasonal-variation - methane emissions - flux measurements - wet grasslands - water-vapor - net carbon
In this study we investigated the role of intensive and extensive dairy farm practices on CO2 exchange and the carbon balance of peatlands by means of eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Year long EC measurements were made in two adjacent farm sites on peat soil in the western part of the Netherlands. One site (Stein) is a new meadow bird reserve and is managed predominantly by mowing in June and August. The second site (Oukoop) is an intensive dairy farm.
In this study we investigated the role of intensive and extensive dairy farm practices on CO2 exchange and the carbon balance of peatlands by means of eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Year long EC measurements were made in two adjacent farm sites on peat soil in the western part of the Netherlands. One site (Stein) is a new meadow bird reserve and is managed predominantly by mowing in June and August. The second site (Oukoop) is an intensive dairy farm. Maximum photosynthetic uptake of the grass sward (range 2 to 34 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) showed a close and similar linear relationship with Leaf Area Index (LAI; range 1 to 5) except in maturing hay meadows, where maximum photosynthetic uptake did not increase further. Apparent quantum yield varied between 0.02 and 0.08 (mean 0.045) mu mol CO2 mu mol(-1) photons at both sites and was significantly correlated with LAI during the growth season. Ecosystem Respiration at 10 degrees C (R-10) calculated from the year round data set was 3.35 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) at Stein and 3.69 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) at Oukoop. Both sites were a source of carbon in winter and a sink during summer with net ecosystem exchange varying between 50 to 100 mmol CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in winter to below -400 mmol CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in summer. Periodically, both sites became a source after mowing. Net annual ecosystem exchange (NEE) for Stein was -5.7 g C m(-2) a(-1) and for Oukoop 133.9 g C m(-2) a(-1). When biomass removal, manure applications and estimates of methane emissions ware taken into account, both eutrophic peat meadows are a strong source for C around 420 g C m(-2) a(-1).
The way you do, it matters : a case study: farming economically in Galician dairy agroecosystems in the context of a cooperative
Dominguez Garcia, M.D. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): X.S. Fernández. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047964 - 194
rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - melkveehouderij - sociale economie - sociale verandering - landgebruik - modernisering - stijl - milieueffect - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - coöperatieve landbouw - spanje - melkveehouderijsystemen - economische verandering - agro-ecosystemen - agro-ecologie - rural sociology - rural development - dairy farming - socioeconomics - social change - land use - modernization - style - environmental impact - farm management - cooperative farming - spain - dairy farming systems - economic change - agroecosystems - agroecology
This thesis aims to study the sustainability of agriculture in Galicia (Spain) in a new and integrative way. Therefore not only economic but also social and ecological data and interest are drawn into the analysis. Farming, undoubtedly, is an economic activity. However, in order to obtain and market the final product natural resources are used and transformed. When pollution and depletion or exhaustion of those resources takes place, the future of the activity is at stake. Furthermore, social relations play an important role. The use of labour, for instance, is based on economic deliberations but also regulated by social interests. Social and political factors are at stake at the institutional level as well. These factors determine not only the orientation of agricultural production but also its volume, and prices. Agriculture is a multi-dimensional activity. It is an ecological activity by its use of natural resources. It is a social activity as production and consumption are based on a specific organisation of social relations. And it is a cultural activity as agriculture roots in a way of living which is time- and place specific and characterized by locally and historically specific norms and values. In short, it is not only an activity that generates economic value. In order to study the sustainability of an agricultural system, it is therefore important to analyse its impact on different (social, economic and ecological) domains but also to look into their interrelation and, hence, interaction. Theoretically there are two possible ways of interaction: (1) the interaction between the different domains has a positive effect and strengthen the sustainability of the whole system (synergy), or (2) the different domains counteract each other and a positive effect in one domains works to the detriment of another domain (trade off effect). In this thesis an integrative approach was chosen which made use of the insights and methods of different disciplines: ecological economics, agro-ecology and sociology. On the basis of the integrative approach we analysed if and how the economic, ecological and social effects of an agricultural system vary depending on the chosen style of farming. In order to understand actual Galician agriculture it is necessary to know the past. The first part of the thesis describes the recent history of Galician agriculture. Since the Second World War the traditional peasant agro-ecosystem transformed into an industrial system; this period is also described as a process of de-structuring. It included the dismantling of the traditional agro-ecosystem in force until the middle of the 20th century; and the recessive dynamics derived from the most recent process of modernisation throughout the period 1960-2005. In this thesis, the traditional agroecosystem is defined as an articulated and joint management of cattle, crops and nature with a high degree of integration and interaction. It analyses of political and socio-demographic factors that have jeopardised the continuation of that model. The dismantling of the traditional agroecosystem is effective during the last process of modernisation after 1960. Its effects come to the fore quite clearly in the changes in land use during that period, demonstrated by the evolution of the Useful Agricultural Area and the Total Area, as well as by the reduction in the number of farms. The main features of this process of modernisation are the alignment of farm management strategies based on intensification, specialisation and the increasing dependency on external market inputs as regards both biological and, specially, mechanical technology. Income squeeze, reduction of labour and abandonment of productive natural resources are the main consequences of that process so far. Although the study of the farming dynamics at the regional level suggests homogeneity of management-strategies, the second part of the thesis -looking for heterogeneity- shows that the practice is actually heterogeneous. Heterogeneity in the practice or the different ways of doing are encountered by applying the Farming Styles approach and methodology. Styles of farming are analysed at the level of the farmer and his/her farm, within the context of a cooperative of services, Os Irmandinos, located in Ribadeo (Lugo, Galicia). In a following step we analysed the social, economic and ecological impact of every style by means of different indicators. In this way we wanted to find out if the way of doing matters in terms of sustainability. This is interesting not only in order to evaluate the farmers' response of the past, but also to see which of the styles might have promising results also for the future and the possibility to achieve a more sustainable agriculture and balanced rural development. Within the different styles of farming, the style characterized as 'Farming Economically' comes to the fore as an interesting point of departure for the construction of sustainability in a multi-dimensional way.

Effect of improved nitrogen management on greenhouse gas emissions from intensive dairy systems in the Netherlands
Schils, R.L.M. ; Verhagen, A. ; Aarts, H.F.M. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Sebek, L.B.J. - \ 2006
Global Change Biology 12 (2006)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 382 - 391.
broeikasgassen - emissie - stikstof - melkveebedrijven - melkveehouderijsystemen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nederland - greenhouse gases - emission - nitrogen - dairy farms - dairy farming systems - farm management - netherlands - ammonia volatilization - farming systems - n2o emissions - grassland - fertilizer - opportunities - cattle
Dairy systems in Europe contribute to the emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the effects of improved nitrogen (N) management on GHG emissions from Dutch dairy farms are determined. The GHG emissions are calculated using the panel on climate change (IPCC) methodology for the Netherlands, an updated and refined IPCC methodology, and a full accounting approach. The changes in dairy farming over the last 20 years, and the consequences for N management are described using detailed farm-level data, collected in 1985, 1997 and 2002. The selected years represent distinct stages in the implementation of N policies. The changes in N management have reduced the GHG emissions. A reduction of the N surplus per kilogram milk with 1 g N reduced the GHG emissions per kilogram milk with approximately 29 g CO2-equivalents. The reduction of the N surpluses was mainly brought about by reduced fertilizer use and reduced grazing time. The use of updated and refined emission factors resulted in higher CH4 emissions and lower N2O emissions. On average, the overall emission was 36% higher with the refined method. Full accounting, including all direct and indirect emissions of CH4, N2O and CO2, increased the emission with 36% compared with the refined IPCC methodology. We conclude that the N surplus at farm level is a useful indicator of GHG emissions. A full accounting system as presented in this study may effectively enable farmers to address the issue of emissions of GHGs in their operational management decisions. Both approaches serve their own specific objectives: full accounting at the farm level to explore mitigation options, and the IPCC methods to report changes in GHG emissions at the national level
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