- J.A. Nettleton (2)
- M.C. Oliveira Otto de (2)
- R.L. Rich (1)
- C.T. Sibley (1)
- L.M. Steffen (1)
- M.Y. Tsai (1)
Biomarkers of Dairy Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Oliveira Otto, M.C. de; Nettleton, J.A. ; Lemaitre, R.N. ; Steffen, L.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Rich, R.L. ; Tsai, M.Y. ; Jacobs, D.R. ; Mozaffarian, D. - \ 2013
Journal of the American Heart Association 2 (2013). - ISSN 2047-9980 - 11 p.
intima-media thickness - physical-activity - dietary patterns - plasma-lipids - milk-fat - hypertension - women - association - calcium - mesa
Background Evidence regarding the role of dairy fat intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been mixed and inconclusive. Most earlier studies have used self-reported measures of dietary intake and focused on relatively racially homogeneous populations. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat in a multiethnic cohort provide objective measures of dairy fat intake and facilitate conclusions relevant to populations with different diets and susceptibility to CVD. Methods and Results In a multiethnic cohort of 2837 US adults aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000–2002), phospholipid fatty acids including 15:0, 14:0, and trans-16:1n7 were measured using standardized methods, and the incidence of CVD prospectively adjudicated. Self-reported whole-fat dairy and butter intakes had strongest associations with 15:0, rather than 14:0 or trans-16:1n7. In multivariate models including demographics and lifestyle and dietary habits, each SD-unit of 15:0 was associated with 19% lower CVD risk (hazard ratio [95% CI] 0.81 [0.68 to 0.98]) and 26% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk (0.74 [0.60 to 0.92]). Associations were strengthened after mutual adjustment for 14:0 and trans-16:1n-7 and were similar after adjustment for potential mediators. Plasma phospholipid 14:0 and trans-16:1n-7 were not significantly associated with incident CVD or CHD. All findings were similar in white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese American participants. Conclusion Plasma phospholipid 15:0, a biomarker of dairy fat, was inversely associated with incident CVD and CHD, while no association was found with phospholipid 14:0 and trans-16:1n-7. These findings support the need for further investigation of CVD effects of dairy fat, dairy-specific fatty acids, and dairy products in general
Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Oliveira Otto, M.C. de; Mozaffarian, D. ; Kromhout, D. ; Bertoni, A.G. ; Sibley, C.T. ; Jacobs, D.R. ; Nettleton, J.A. - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96 (2012)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 397 - 404.
coronary-heart-disease - blood-pressure - risk-factors - womens health - cholesterol - consumption - mesa - hypertension - metaanalysis - patterns
Background: Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of SF influence these relations may provide new insights. Objective: We investigated the association of SF consumption from different food sources and the incidence of CVD events in a multi-ethnic population. Design: Participants who were 45-84 y old at baseline (n = 5209) were followed from 2000 to 2010. Diet was assessed by using a 120-item food-frequency questionnaire. CVD incidence (316 cases) was assessed during follow-up visits. Results: After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle, and dietary confounders, a higher intake of dairy SF was associated with lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and +5% of energy from dairy SF: 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) and 0.62 (0.47, 0.82), respectively]. In contrast, a higher intake of meat SF was associated with greater CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and a +5% of energy from meat SF: 1.26 (1.02, 1.54) and 1.48 (0.98, 2.23), respectively]. The substitution of 2% of energy from meat SF with energy from dairy SF was associated with a 25% lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.63, 0.91)]. No associations were observed between plant or butter SF and CVD risk, but ranges of intakes were narrow. Conclusion: Associations of SF with health may depend on food-specific fatty acids or other nutrient constituents in foods that contain SF, in addition to SF. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:397-404.