Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8301 - 8306.
logistic recovery model - systematic review - metaanalysis - impacts - trawling
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with
large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.
The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management
Batary, P. ; Dicks, L.V. ; Kleijn, D. ; Sutherland, W.J. - \ 2015
Conservation Biology 29 (2015)4. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1006 - 1016.
land-use intensity - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - farmland birds - biodiversity - metaanalysis - europe - benefits - intensification - pollinators
Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted.
Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease
Olivares, M. ; Albrecht, S. ; Palma, G. de; Desamparados Ferrer, M. ; Castillejo, G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Sanz, Y. - \ 2015
European Journal of Nutrition 54 (2015). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 119 - 128.
breast-milk - cytokine production - allergic disease - ce-lif - childhood - risk - oligosaccharides - infant - metaanalysis - bacteria
Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12) were collected. Cytokines and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were analyzed by bead-arrays and flow cytometry and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) were assessed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Breast-milk microbiota composition was analyzed by conventional and quantitative real-time PCR. Result Breast milk from CD mothers showed significantly lower levels of interleukin (IL) 12p70 (P\\0.042), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1 (P\\0.018) and sIgA (P\\0.003) and almost significantly lower levels of interferon (IFN)-c (P\\0.058). Six mothers in each group belonged to the secretor Le(a-b?) type, one to the secretor Le(a-b-) type and five to the non-secretor Le(a?b-) type. CD mothers of non-secretor Le(a?b-) type showed increased Lacto-N-tetraose content (P\\0.042) compared with healthy mothers. CD mothers’ milk showed reduced gene copy numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. (P\\0.026) and B. fragilis group (P\\0.044). Conclusion CD mothers’ breast milk is characterized by a reduced abundance of immunoprotective compounds (TGF-b1 and sIgA) and bifidobacteria. The reduction in these components could theoretically diminish the protective effects of breast-feeding on the child’s future risk of developing CD.
Direct comparison of metabolic health effects of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in high-fat-diet-fed mice
Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Stelt, I. van der; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Vliet, M.A. van; Amolo, T. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Venema, D.P. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2015
Genes & Nutrition 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1555-8932 - 13 p.
cardiovascular-disease - mediterranean diet - c57bl/6j mice - obese mice - bioavailability - polyphenols - inflammation - metaanalysis - cholesterol - prevention
Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, possibly by affecting metabolic health. The relative potency of different flavonoids in causing beneficial effects on energy and lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Effects of quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in mice fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks were compared, relative to normal-fat diet. HF-induced body weight gain was significantly lowered by all flavonoids (17–29 %), but most by quercetin. Quercetin significantly lowered HF-induced hepatic lipid accumulation (71 %). Mesenteric adipose tissue weight and serum leptin levels were significantly lowered by quercetin, hesperetin and anthocyanins. Adipocyte cell size and adipose tissue inflammation were not affected. The effect on body weight and composition could not be explained by individual significant effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or activity. Lipid metabolism was not changed as measured by indirect calorimetry or expression of known lipid metabolic genes in liver and white adipose tissue. Hepatic expression of Cyp2b9 was strongly downregulated by all flavonoids. In conclusion, all flavonoids lowered parameters of HF-induced adiposity, with quercetin being most effective.
The relationship between fermented food intake and mortality risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort
Praagman, J. ; Dalmeijer, G.W. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Beulens, J.W.J. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 498 - 506.
coronary-heart-disease - lactic-acid bacteria - dairy-products - colorectal-cancer - consumption - stroke - metaanalysis - questionnaire - menaquinone - men
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between total and subtypes of bacterial fermented food intake (dairy products, cheese, vegetables and meat) and mortality due to all causes, total cancer and CVD. From the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort, 34 409 Dutch men and women, aged 20–70 years who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline, were included. Baseline intakes of total and subtypes of fermented foods were measured with a validated FFQ. Data on the incidence and causes of death were obtained from the national mortality register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse mortality in relation to the quartiles of fermented food intake. After a mean follow-up of 15 (sd 2·5) years, 2436 deaths occurred (1216 from cancer and 727 from CVD). After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, education level, hypertension, smoking habit, BMI, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and alcohol, total fermented food intake was not found to be associated with mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio upper v. lowest quartile (HRQ4 v. Q1) 1·00, 95 % CI 0·88, 1·13), cancer (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·02, 95 % CI 0·86, 1·21) or CVD (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·04, 95 % CI 0·83, 1·30). Bacterial fermented foods mainly consisted of fermented dairy foods (78 %) and cheese (16 %). None of the subtypes of fermented foods was consistently related to mortality, except for cheese which was moderately inversely associated with CVD mortality, and particularly stroke mortality (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·59, 95 % CI 0·38, 0·92, Ptrend= 0·046). In conclusion, the present study provides no strong evidence that intake of fermented foods, particularly fermented dairy foods, is associated with mortality.
Prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of developing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Schoenaker, D.A.J.M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Callaway, L.K. ; Mishra, G.D. - \ 2015
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102 (2015)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 94 - 101.
coronary-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - mediterranean diet - gestational hypertension - preeclampsia - metaanalysis - consumption - cohort - supplementation - prevention
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, are common obstetric complications associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and child. It remains unclear how dietary intake can influence HDP risk. Objective: We investigated associations between prepregnancy dietary patterns and risk of HDPs. Design: We selected 3582 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, which is an observational population-based study. Women were not pregnant at baseline in 2003 and reported at least one live birth between 2003 and 2012. Diet was assessed by using a validated 101-item food-frequency questionnaire in 2003, and factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. HDPs were assessed by using the question, "Were you diagnosed or treated for hypertension during pregnancy?" Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate RRs (95% CIs) adjusted for dietary, reproductive, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Results: During 9 y of follow-up of 3582 women, 305 women (8.5%) reported a first diagnosis of HDPs in 6149 pregnancies. We identified 4 dietary patterns labeled as meat, high-fat, and sugar; Mediterranean-style; fruit and low-fat dairy; and cooked vegetables. In the adjusted model, the meat, high-fat, and sugar, fruit and low-fat dairy, and cooked vegetable dietary patterns were not associated with HDP risk. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern (characterized by vegetables, legumes, nuts, tofu, rice, pasta, rye bread, red wine, and fish) was inversely associated with risk of developing HDPs (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.81). Conclusions: In this population-based study of Australian women, we observed an independent protective dose-response association between prepregnancy consumption of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and HDP risk. Additional studies are recommended to confirm our findings by prospectively examining whether the implementation of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern before pregnancy has a role in the prevention of HDPs.
The association between vitamin D status and parameters for bone density and quality is modified by Body Mass Index
Sohl, E. ; Jongh, R.T. de; Swart, K.M.A. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Velde, N. van der; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Velde, S.J. te; Lips, P. ; Schoor, N.M. van - \ 2015
Calcified Tissue International 96 (2015)2. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 113 - 122.
quantitative ultrasound parameters - mineral density - postmenopausal women - d deficiency - physical performance - 25-hydroxyvitamin d - risk-assessment - older persons - population - metaanalysis
The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these associations were modified by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, or physical activity. Two-independent cohorts of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA-I, 1995/1996, aged =65; LASA-II, 2008/2009, aged 61–71) and baseline measurement of the B-vitamins for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures (B-PROOF) study (2008–2011, aged 65+) were used. QUS measurements [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS)] were performed at the calcaneus in all three cohorts (N = 1,235, N = 365, N = 1319); BMD was measured by Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in B-PROOF (N = 1,162 and 1,192 for specific sites) and LASA-I (N = 492 and 503). The associations of vitamin D status with BUA and BMD were modified by BMI. Only in persons with low-to-normal BMI (
Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vtiman D
Ruiz-Nunez, B. ; Hurk, Y.A.C. van den; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1466 - 1476.
cardiovascular-disease risk - low-grade inflammation - heart-disease - fatty-acids - eicosapentaenoic acid - gut microbiota - brain-function - life-style - metaanalysis - consumption
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 µg/d; range 1·9–11·2 µg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 µg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation <10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters in older people with an elevated plasma homocysteine level: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial
Enneman, A.W. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Meurs, J.B.J. van; Lips, P. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Schoor, N.M. van; Velde, N. van der - \ 2015
Calcified Tissue International 96 (2015)5. - ISSN 0171-967X - p. 401 - 409.
placebo-controlled trial - postmenopausal women - fracture risk - turnover markers - elderly-women - metaanalysis - association - population - folate - bmd
High plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are associated with increased osteoporotic fracture incidence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included participants aged =65 years with plasma Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. The intervention comprised 2-year supplementation with either a combination of 500 µg B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D or placebo with 600 IU vitamin D only. In total, 1111 participants underwent repeated dual-energy X-ray assessment and 1165 participants underwent QUS. Femoral neck (FN) BMD, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were assessed. After 2 years, FN-BMD and BUA had significantly decreased, while LS-BMD significantly increased (all p <0.01) and SOS did not change in either treatment arm. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and placebo group were present for FN-BMD (p = 0.24), LS-BMD (p = 0.16), SOS (p = 0.67), and BUA (p = 0.96). However, exploratory subgroup analyses revealed a small positive effect of the intervention on BUA at follow-up among compliant persons >80 years (estimated marginal mean 64.4 dB/MHz for the intervention group and 61.0 dB/MHz for the placebo group, p = 0.04 for difference). In conclusion, this study showed no overall effect of treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid on BMD or QUS parameters in elderly, mildly hyperhomocysteinemic persons, but suggests a small beneficial effect on BUA in persons >80 years who were compliant in taking the supplement.
Sustainability of milk production in the Netherlands - A comparison between raw organic, pasteurised organic and conventional milk
Asselt, E.D. van; Capuano, E. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2015
International Dairy Journal 47 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 19 - 26.
life-cycle assessment - environmental impacts - production systems - dairy farms - tool - metaanalysis - agriculture - consumption - indicators - quality
Consumer preferences are changing, resulting in an increased demand for both organic milk and raw milk due to their perceived higher nutritional value and positive contribution to animal welfare. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of these products with conventional pasteurised milk, a sustainability assessment was performed incorporating social, environmental and economic factors. The assessment showed that raw organic milk gave the highest overall sustainability score. This is due to, for example, a high score for animal welfare and a high score for the environmental factors due to the omission of the pasteurisation step compared with conventional milk. The latter may pose human health risks due to the possible presence of pathogens in raw milk. As the approach followed is transparent, it allows policy makers to discuss the outcome of the sustainability assessment both with stakeholders and the general public, which will facilitate the decision making process.
Global patterns of plant root colonization intensity by mycorrhizal fungi explained by climate and soil chemistry
Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Douma, J.C. ; Akhmetzhanova, A.A. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Cornwell, W.K. ; Moens, E.J. ; Treseder, K.K. ; Tibbett, M. ; Wang, Y.P. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. - \ 2015
Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (2015)3. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 371 - 382.
ectomycorrhizal fungi - arbuscular mycorrhizas - ecosystem development - temperature stress - growth-responses - cold-storage - nitrogen - phosphorus - carbon - metaanalysis
Aim Most vascular plants on Earth form mycorrhizae, a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi. Despite the broad recognition of the importance of mycorrhizae for global carbon and nutrient cycling, we do not know how soil and climate variables relate to the intensity of colonization of plant roots bymycorrhizal fungi. Here we quantify the global patterns of these relationships. Location Global. Methods Data on plant root colonization intensities by the two dominant types of mycorrhizal fungi world-wide, arbuscular (4887 plant species in 233 sites) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (125 plant species in 92 sites),were compiled frompublished studies. Data for climatic and soil factors were extracted from global datasets. For a given mycorrhizal type, we calculated at each site the mean root colonization intensity bymycorrhizal fungi across all potentiallymycorrhizal plant species found at the site, and subjected these data to generalized additive model regression analysis with environmental factors as predictor variables. Results We show for the first time that at the global scale the intensity of plant root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi strongly relates to warm-season temperature, frost periods and soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and is highest at sites featuring continental climates with mild summers and a high availability of soil nitrogen. In contrast, the intensity of ectomycorrhizal infection in plant roots is related to soil acidity, soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and seasonality of precipitation, and is highest at sites with acidic soils and relatively constant precipitation levels. Main conclusions We provide the first quantitative global maps of intensity of mycorrhizal colonization based on environmental drivers, and suggest that environmental changes will affect distinct types of mycorrhizae differently. Future analyses of the potential effects of environmental change on global carbon and nutrient cycling via mycorrhizal pathways will need to take into account the relationships discovered in this study.
The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment
Dijkstra, A. ; Bos, C. - \ 2015
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29 (2015)1. - ISSN 0893-164X - p. 82 - 90.
public-health campaigns - warning labels - smoking-cessation - disengagement beliefs - behavior-change - smokers - impact - messages - metaanalysis - adolescents
Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising.
Fatty acid and triglycerides profiling of retail organic, conventional and pasture milk: Implications for health and authenticity
Capuano, E. ; Gravink, R. ; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
International Dairy Journal 42 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 58 - 63.
conjugated linoleic acids - coronary-heart-disease - fresh grass - dairy-products - cows - verification - metaanalysis - cholesterol - systems
Retail full fat high temperature short time pasteurised conventional, organic and “weidemelk” (Dutch quality label for milk from cows on pasture at least 6 h per day, 120 days per year) milk samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in winter and 4 sampling dates in summer 2013 and analysed for the fatty acid (FA) and the triglyceride (TAG) profile by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. FA profile of organic milk was significantly different from that of conventional and “weidemelk” milk both in summer and in winter and the differences between conventional and “weidemelk” milk were less remarkable or negligible. Analogously, the TAG profile of organic milk was different from that of the other two groups but the differences were weaker compared with FA profile. The differences in FA composition of retail full fat milk may have implications for consumers' health and may be used for the authentication of retail organic milk.
Fructose consumption in the Netherlands: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010
Sluik, D. ; Engelen, A.I.P. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 475 - 481.
controlled feeding trials - fatty liver-disease - soft drink consumption - multiple source method - corn syrup - intake distributions - dietary-intake - metaanalysis - obesity - sugar
Background/objectives: Despite the worldwide scientific and media attention, the actual fructose consumption in many non-US populations is not clear. The aim of this study was to estimate the fructose consumption and its main food sources in a representative sample of the general Dutch population. Subjects/methods: In all, 3817 children and adults aged 7–69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Values for fructose content of the products were assigned using several food composition tables. Diet was assessed with two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The Multiple Source Method was used to take into account day-to-day variation and to estimate the habitual fructose consumption. Results: Median habitual fructose intake was 46¿g/day, with an interquartile range of 35–60¿g/day. In boys, the highest median intake was observed among 14- to 18-year olds: 61¿g/day. In girls, those aged 9–13 years reported the highest median intake: 56¿g/day. Of total fructose intake, 67% was consumed in the form of sucrose and 33% was consumed as free fructose. Soft drinks constituted the main food source of total fructose (13–29% across age and sex categories), followed by juices (9–12%), fruit (9–18%), cake and cookies (9–11%) and dairy products (6–10%). Conclusions: Fructose comprised 9% of the mean daily energy intake in the general Dutch population aged 7–69 years. The fructose consumption was somewhat lower than most recent figures from the US. The main food sources of fructose were soft drinks, juices and fruit.
Dairy products and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study
Praagman, J. ; Franco, O.H. ; Ikram, M.A. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Engberink, M.F. ; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Hofman, A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2015
European Journal of Nutrition 54 (2015)6. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 981 - 990.
dietary-protein sources - cardiovascular-disease - consumption - population - women - cohort - food - metaanalysis - definitions - death
Purpose We examined whether consumption of total dairy and dairy subgroups was related to incident stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a general older Dutch population. Methods The study involved 4,235 participants of the Rotterdam Study aged 55 and over who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes at baseline (1990–1993). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups in relation to incident CVD events. Results Median intake of total dairy was 397 g/day, which mainly comprised low-fat dairy products (median intake of 247 g/day). During a median follow-up time of 17.3 years, 564 strokes (182 fatal) and 567 CHD events (350 fatal) occurred. Total dairy, milk, low-fat dairy, and fermented dairy were not significantly related to incident stroke or fatal stroke (p > 0.2 for upper vs. lower intake categories). High-fat dairy was significantly inversely related to fatal stroke (HR of 0.88 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.79, 0.99), but not to incident stroke (HR of 0.96 per 100 g/day; 95 % CI 0.90, 1.02). Total dairy or dairy subgroups were not significantly related to incident CHD or fatal CHD (HRs between 0.98 and 1.05 per 100 g/day, all p > 0.35). Conclusions In this long-term follow-up study of older Dutch subjects, total dairy consumption or the intake of specific dairy products was not related to the occurrence of CVD events. The observed inverse association between high-fat dairy and fatal stroke warrants confirmation in other studies.
Ecological contrasts drive responses of wintering farmland birds to conservation management
Hammers, M. ; Muskens, G.J.D.M. ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Teunissen, W.A. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2015
Ecography 38 (2015)8. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 813 - 821.
agri-environment schemes - agricultural intensification - biodiversity - populations - grassland - food - metaanalysis - communities - diversity - declines
In the past decades, large-scale conservation programs have been implemented to halt the decline of farmland species. The mechanisms explaining the effectiveness of these programs remain poorly understood. Here we test the recent hypothesis that the effects of conservation management are determined by the ecological contrasts in limiting resources they create relative to the baseline situation. We examine responses of wintering seed-eating farmland birds to the experimental establishment of winter food plots in areas with contrasting food availability. We found that farmland bird abundance and species richness were strongly positively related to seed availability, regardless of compositional differences between agricultural landscapes. In line with the ecological contrast hypothesis, the responses of wintering farmland birds increased with increasing conservation induced contrast in a key limiting resource. Both contrasts and relative responses were negatively related to baseline food availability, but the absolute bird density in food plots was unrelated to baseline food availability. This indicates that both relative and absolute effects of conservation management need to be considered to properly evaluate the effectiveness of conservation management.
No effect on n-3 fatty acids supplementation on NT-proBNP after myocardial infaction: THe Alpha Omega Trial
Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Sant, P. van 't; Gemen, E.F. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 648 - 655.
brain natriuretic peptide - chronic heart-failure - glomerular-filtration-rate - serum creatinine - cystatin c - stability - risk - omega-3-fatty-acids - metaanalysis - mortality
BACKGROUND: heart failure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, for which n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects. We examined the effect of marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on N-Terminal-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of heart failure. METHODS: we randomly assigned 4837 post-myocardial infarction patients, aged 60-80 years (82% men), to margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400¿mg/day EPA and DHA, 2¿g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 40 months. In a random selection of 639 patients, NT-proBNP was determined both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. NT-proBNP was loge-transformed and analysed by type of treatment using analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline NT-proNBP. RESULTS: patients consumed on average 19.8¿g margarine/day, providing an additional amount of 238¿mg/day EPA with 158¿mg/day DHA, 1.98¿g/day ALA, or both, in the active-treatment groups. In the placebo group, the geometric mean level NT-proBNP increased from 245¿ng/l (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 207-290) to 294¿ng/l (95%-CI: 244-352) after 40 months (p¿=¿0.001). NT-proBNP levels were not affected by ALA (+8% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.34), EPA-DHA (+2% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -14% to +18%; p¿=¿0.78), nor EPA-DHA plus ALA (+9% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.31) treatment. CONCLUSIONS: supplementation with modest amounts of EPA-DHA, with or without ALA, did not have a significant effect on NT-proBNP levels in patients with a history of myocardial infarction.
The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial
Yuan, J.Y.F. ; Smeele, R.J.M. ; Harington, K.D. ; Loon, F.M. van; Wanders, A.J. ; Venn, B.J. - \ 2014
Nutrition Journal 13 (2014). - ISSN 1475-2891
type-2 diabetes-mellitus - desk-top guide - dietary fiber - digestive tolerance - insulin - foods - metaanalysis - glucose - index
Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods: A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax (TM)) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax (TM)) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0-30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30-180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0-30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30-180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax (TM) enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy intake or satiety. Apart from a lower visual appeal, the FibreMax (TM) bread was palatable. Neither bread caused gastrointestinal discomfort related to flatulence or bloating. Conclusions: Enriching bread with 10 g of functional fiber per serve is feasible although reformulation is needed to create not only an acceptable bread, but a desirable product.
Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study
Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; Kromhout, D. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2014
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21 (2014)11. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 1367 - 1375.
cause-specific mortality - all-cause mortality - mediterranean diet - primary prevention - prospective cohort - myocardial-infarction - physical-activity - japanese men - women - metaanalysis
Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759 women aged 20-65 years, free of CVD at baseline. Methods Sufficient physical activity (3.5h/week cycling or sports), a healthy diet (Mediterranean Diet Score 5), (moderate) alcohol consumption (1 beverage/month), non-smoking, and sufficient sleep duration (7 hours) were assessed by self-administered questionnaires between 1994 and 1997. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were ascertained through linkage with national registers. Hazard ratios and preventable proportions were calculated adjusted for age, sex, and educational level. Results During 10-14 years of follow up, 607 composite CVD events (fatal CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) occurred, of which 129 were fatal. Those with the four traditional healthy lifestyle factors had a 57% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.31-0.59) and a 67% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.68) compared with those with none or one healthy lifestyle factor. Sleeping sufficiently in addition to the four traditional lifestyle factors resulted in a 65% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.52), and an 83% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.43). Conclusions Sufficient sleep and adherence to all four traditional healthy lifestyle factors was associated with lower CVD risk. When sufficient sleep duration was added to the traditional lifestyle factors, the risk of CVD was further reduced.
Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices
Salmon, S.J. ; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
Health Psychology 33 (2014)2. - ISSN 0278-6133 - p. 103 - 109.
physical-activity - limited-resource - ego depletion - behavior - interventions - metaanalysis - adolescents - success
OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). METHOD: One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. RESULTS: In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. CONCLUSION: Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse.
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