Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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In vitro methane and gas production with inocula from cows and goats fed an identical diet
Mengistu, Genet ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. - \ 2018
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98 (2018)4. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1332 - 1338.
browse species - cow - gas production - goat - inocula - methane
BACKGROUND: Fermentative capacity among ruminants can differ depending on the type of ruminant species and the substrate fermented. The aim was to compare in vitro cow and goat rumen inocula in terms of methane (CH4) and gas production (GP), fermentation kinetics and 72 h volatile fatty acids (VFA) production using the browse species Acacia etbaica, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Rhus natalensis, freeze-dried maize silage and grass silage, and a concentrate as substrates. RESULTS: Total GP, CH4 and VFA were higher (P ≤ 0.008) in goat inoculum than cows across substrates. The half-time for asymptotic GP was lower (P < 0.0001) in phase 1 and higher (P < 0.012) in phase 2, and the maximum rate of GP was higher (P < 0.0001) in phase 1 and phase 3 (P < 0.0001) in goats compared to cows. Methane production and as a percentage of total GP was higher (P < 0.0001) and the half-time tended (P = 0.059) to be at a later time for goats compared to cows. CONCLUSION: Goat inoculum showed higher fermentative activity with a concomitant higher CH4 production compared to cows. This difference highlights the ability of goats to better utilise browse species and other roughage types.
In vitro gas and methane production of silages from whole-plant corn harvested at 4 different stages of maturity and a comparison with in vivo methane production
Macome, Felicidade ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Hatew, Bayissa ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8895 - 8905.
methane - corn silages - Maturity - in vitro - In vivo
The current study investigated the relationship between in vitro and in vivo CH4 production by cows fed corn silage (CS)-based rations. In vivo CH4 production was measured in climate respiration chambers using 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows. In vitro CH4 production was measured using rumen fluid from the 8 cows that were fully adapted to their respective experimental rations. The animals were grouped in 2 blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 total mixed rations (TMR) that consisted of 75% experimental CS, 20% concentrate, and 5% wheat straw [dry matter (DM) basis]. The experimental CS were prepared from whole-plant corn that was harvested at either a very early (25% DM), early (28% DM), medium (32% DM), or late (40% DM) stage of maturity. The 4 experimental TMR and the corresponding CS served as substrate in 2 separate in vitro runs (each run representing 1 block of 4 animals) using rumen fluid from cows fed the TMR in question. No relationship was found between in vivo CH4 production and in vitro CH4 production measured at various time points between 2 and 48 h. None of the in vitro gas production (GP) and CH4 production parameters was influenced by an interaction between substrate and origin of rumen fluid. In vitro measured 48-h GP was not affected by the maturity of whole-plant corn, irrespective whether CS alone or as part of TMR was incubated in adapted rumen inoculum. Incubation of the experimental TMR did not affect the kinetics parameters associated with gas or CH4 production, but when CS alone was incubated the asymptote of GP of the soluble fraction was slightly decreased with increasing maturity of CS at harvest. In vitro CH4 production expressed as a percent of total gas was not affected by the maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest. Several in vitro parameters were significantly affected (GP) or tended to be affected (CH4) by diet fed to donor cows. It was concluded that the current in vitro technique is not suitable to predict in vivo CH4 production from CS-based rations.
Reductie van ammoniak- en methaanemissie via het voerspoor : onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen de excretie van Totaal Ammoniakaal Stikstof (TAN) en de emissie van enterisch methaan (CH4) op de Koeien&Kansen praktijkbedrijven in de periode 2010-2013
Spek, J.W. ; Klop, A. ; Šebek, L.B. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien en kansen nr. 79) - 19
ammoniakemissie - methaan - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - ammonia emission - methane - emission reduction - cattle feeding
Assessing methane emission from dairy cows : modeling and experimental approaches on rumen microbial metabolism
Lingen, Henk J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431590 - 207
dairy cows - methane - emission - microbial degradation - rumen metabolism - rumen fermentation - models - fatty acids - biochemical pathways - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology - melkkoeien - methaan - emissie - microbiële afbraak - pensmetabolisme - pensfermentatie - modellen - vetzuren - biochemische omzettingen - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie

Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a global warming potential of 28 CO2 equivalents. The livestock sector was estimated to emit 7.1 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalents, which is approximately 14.5% of total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Enteric CH4 production is the main source of GHG emissions from dairy cattle, representing 46% of the global GHG emissions in dairy supply chains. Dairy production has great value in view of the ability of ruminants to effectively turn human inedible biomass into human edible food and to produce food from non-arable land. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to decrease dairy cattle enteric CH4 emission. Evaluation of these strategies requires meticulous quantification and increased understanding of anaerobic fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. The overall aim of this PhD research was, therefore, to quantitatively evaluate enteric CH4 emission from dairy cows as affected by feeding and rumen microbial metabolism.

A meta-analysis was performed to quantify relationships between enteric CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Various milk FA concentrations were significantly or tended to be positively or negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed or milk. Mixed model multiple regression resulted in various milk FA included in optimal equations to predict CH4 yield per unit of feed and per unit of milk. These regression equations indicated a moderate potential for using milk FA profile to predict CH4 yield.

For the development of a mechanistic model of CH4 production in the rumen, the thermodynamic control of pH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, NADH oxidation and methanogenesis was theoretically explored. This control was determined using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. The thermodynamic feasibility of these microbial conversions showed that the control of pH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of H2 and CH4 cannot be explained without considering NADH oxidation, with a considerable effect of pH.

For obtaining experimental support of the conclusions drawn from the theoretical exploration, diurnal patterns of gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, H2 and CH4 emitted, and the rumen microbiota were monitored. In addition, the effect of dietary inclusion of linseed oil on these patterns was assessed. An in vivo experiment with rumen cannulated dairy cows was performed to study the anaerobic metabolism and the microbiota composition in the rumen. A 100-fold increase in pH2 in the rumen headspace was observed at 0.5 h after feeding, followed by a decline. Qualitatively similar patterns after feeding were observed for H2 and CH4 emission, ethanol and lactate concentrations, and propionate molar proportion, whereas an opposite pattern was seen for acetate molar proportion. Associated with these patterns, a temporal biphasic change in the microbial composition was observed as based on 16S ribosomal RNA with certain taxa specifically associated with each phase. Bacterial concentrations were affected by time and increased by linseed oil supplementation. Archaeal concentrations tended to be affected by time and were not affected by diet, despite linseed oil supplementation tending to decrease the partial pressure and emission of CH4 and tending to increase propionate molar proportion. The various diurnal profiles that were monitored support the key role of the NAD+ to NADH ratio in rumen fermentation and the importance of diurnal dynamics when understanding VFA, H2 and CH4 production.

A dynamic mechanistic model was developed, in which the thermodynamic control of pH2 on VFA fermentation pathways, and methanogenesis in the bovine rumen are incorporated. The model represents substrate degradation, microbial fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen, with the type of VFA formed to be controlled by the NAD+ to NADH ratio, which in turn is controlled by pH2. Feed composition and feed intake rate representing a twice daily feeding regime were used as model input. The model predicted a marked peak in pH2 after feeding that rapidly declined in time. This peak in pH2 caused a decrease in NAD+ to NADH ratio followed by an increased propionate molar proportion at the expense of acetate molar proportion. In response to feeding, the model predicted a sudden increase and a steady decrease in CH4 production in time. The pattern of CH4 emission rate followed the patterns of pH2 and H2 emission rate, but its magnitude of increase in response to feeding was less pronounced. A global sensitivity analysis indicated the parameter that determines the NADH oxidation rate to explain the most substantial part of the variation of predicted daily CH4 emission. The modeling effort provides the integration of more detailed knowledge than accomplished in previous rumen fermentation models and enables assessment of diurnal dynamics of rumen metabolic pathways yielding VFA, H2 and CH4.

For assessing the general value of the research reported in this thesis, the potential for predicting enteric CH4 emission from dairy cattle based on milk FA profile was discussed in the light of published studies and compared with empirical modeling of enteric CH4 based on feed input. Moreover, the concept of NAD-controlled fermentation was considered in a more general perspective by comparing the rumen ecosystem with bioreactor systems. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed models as an alternative for IPCC tiered approaches was explored. In conclusion, the research reported in this thesis contributes to an increased understanding of rumen fermentation and microbial metabolism, and has provides a basis to further improve prediction models of enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cattle.

Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

Changes in in vitro gas and methane production from rumen fluid from dairy cows during adaptation to feed additives in vivo
Klop, G. ; Laar-van Schuppen, S. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2017
Animal 11 (2017)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 591 - 599.
adaptation - dairy cows - essential oils - lauric acid - methane
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis. Rumen fluid was collected from each cow at days −4, 1, 4, 8, 15 and 22 relative to the introduction of the additives in the diets. On each of these days, a 48-h GP experiment was performed in which rumen fluid from each individual donor cow was incubated with each of the three substrates that reflected the treatment diets offered to the cows. DM intake was on average 19.8, 20.1 and 16.2 kg/day with an average fat- and protein-corrected milk production of 30.7, 31.7 and 26.2 kg/day with diet CON, AR and LA, respectively. In general, feed additives in the donor cow diet had a larger effect on gas and CH4 production than the same additives in the incubation substrate. Incubation substrate affected asymptotic GP, half-time of asymptotic CH4 production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar proportions of propionate and butyrate and degradation of organic matter (OMD), but did not affect CH4 production. No substrate×day interactions were observed. A significant diet×day interaction was observed for in vitro gas and CH4 production, total VFA concentration, molar proportions of VFA and OMD. From day 4 onwards, the LA diet persistently reduced gas and CH4 production, total VFA concentration, acetate molar proportion and OMD, and increased propionate molar proportion. In vitro CH4 production was reduced by the AR diet on day 8, but not on days 15 and 22. In line with these findings, the molar proportion of propionate in fermentation fluid was greater, and that of acetate smaller, for the AR diet than for the CON diet on day 8, but not on days 15 and 22. Overall, the data indicate a short-term effect of AR on CH4 production, whereas the CH4-mitigating effect of LA persisted.
Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
Rekenregels voor de enterische methaan-emissie op het melkveebedrijf en reductie van de methaan-emissie via mesthandling, het handelings-perspectief van het voerspoor inzichtelijk maken met de Kringloopwijzer
S̆ebek, L.B. ; Mosquera, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 976) - 65
methaan - emissie - dierlijke meststoffen - emissiereductie - melkveehouderij - methane - emission - animal manures - emission reduction - dairy farming
Methaanemissie uit mest : schatters voor biochemisch methaan potentieel (BMP) en methaanconversiefactor (MCF)
Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera, J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 961) - 28
mest - methaan - emissie - broeikasgassen - dierhouderij - manures - methane - emission - greenhouse gases - animal husbandry
This report presents the results of a desk study performed to determine and justify the use of new BMP and MCF values for cattle, pig and poultry manure under Dutch conditions.
Towards improving the manure management chain
Hou, Yong - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Gerard Velthof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579620 - 215
manures - manure treatment - livestock - excretion - nitrogen - mitigation - methane - european union - mest - mestverwerking - vee - excretie - stikstof - mitigatie - methaan - europese unie

Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to water bodies, which create a range of unwanted environment impacts. Nutrient losses from manure depend on the management activities and techniques used at different stages of the whole manure management chain, from animal feeding up to manure application to land. The trade-offs and co-benefits of emission mitigation measures and manure treatment technologies are as yet poorly understood, especially when taking the whole manure management chain into account. Moreover, the effects of combinations of measures and technologies have not been well analyzed, and analyses at national scales are lacking. The overall objective of this PhD thesis research is (i) to enhance the quantitative insight into the effects of emission mitigation measures and treatment technologies on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4, and the recovery of N and P from animal manure in the whole management chain, and (ii) to explore the effects of combinations of measures and technologies to mitigate these emissions and to increase the N and P recovery.

In Chapter 2, methodologies for estimating N excretion factors for the main animal categories in member states of the European Union (EU) were reviewed. In Chapter 3, a transparent and uniform methodology for estimating annual feed use and N excretion per animal category for all countries of the EU-27 was developed, based on the energy and protein requirements of the animals and statistics of feed use and composition, animal number and productivity. In Chapter 4, firstly the impacts of a suite of NH3 mitigation measures on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 at individual stages of the manure management chain were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis of published data. Secondly, the overall impacts of alternative combinations of mitigation measures on emissions from the whole chain were evaluated through scenario analysis. Chapter 5 reports on an integrated assessment of the effects of manure treatment on NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management chains in EU-27 at the national level for 2010, using the model MITERRA-Europe. Whole-chain effects of implementing twelve treatment technologies in EU-27 on emissions and N and P recovery were further explored through scenario analyses. Chapter 6 reports on a survey conducted under various stakeholder groups with expertise in the domain of manure treatment in four European countries that have regions of high animal density. The survey addressed questions related to i) which factors facilitate and hinder the implementation of treatment technologies in practice, ii) which technologies have the most potential for successful adoption, and iii) how farm characteristics and the scale of the treatment operation affect priorities for adoption. The main conclusions of this PhD thesis are as follows:

In EU-27, the amounts of N and P in manure are as large as or larger than the total amounts of fertilizer N and P used annually. However, there is a huge spatial variation in manure production. Nutrient excretion factors per animal category also vary between countries, as a result of variations in feed use and animal productivity. Clearly, for accurate inventories of national emission there is a need for estimating nutrient excretion using country-specific feed use data.

Increasing the effectiveness of measures to mitigate NH3 and GHG emissions from animal manure requires proper combination of measures in the manure management chain. Lowering the dietary protein content in animal feed is an effective measure to reduce NH3 emissions and other N emissions at all stages of the manure management chain. Other measures may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Joint adoption of these measures with low-N feeding strategies and slurry acidification can greatly decrease the risk of pollution swapping.

Implementation of manure treatment is on average still limited in EU-27. Effects of manure treatment on NH3 and GHG emissions are therefore relatively small at EU level. Increasing the implementation of treatment technologies, including acidification, incineration and thermal drying, or optimized combinations of treatment technologies, can significantly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets of EU environmental policies. Implementation of manure treatment technologies provides opportunities to improve the use of plant nutrients in manures, because of the release of manure products with different N/P ratios. Applying acidification technology and optimized combination of NH3 emission mitigation measures increase the N recovery from animal manure, and can decrease the demand of mineral fertilizers. However, some technologies decrease the N and P recovery and/or decrease the availability of the N and P in manure products to plants.

Implementation of manure treatment in practice is forced by the pressure from EU environmental regulations, and is hindered by financial barriers. To encourage the adoption of manure treatment, policies must be economically appealing to attract new adopters (farmers and industries). Long-term financial support schemes (e.g. subsidies) seem to be necessary, especially with the current low prices for fossil fuels. Outreach strategies are required to convey the knowledge to stakeholders from both the supply and the demand side, with respect to the economic, technical and environmental aspects of manure treatment technologies.

Short communication: Using diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of CO2 to evaluate the effects of nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid on fiber degradation in the rumen of lactating dairy cows
Klop, G. ; Bannink, A. ; Dieho, K. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7216 - 7220.
C enrichment - feed additives - fiber degradation - methane

Nitrate decreases enteric CH4 production in ruminants, but may also negatively affect fiber degradation. In this experiment, 28 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 isonitrogenous treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: control (CON); NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)]; DHA [3 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/kg of DM]; or NO3+DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Based on the difference in natural 13C enrichment and neutral detergent fiber and starch content between grass silage and corn silage, we investigated whether a negative effect on rumen fiber degradation could be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of exhaled carbon dioxide. A significant nitrate × DHA interaction was found for neutral detergent fiber digestibility, which was reduced on the NO3 treatment to an average of 55%, as compared with 61, 64, and 65% on treatments CON, DHA, and NO3+DHA, respectively. Feeding nitrate, but not DHA, resulted in a pronounced increase in 13C enrichment of CO2 in the first 3 to 4 h after feeding only. Results support the hypothesis that effects of a feed additive on the rate of fiber degradation in the rumen can be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of CO2. To be able to detect this, the main ration components have to differ considerably in fiber and nonfiber carbohydrate content as well as in natural 13C enrichment.

Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75 p.
luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164 p.
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions
Roman, P. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Albert Janssen, co-promotor(en): Martijn Bijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577336 - 193 p.
desulfurization - biogas - bioreactors - methane - sulfides - oxidation - ontzwaveling - bioreactoren - methaan - sulfiden - oxidatie

Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions

Paweł Roman

Abstract

Biological removal of H2S from sour gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand the scope of these processes to gas streams containing volatile organosulfur compounds, like thiols, it is necessary to provide new insights into their impact on overall biodesulfurization process. In the current thesis multidisciplinary investigations are performed, such as investigations of inhibitory effects of organic sulfur compounds on sulfide-oxidizing biomass by biochemical and enzyme studies; modelling of the process performance and biological pathways; preparation of analytical tools for measuring unstable sulfur compounds under the process conditions; following the microbial dynamics. The research described in this thesis increases the understanding of the underlying processes occurring in biological gas desulfurization systems when organosulfur compounds are present in the feed gas and provides solutions how to cope with these compounds in full-scale gas biodesulfurization installations.

COST-METHAGENE workshop
Wu, Liansun - \ 2015
methane - cows
Evaluation of concentration and flux based measurement methods for individual methane production of cows
Clearing the air: methane and milk
Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2015
dairy cattle - dairy cattle nutrition - feeds - emission - emission reduction - methane - milk protein yield - milk protein - roughage - feed conversion - feed conversion efficiency - climatic change - teaching materials
The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane
Bândə, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Noije, Twan Van; Weele, Michiel Van; Williams, Jason E. ; Sager, Philippe Le ; Niemeier, Ulrike ; Thomason, Larry ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2015
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 (2015)3. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 1202 - 1220.
methane - OH - oxidizing capacity - Pinatubo - UV radiation - volcanic eruption

The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the troposphere, causing changes in tropospheric photochemistry. These changes affected the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the removal rate of CH4 in the years following the eruption. We use the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5 coupled to the aerosol microphysics module M7 to simulate the evolution of SO2 and sulfate aerosols from the Pinatubo eruption. Their effect on tropospheric photolysis frequencies and concentrations of OH and CH4 is quantified for the first time. We find that UV attenuation by stratospheric sulfur decreased the photolysis frequencies of both ozone and NO2 by about 2% globally, decreasing global OH concentrations by a similar amount in the first 2 years after the eruption. SO2 absorption mainly affects OH primary production by ozone photolysis, while aerosol scattering also alters OH recycling. The effect of stratospheric sulfur on global OH and CH4 is dominated by the effect of aerosol extinction, while SO2 absorption contributes by 12.5% to the overall effect in the first year after the eruption. The reduction in OH concentrations causes an increase in the CH4 growth rate of 4 and 2 ppb/yr in the first and second years after the eruption, respectively, contributing 11 Tg to the 27 Tg observed CH4 burden change in late 1991 and early 1992. Key Points We modeled the effect of Pinatubo sulfur on tropospheric photochemistry SO2 absorption and aerosol extinction reduce tropospheric UV levels The tropospheric OH sink of CH4 decreased by 17.8 Tg during June 1991-June 1993

Evaluatie van methaanemissieberekeningen en -metingen in de veehouderij
Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera Losada, J. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 54) - 46 p.
veehouderij - mest - methaan - emissie - meting - berekening - varkens - livestock farming - manures - methane - emission - measurement - calculation - pigs
Wageningen UR Livestock Research heeft een deskstudie uitgevoerd om te analyseren waarom berekende en
gemeten methaanemissies verschillen en doet aanbevelingen voor nader onderzoek. Het blijkt dat zowel aan
de kant van de meetwaarden als aan de kant van de berekeningen vragen kunnen worden gesteld. De
aanbevelingen betreffen een nadere beschouwing van mestsamenstelling (met name organische stof (OS),
de fractie van de organische stof die afbreekbaar is (Bo) en het deel van de afbreekbare fractie die
daadwerkelijk wordt afgebroken tot CH4 (MCF)) met in achtneming van Nederlandse omstandigheden.
Tevens wordt geadviseerd te bestuderen wat de oorzaak kan zijn van de grote variatie in gemeten
methaanemissie met oog voor de leeftijd van de mest, effect van ammoniakemissie-reducerende
maatregelen, mestmanagement en enterische methaanemissie door varkens
Exploring the ecophysiology of anaerobic communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria
Timmers, P.H.A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams, co-promotor(en): Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575820 - 181
sulfate reducing bacteria - methane - oxidation - anaerobic conditions - sulfates - marine sediments - microbial physiology - sulfaat reducerende bacteriën - methaan - oxidatie - anaërobe omstandigheden - sulfaten - mariene sedimenten - microbiële fysiologie

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is a widespread occurring process in anoxic marine sediments. The process is performed by ANaerobic MEthane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and associated sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The ANME presumably oxidize methane through reverse methanogenesis. The associated SRB were thought to reduce sulfate using an interspecies electron carrier (IEC) derived from AOM. The product of methane oxidation that is transferred to the SRB is either a less reduced compound that acts as IEC or electrons are transferred directly (through nanowires or pili) or indirectly (through extracellular quinones). However, recent evidence emerged that ANME could perform both methane oxidation and sulfate reduction to produce sulfur, where the SRB disproportionate the produced sulfur. Little is known on the physiology and ecology of these ANME and associated SRB. The main reasons for this are the difficulties in lab cultivation and to perform in situ studies.

Anaerobic methane oxidation is a process that is at the border of what is energetically possible for sustaining life, which makes it hard to cultivate the responsible organisms. Estimates of the Gibbs free energy yields are between -18 and -35 kJ mol-1 and growth rates between 1.1 and 7.5 months, depending on the environment. AOM therefore operates close to thermodynamic equilibrium and is highly dependent on substrate and product concentrations. In chapter 2, we obtained faster growth rates at elevated methane partial pressure as compared to ambient pressure. The increase in partial pressure increased the solubility of methane and thus the energy yield for the organisms. In chapter 6, we showed higher AOM activity and growth of ANME under thermodynamically favorable sulfate and sulfide concentrations. The problems in studying the process in situ in complex environments comes from difficulties in differentiation of reversible processes. In most studies, methane oxidation is monitored by labelled CO2 formation from labelled methane. Methanogens can perform trace methane oxidation (TMO)during net methanogenesis, which also results in the production of labelled CO2 from labelled methane. When AOM becomes less favorable, the anaerobic back flux of AOM becomes significant, leading to the production of measurable amounts of methane. In chapter 2 and chapter 3, we were able to differentiate between AOM and TMO in long-term incubations.

Another challenge is related to the detection of ANME in complex environments. The phylogenetic distance between and within ANME clades is large. In chapter 5, we discussed the difficulties in primer and probe design for selective detection of ANME without targeting closely related methanogens. Furthermore, it is not known if even more ANME species and clades have yet to be discovered that are not detected with the primers and probes used thus far. In chapter 3, we found indications that besides ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d archaea were also able to perform AOM coupled to sulfate reduction in freshwater conditions. The finding of ANME-2a/b in freshwater shows that ANME archaea are ubiquitously distributed and not only occur in marine sediments. In chapter 6, we confirmed that different ANME clades show niche separation based on the presence of methane and different sulfate and sulfide concentrations. In chapter 2, we obtained indications that ANME-2c grows at high methane partial pressure. More research on the ecophysiology could help in understanding occurrence and activity of ANME in different environments.

Many different SRB have been found so far to form close associations with ANME. Most fall within the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) clade and only for two enrichment cultures the dominant partner of ANME-2a/b was determined to belong to a specific group with the DSS named SEEP-SRB1. In chapter 2, we found more evidence that a group outside the DSS clade, SEEP-SRB2, could also associate with ANME-2a/b and that Eel-1 members are not directly involved in AOM. In chapter 4, we enriched for SRB within the DSS clade on alternative substrates besides methane, but we were unable to show that these are involved in AOM. Therefore, more research on the sulfate-reducing partner is needed to understand the metabolic interactions between ANME and SRB.

Oogstmoment snijmais beïnvloedt methaanuitstoot : Later oogsten mais verlaagt methaanuitstoot zonder negatieve bijeffecten
Bannink, A. ; Hatew, B. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2015
Veeteelt 2015 (2015)Oktober. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 34 - 35.
landbouw en milieu - oogsttijdstip - droge stof - maïs - ruwvoer (forage) - methaan - emissiereductie - duurzame landbouw - broeikasgassen - agriculture and environment - harvesting date - dry matter - maize - forage - methane - emission reduction - sustainable agriculture - greenhouse gases
Wageningse diervoedingonderzoekers keken naar de gevolgen van het oogstmoment van mais op de methaanemissie. De conclusie is dat per procent drogestoftoename van snijmais in maisrijke rantsoenen de methaanvorming per kilogram meetmelk met 1,5 procent wordt verlaagd.
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