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Relevance of dietary iron intake and bioavailability in the management of HFE hemochromatosis: a systematic review
Moretti, D. ; Doorn, G.M. van; Swinkels, D.W. ; Boonstra, A. - \ 2013
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 468 - 479.
serum ferritin concentration - middle-aged women - hereditary hemochromatosis - idiopathic hemochromatosis - controlled-trial - nonheme iron - genetic hemochromatosis - venesection therapy - dual fortification - deficiency anemia
Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) leads to iron loading because of a disturbance in the negative-feedback mechanism between dietary iron absorption and iron status. The management of HH is achieved by repeated phlebotomies. Objective: We investigated whether HH patients would benefit from a diet with low iron intake and bioavailability. Design: We performed a systematic review of studies that linked iron bioavailability and status with dietary factors in subjects with diagnosed HH. Studies on heterozygotes for the HFE mutation were excluded. Results: No prospective, randomized study was reported. Nine studies that directly measured iron bioavailability from test meals in HH patients have been described as well as 3 small, prospective, longitudinal studies in HH patients. Eight cross-sectional studies were identified that investigated the effect of dietary composition on iron status. Calculations of iron bioavailability in HH were made by extrapolating data on hepcidin concentrations and their association with iron bioavailability. The potential reduction in the yearly amount of blood to be phlebotomized when restricting dietary iron absorbed was estimated in the 3 longitudinal studies and ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 L. This amount would be dependent on individual disease penetrance as well as the dietary intervention. Conclusions: Despite the limited quantitative evidence and the lack of randomized, prospective trials, dietary interventions that modify iron intake and bioavailability may affect iron accumulation in HH patients. Although this measure may be welcome in patients willing to contribute to their disease management, limited data exist on the clinical and quality of life benefit.
Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men
Joosten, M.M. ; Chiuve, S.E. ; Mukamal, K.J. ; Hu, F.B. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. ; Rimm, E.B. - \ 2011
Diabetes 60 (2011)1. - ISSN 0012-1797 - p. 74 - 79.
food frequency questionnaire - coronary heart-disease - middle-aged women - myocardial-infarction - insulin sensitivity - cardiovascular-disease - postmenopausal women - drinking patterns - life-style - red wine
Objective -The objective of this study was to investigate the association of four-year changes in alcohol consumption with subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods - We prospectively examined 38,031 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study free of diagnosed diabetes or cancer in 1990. Alcohol consumption was reported on food frequency questionnaires and updated every four years. Results - A total of 1905 cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 428,497 person-years of follow-up. A 7.5 g/day (~half a glass) increase in alcohol consumption over four years was associated with lower diabetes risk among initial nondrinkers (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-1.00) and drinkers initially consuming
Dietary determinants of obesity
Huaidong, D.U. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2010
Acta Cardiologica 65 (2010)4. - ISSN 0001-5385 - p. 377 - 386.
weight-loss diets - low-carbohydrate diets - disease risk-factors - middle-aged women - body-weight - energy density - glycemic-index - randomized-trial - low-fat - heart-disease
Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, protein, total carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, fibre, free sugars, fructose and sugar sweetened beverages, dietary energy density, portion size, eating outside home, glycaemic index and glycaemic load. Popular weight loss diets, including the Atkins diet, Weight Watchers, Ornish diet and Zone diet, are also briefly discussed for their safety and efficacy in the maintenance of weight loss.
Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Bakel, M.M. van; Kaaks, R. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Rohrmann, S. ; Welch, A.A. ; Pala, V. ; Avloniti, K. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; A, A.D. van der; Du, H. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tormo, M.J. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009)4. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S188 - S205.
middle-aged women - dependent diabetes-mellitus - breast-cancer - epic project - risk - carbohydrate - calibration - health - fiber - metaanalysis
Objectives: To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics. Methods: Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) from 33¿566 subjects were used to calculate dietary GI and GL, and an ad hoc database was created as the main reference source. Mean GI and GL intakes were adjusted for age, total energy intake, height and weight, and were weighted by season and day of recall. Results: GI was the lowest in Spain and Germany, and highest in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Denmark for both genders. In men, GL was the lowest in Spain and Germany and highest in Italy, whereas in women, it was the lowest in Spain and Greece and highest in the UK health-conscious cohort. Bread was the largest contributor to GL in all centres (15–45%), but it also showed the largest inter-individual variation. GL, but not GI, tended to be lower in the highest body mass index category in both genders. GI was positively correlated with starch and intakes of bread and potatoes, whereas it was correlated negatively with intakes of sugar, fruit and dairy products. GL was positively correlated with all carbohydrate components and intakes of cereals, whereas it was negatively correlated with fat and alcohol and with intakes of wine, with large variations across countries. Conclusions: GI means varied modestly across countries and genders, whereas GL means varied more, but it may possibly act as a surrogate of carbohydrate intake.
Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population 1-3
Du, H. ; A, D.L. van der; Bakel, M.M.E. van; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Blaak, E.E. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Dekker, J.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2008
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (2008)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 655 - 661.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - coronary-heart-disease - dietary fiber intake - c-reactive protein - middle-aged women - frequency questionnaire - cardiovascular-disease - glucose-intolerance - carbohydrate intake - endometrial cancer
Background: Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Design: The study entailed cross-sectional analyses of data from 2 joint observational studies, the CoDAM Study and the Hoorn Study. Results: In total, 974 subjects aged 42-87 y were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) GI was 57 +/- 4 and the mean GLwas 130 +/- 39. Dairy products, potatoes and other tubers, cereal products, and fruit were the main predictive food groups for GI. GL was closely correlated with intake of total carbohydrates (r(s) = 0.97), which explained > 95% of the variation in GL. After adjustment for potential confounders, GI was significantly inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and positively associated with fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and CRP. No association was observed between GL and any, of the metabolic risk factors, except for a borderline significant positive association with CRP. Conclusions: In this population, a low-GI diet, which is high in dairy and fruit but low in potatoes and cereals, is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism and reduced chronic inflammation. GL is highly correlated with carbohydrate intake and is not clearly associated with the investigated metabolic risk factors.
Dietary glycaemic index from an epidemiological point of view
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Du, H. - \ 2006
International Journal of Obesity 30 (2006). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. S66 - S71.
coronary-heart-disease - impaired glucose-tolerance - middle-aged women - insulin-resistance - carbohydrate intake - fiber intake - cholesterol concentration - cardiovascular-disease - diabetic-patients - risk-factors
The concept of glycaemic index (GI) was developed 25 years ago by Jenkins and co-workers in 1981 and first studied to help diabetic patients with blood glucose control. In 1997 two epidemiological studies were published showing that high GI food consumption is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. At the same time the concept of the glycaemic load (GL) was introduced, based on GI and total carbohydrate intake. Since then, many studies have been conducted to investigate the role of dietary GI and GL in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and other chronic diseases such as cancer. The current review will focus on the epidemiological evidence obtained so far. In addition, several key methodological issues will be addressed, such as the dietary assessment method used, the application of the international GI and GL table, and the correlated dietary patterns
Dispositional Optimism and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death : The Zutphen Elderly Study
Giltay, E.J. ; Kamphuis, M.H. ; Kalmijn, S. ; Zitman, F.G. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2006
Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (2006). - ISSN 0003-9926 - p. 431 - 436.
positive life orientation - ischemic-heart-disease - middle-aged women - carotid atherosclerosis - myocardial-infarction - depressive symptoms - trait anxiety - mortality - health - hopelessness
Background: Dispositional optimism, defined in terms of life engagement and generalized positive outcome expectancies for one¿s future, may be related to lower cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to determine whether dispositional optimism is a stable trait over time and whether it is independently related to lower cardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Methods: In a cohort study with a follow-up of 15 years, we included 545 (61.4%) of 887 men, aged 64 to 84 years, who were free of preexisting cardiovascular disease and cancer and who had complete data on cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics. Dispositional optimism was assessed using a 4-item questionnaire in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. In Cox proportional hazards models, the first 2 years of observation were excluded. Results: Optimism scores significantly decreased over 15 years, but showed temporal stability (reliability coefficients, 0.72 over 5 years and 0.78 over 15 years. Optimists in 1985 had a hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 0.45 (top tertile vs lowest tertile; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.68), adjusted for classic cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of cardiovascular death was inversely associated with increased tertiles of dispositional optimism (for trend). Similar results were obtained using 1990 data after additional adjustment for depression (assessed ) by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). Conclusion: Dispositional optimism is a relatively stable trait over 15 years and shows a graded and inverse association with the risk of cardiovascular death
Dietary glycaemic index: a review of the physiological mechanisms and observed health impacts
Huaidong, D.U. ; A, D.L. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2006
Acta Cardiologica 61 (2006)4. - ISSN 0001-5385 - p. 383 - 397.
coronary-heart-disease - blood-glucose response - breast-cancer risk - american-diabetes-association - middle-aged women - insulin-resistance - plasma-glucose - mixed meals - weight-loss - cardiovascular-disease
Carbohydrates (CHOs) are the most important energy source in human diets and are often classified by their molecular size as sugar, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and polyols (hydrogenated CHOs). However, the relevance of this structural classification has been questioned and interest in an alternative property of CHOs has grown. The glycaemic index (GI) is a contribution of Jenkins and co-workers in 1981 to classify CHO containing foods according to their impacts on the body¿s postprandial glycaemic response. GI is defined as ¿The incremental area under the 2-hour blood glucose response curve of a test food containing 50 g of glycaemic (available) CHOs expressed as the percentage of the response to the same amount of glycaemic CHOs from a standard food (either white bread or glucose) taken by the same subject¿. Although white bread and glucose both give valid values, glucose may be the preferred control because of its stable composition. When, for any reason, white bread is used as reference, the obtained GI value needs to be divided by 1.4 to get the GI value contrast to glucose.