Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea : Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migration bats at the southern North Sea
Lagerveld, S. ; Limpens, H.J.G.A. ; Schillemans, M.J. ; Scholl, M. - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C014.17) - 14
chiroptera - migration - offshore - wind farms - north sea - migratie - windmolenpark - noordzee
To close the knowledge gap described above, or better said in order to make a start to overcome this crucial lack of insight into (sub)population sizes, RWS commissioned the Bats_1 study as part of the Wind op Zee Ecological Programma (Wozep; in English: Wind at Sea Ecological Programme), a multi-annual research programme initiated in view of the realisation of new offshore wind farms under the SER agreement (2013). Aim of the Bat_1 desk study is to estimate the extent to which (sub)populations of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle and possibly other relevant bat species, expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, use migration routes across the southern North Sea (SNS)1. This information is of great importance to be able to make better estimates of what the Potential Biological Removal (PBR) values are of Nathusius’ Pipistrelle and possibly other bat species, knowing that these values depend on the size of the (sub)populations to be considered.
Telemetry for migratory bats : a feasibility study
Lagerveld, Sander ; Janssen, René ; Manshanden, Jasper ; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke ; Vries, Simon de; Brabant, Robin ; Scholl, Michaela - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C011/17) - 58
chiroptera - migration - telemetry - offshore - wind farms - biomonitoring - feasibility studies - north sea - netherlands - migratie - telemetrie - windmolenpark - biologische monitoring - haalbaarheidsstudies - noordzee - nederland
Herkomst en migratie van Nederlandse edelherten en wilde zwijnen : een basiskaart van de genetische patronen in Nederland en omgeving
Groot, G.A. de; Spek, G.J. ; Bovenschen, J. ; Laros, I. ; Meel, Tom van; Jansman, H.A.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2724) - 71 p.
cervus elaphus - sus scrofa - migration - genetic variation - wildlife conservation - netherlands - migratie - genetische variatie - wildbescherming - nederland
De laatste jaren worden in toenemende mate incidentele waarnemingen van edelherten en wilde zwijnen buiten de toegewezen leefgebieden gedaan. De vraag is vervolgens of dit om natuurlijke immigratie vanuit (niet-omrasterde) leefgebieden in binnen- of buitenland gaat en waar ze dan vandaan zijn gekomen, of dat het een ontsnapt of losgelaten dier betreft. Om deze vraag in de toekomst in voorkomende gevallen effectief te kunnen beantwoorden, stelde Alterra in opdracht van BIJ12 – Faunafonds en Vereniging Het Edelhert een landelijke genetische referentiedatabase op van de zwijnen- en edelhertenpopulaties in Nederland en nabijgelegen populaties in België en Duitsland. In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden van deze databases voor herkomstbepalingen nader onderzocht. Tevens geeft dit onderzoek, op basis van de verkregen databases, een overzicht van de genetische vitaliteit van de Nederlandse populaties van beide soorten met betrekking tot diversiteit, inteeltrisico’s en uitwisselingsmogelijkheden.
Effect straatverlichting op paddentrek
Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Joosten, K. ; Creemers, R. - \ 2015
RAVON 17 (2015)3. - p. 56 - 58.
padden - migratie - habitats - habitatfragmentatie - habitatverbindingszones - verlichting - kunstmatige verlichting - wildbescherming - toads - migration - habitat fragmentation - habitat corridors - lighting - artificial lighting - wildlife conservation
Al duizenden jaren gaan padden in het vroege voorjaar ’s nachts op pad naar voortplantingswateren om daar te paren en eieren af te zetten. De wereld om hen heen is in al die jaren sterk veranderd. Wegen doorkruisen hun leefgebied en straatverlichting langs de wegen is eerder regel dan uitzondering. En dat heeft effect op de paddentrek, zo blijkt uit een lichtonderzoek.
Aspirations and everyday life of single migrant women in Ghana
Tufuor, T. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Chizu Sato. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575578 - 187
migratie - rurale migratie - ruraal-urbane migratie - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - samenleving - gezinsstructuur - ghana - west-afrika - migration - rural rural migration - rural urban migration - rural areas - urban areas - women - gender relations - society - family structure - west africa

Female labour migrants in West Africa including Ghana have been widely perceived as followers of male relatives. Since the late 1990s, the increasing movement of young women to cities in the region has drawn attention to this phenomenon and this study discovered females as actors in the migration process. Women have been moving from the rural North to the urban South, especially to Accra, to live in the city’s slums. Their migrations are not associational; these journeys are now independently pursued by women with aspirations to realise their ideals of a better life. Female migrations make up a growing share of migrant labour streams within Ghana. Among the migrants who arrive in Accra every day there is an increasing number of single young women as well as divorced women and neglected as wives from the North of Ghana. Economic explanations do not fully account for such moves, because men and women perform different productive and reproductive roles within the northern households. The varying degrees of gender and intra-household inequality and the women’s anticipation of life changes after migration spur the motivations and aspirations behind the journeys.

This study on single migrant women (SMW) was conducted in two sites. The first site was in four districts in the Northern Region with its capital Tamale. The Dagomba are the pre­dominant ethnic group here. They practise subsistence farming and most of them are Muslims. The second study site was the Old Fadama (OF) market in Accra. By tracking the migrant women from the North to OF, the study connected the spaces of area of origin and area of destination in the migration process. A mixed-methods approach was applied in data collection, combining qualitative methods such as focus group discussion, case study and life history with a survey in the OF market.

While in the past the restrictions on women’s sexuality and autonomy prevented women from migrating alone, now northern households provide an incentive for young women to migrate. The women cited a gain in autonomy and freedom as the most important motivation for their move. In the household of their fathers or future husbands in the North, their autonomy is constrained. However, through their earnings in Accra, the women prepare themselves for an expensive religious marriage ceremony, invest in housing or education and also buy modern goods. Young migrant women from the rural Dagomba communities primarily engage in accumulating goods for their dowry, whereas older women accumulate capital for investment in their children’s education. The older women who have no plans anymore of returning to the North to marry, especially those who are successful in Accra and have achieved the status of ‘market mummies’, seek enjoyment in the present but also use their wealth to secure construction of rooms of their own in the North. The women save money, assemble housewares and send remittances with their own independent income.

In Accra, most young women engage in petty trading. In the OF market in Accra these single migrant women from the North generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households, instead of just focusing on maximisation of profits. Communities of old and young market women have built a ‘moral community economy’ through, among others, engaging in reciprocal labour, gift giving, and childcare and food sharing. This contributes positively to household food security and social well-being among the market women and migrant settlers in the OF community. SMW’s livelihood generation is sustained through social relations among women, in which also age, ethnicity and regional background play crucial roles. SMW give support to and receive benefits from the community through moral obligations and ethnic commitment. The analysis of these strategies contributes to the understanding of the intersections of household, livelihood strategies, gender and markets in urban settings.

In Accra, these women not only need to find income earning activities, they also have to reinvent themselves as consumers because of the abundant and varied consumption options in Accra as compared to the North. Through consumption of food, hairdos and leisure activities, they shape their new urban identities. However, through consumption they also try to secure the desired next phase in their life course. Despite earning very modest amounts of money with activities such as hawking or food vending, SMW save for their future and adapt their consumption to enable such savings. They save in money and in kind, buying items to set up their own hearths in the North for the preparation of meals, an iconic married woman’s activity, and to be able to enter a preferred, i.e. religious, marriage. They also spend money on dressing, styling their hairdos and looking good in order to attract suitable marriage candidates. Alternatively, the successful older women in the market place invest in conspicuous consumption to enact their informal position of ‘market mummies’, women who are well established and suitable mentors to more recent arrivals. The women shape their own life courses through consumption. The consumption practices SMW engage in are crucial for understanding the dynamics of single migrant women’s agency.

After migration, SMW are more likely to exert influence on the timing of their marriage and the choice of the partner. In the place of origin there are transformations of the gendered subjectivities women experience after having produced livelihoods away from home. The investigation of the reintegration experience of SMW who return to their place of origin revealed the everyday experience of returned migrant women within their households in rural northern Ghana. The study found the household to be an ‘arena of everyday life’; the word arena indicates dynamics and even struggle. These are visible in the provision for daily needs, and also in the income generating activities the women try to initiate to exercise their agency in generating livelihood. In this household arena, we recognized the gender dynamics around decision-making on livelihood generation as key to under­standing the reintegration experience of returned migrant women. The analysis drew on feminist geographers’ insights of gender as process situated in a specific place. Critical attention was paid to how gender and household are co-constituted, to shed light on the multiple and contradictory ways in which gender, livelihood, and household are constructed.

Applying the lens of gender as situated process enabled capturing the significance of everyday micro transformations, resulting in a framework that wove together the domains of gender, household and livelihood. Contingent formations of intra-household dynamics revealed variations in the ways subjection and activation are enacted. The boundaries of women’s triple shifts (household work, farming, income generation) are not fixed but are constantly negotiated. On an everyday basis women have to juggle multiple subjectivities, such as being wives, daughters-in-law, mothers and petty commodity producers and traders. They do the work their husbands and senior women require them to do in order to secure their marriage, which is considered a lifelong security in this specific context, but they try to set limits to this work.

The general conclusion this study highlights is that the young women in the North successfully negotiate to realize their aspirations to migrate and, upon return, both subject themselves to the domestic and patriarchal order and contest it by using the means and skills they acquired to improve their bargaining position. This causes cracks in the prevailing order, which suggest the malleability of the patriarchal system. The observed processes underpin the relevance of conceptualising migration as an intrinsic factor in broader processes of development and social transformation.

Tunnels for toads = Hoe effectief zijn paddentunnels?
Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR
padden - universitair onderzoek - migratie - habitatverbindingszones - monitoring - efficiëntie - diergedrag - wildpassages - toads - university research - migration - habitat corridors - efficiency - animal behaviour - wildlife passages
Het aanleggen van paddentunnels onder een weg helpt padden bij het oversteken van anders dodelijke wegen. Maar als je wilt weten hoe effectief ze zijn, moet je niet alleen kijken hoeveel dieren de tunnels gebruiken, maar ook hoeveel dieren dat niet doen. Fabrice Ottburg en Edgar van der Grift leggen het belang van hun onderzoek uit in een filmpje.
Pilot study on behaviour of sharks around Saba using acoustic telemetry - Progress report 2014
Winter, H.V. ; Vink, D. ; Beek, I.J.M. van - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C026/15) - 21
haaien - saba - zeereservaten - telemetrie - migratie - verspreiding - universitair onderzoek - sharks - marine protected areas - telemetry - migration - dispersal - university research
Worldwide many shark populations are in strong decline mainly due to fisheries. Population status of sharks in the Caribbean is still poorly known. In order to be able to take effective measures to protect sharks, insight in their spatial behaviour during different life stages is required. Do marine parks enhance shark populations and if so at what scale? This pilot study mainly aims at determining the feasibility of using telemetry around Saba and at a later stage at the Saba Bank and surrounding islands, e.g. what logistics and which co-operation, catching and deployment methods are required to set-up telemetric experiments for target shark species, and to get a first insight of the scale of movement patterns of the target shark species.
Bats in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012
Lagerveld, S. ; Jonge Poerink, B. ; Haselager, R. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2014
Lutra 57 (2014)2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 61 - 69.
chiroptera - fauna - migratie - windmolenpark - noordzee - windsnelheid - migration - wind farms - north sea - wind speed
In the autumn of 2012, we conducted a pilot study with ultrasonic recorders to assess the occurrence of bats over the North Sea. At Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) a recorder was installed at the meteorological mast and at Princess Amalia Wind Farm (PAWP) a recorder was attached to the entrance platform of an offshore wind turbine. There were 189 recordings of bat echolocation calls at OWEZ and 25 at PAWP. Virtually all recordings concerned Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii); noctule (Nyctalus noctula) was noted a few times. Bats were only recorded during nights with low or moderate wind speeds, no precipitation and a high ambient pressure. It seems unlikely that the observations referred to individuals which were blown off course by storms, and there are no indications that roosts were present in the vicinity of the recorders. The occurrence pattern of Nathusius’ pipistrelle indicates that the observations were of migrating individuals. The observations of noctule possibly concerned migrants as well, but they could also be residents from the mainland which may use the wind parks as foraging area.
Klimaatverandering en natuur : een verkenning van risico’s, kansen en aangrijpingspunten voor klimaatadaptatiebeleid
Braakhekke, W.G. ; Berendse, F. ; Jong, M.J. de; Kreveld, A. ; Winden, A. van - \ 2014
Bureau Stroming - 120
klimaatverandering - ecosystemen - flora - fauna - migratie - biodiversiteit - inventarisaties - climatic change - ecosystems - migration - biodiversity - inventories
In 2016 zal het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu de Nationale Adaptatie Strategie presenteren. Daarin wordt voor verschillende thema’s aangegeven hoe Nederland zich het beste kan voorbereiden op de gevolgen van klimaatverandering. In deze rapportage brengen Stroming en Wageningen Universiteit, in opdracht van Kennis voor Klimaat, de belangrijkste risico’s, kansen en kwetsbaarheden rond het thema natuur samen.
Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - netherlands

Summary

Paradoxical Modernization

Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

(Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

Mending new communities after involuntary resettlement in the Philippines and Indonesia
Quetulio-Navarra, M. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Wander van der Vaart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570696 - 257
bevolkingsverplaatsing - migratie - gemeenschappen - sociaal kapitaal - social network analysis - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - huishoudens - filippijnen - indonesië - resettlement - migration - communities - social capital - low income groups - households - philippines - indonesia

Displacement of poor families contribute to the worsening of their poverty situation yet involuntary resettlement still takes place. According to the latest Report of the Indonesian Centre on Housing Rights and Eviction, more than 12,000 people were reportedly evicted in August 2008 to give way to the “green space” land reclamation projects (COHRE 2008). In the Philippines, 59,462 households were relocated in the period 2001 – 2006 (HUDCC 2008) because of various infrastructure projects. Though more recent data are lacking, there is no evidence that the pace of displacement is slowing down.

The Impoverishment, Risks and Reconstruction (IRR) model of Cernea (2000) identifies nine interlinked potential risks inherent to displacement: landlessness, joblessness, home­lessness, marginalization, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, loss of access to common property, social disarticulation and educational loss. Out of the nine risks, social disarticulation or the loss of social capital in a resettlement site is the most complicated, because different factors are involved and because of its impact on vulnerability to the other risks. Social capital building or transplanting in an entirely different or new environment such as resettlement sites has remained an elusive topic in the research arena. This study tries to fill the void by addressing the following research problem: How does social capital grow across time in an involuntary resettlement setting and what is the role of the context and its elements in shaping this growth?

The study used a comparative approach and a longitudinal perspective. Applying a longitudinal perspective aimed at capturing the process of social capital building through time. It entailed a framework that wove the factors involved in the process – as hypo­thesised on the basis of social capital and resettlement theories – into a timeline that comprised four periods. These four periods included before resettlement, the first year in the site after resettlement, the following years in the site, and the year of the field study (2011 in the first study area and 2012 in the second). The influence of social capital development in each period on the following period was investigated.

Using a comparative perspective, two resettlement communities in Southeast Asia were chosen for this study. The first study site was in the Philippines and concerned an urban resettlement community named ‘Kasiglahan Village 1’ (KV1), situated in Barangay San Jose, Rodriguez, Rizal Province. The second study site, a rural resettlement community named ‘Bantarpanjang Translok’ (BT), was in Indonesia and located in Bantarpanjang, Cimanggu, Cilacap in Central Java Province, Both are government-managed resettlement communities. Moreover, the resettled households in both countries had incomes that were below the minimum standard of living, and the ages of the communities were sufficiently similar – the Philippine site was 12 years old, and the Indonesian site was 11 years in existence at the time of fieldwork. The age of the resettlement site is crucial for the longitudinal perspective utilized for this research. Although comparable in important aspects, the two locations differ in terms of their cultural traditions, physical location, institutional context, national resettlement policies, religion, ethnicity, and demographic and socio-economic profile. This allowed for a contextual analysis on the way in which social capital evolves.

Data for this study were gathered by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, exploratory interviews, observation, focus group discussions and life histories, were blended with quantitative methods. The latter included a household survey that used a tailored calendar tool to enhance the validity and reliability of the retrospective data. Social network analysis was conducted as well.

The results of the analysis of the state of the communities before involuntary resettlement and a year later conveyed the following. Overall, involuntary resettlement in both setting did not significantly harm the households’ structural and cognitive social capital. After a year, the households in both settings were able to create and somehow duplicate the levels of trust and reciprocity they had in their previous communities. Moreover, the data suggest that the civic engagement history of the households is only influential in social capital building within a new community when the households share cultural traditions and social practices that are regularly observed. In the absence of such cultural traditions social practices, it is institutional interventions that will stimulate social capital formation.

When looking at social capital creation across time in the two locations, the forging of ties among the household grows every year. There are three perspectives that can explain such a process. These are represented by variables relating to (i) individual and household attributes, (ii) the institutional context, and (iii) social capital history. On developing weak and strong ties, both cases demonstrate growth spurts during the year when there was an influx of resettlers and basic services and public places had been put in place. Moreover, after a period of upsurge, social capital attains a level of steady growth. Social capital growth can be seen as intertwined with the stabilisation of the resettlement sites in terms of physical infrastructure and social services as well as the achievement of a sense of “getting settled”.

The study provides rich insights on the effects of resettlement programs and social capital on whether households in an involuntary resettlement context ‘get by’ or manage to ‘get ahead’ and improve their situation. The outcomes differ according to resettlement policies, culture, location, and phase of resettlement (first year and last year). In addition, all forms of structural social capital turned out meaningful for getting by and getting ahead, although some types of ties would feature more prominently than others. In the Philippines case, the number of support ties played a prominent role in the economic and physical well-being of the households, while in the Indonesian case it is the number of close individuals and number of government ties that mattered most. Overall, ‘soft’ resettlement inputs were found indispensable in both locations for the households’ capacity to get by and get ahead. Government meetings and membership of civic organizations contributed positively to household food security (last year) and social well-being (both years) of the Philippine resettlers. For the Indonesians, these contributed to their household income (first year) and social well-being in both periods. Community organisation should therefore be an integral part of resettlement projects.

Social network analysis was conducted on the networks of households in Indonesia and those of community leaders in the Philippines. In Indonesia and the Philippines, social network analysis revealed that after a certain period in a new community and living among other involuntarily resettled strangers, households eventually establish inter­connections among them. Gender proved to be a factor not only in shaping social networks but also in reinforcing certain advantages of some of the features of the social networks in a resettlement site. Gender differences emerged in both settings, the female advantage in forming friendships being one of them. In both cases, women (housewives in Indo­nesia and leaders in the Philippines) have a bigger proportion of friends in their network than men, indicating that they are better at nurturing connections that develop into friendship. The analysis also shows how the emerging community as a whole can benefit from the friendship networks of women. The default assignment of authority to men in the community and the wives supporting this gender construction, can account for the male-dominated brokerage roles and men being the influential actors in the Indonesian site. Contrastingly, in the Philippine location women leaders mono­polize the brokerage role and are influential actors. Compared to male leaders, Filipino women leaders in the community have better interpersonal skills, are more empowered and are more active in civic organisations and activities. They bring more projects and activities to their members and connect better to the authorities than their male counterparts.

This study provides strong evidence on a number of issues. First, the mending of new social communities by social capital building takes place right after the resettlement and amidst a worsening poverty situation in the new location. Second, civic engagement history can only significantly enhance social capital building in a site when it is shared by almost the entire community. Third, social capital history can be created by the new inhabitants of a resettlement site even in a short period of time. And fourth, the results of applying the institutional perspective underscore the importance of the creation of policies and projects that target the community’s physical development and its social organisation. Overall, the process of social capital growth seems to be largely beyond the control of the individual resettlers. It is shaped by the context and its con­stituting elements, rather than by the characteristics of the individuals and households concerned.

Verspreidingsdynamiek, gedrag en voorkomen van diadrome vis bij Kornwerderzand t.b.v. de VismigratieRivier
Griffioen, A.B. ; Winter, H.V. ; Keeken, O.A. van; Chen, C. ; Os-Koomen, E. van; Schoenlau, S. ; Zawadowski, T. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C083/14) - 131
vissen - migratie - vismigratie - sluizen - afsluitdijk - telemetrie - monitoring - fishes - migration - fish migration - sluices - telemetry
De sluiting van de 32 km lange Afsluitdijk in 1932 heeft grote gevolgen gehad voor de migratie van vis tussen de Zuiderzee en de aangrenzende rivieren. Waar eerst een natuurlijke overgang bestond van zoet en zout water, is nu een harde scheiding tussen het IJsselmeer en de Waddenzee ontstaan. Jaarlijks bieden zich, afhankelijk van de soort, enkele tientallen tot honderden miljoenen vissen aan bij het spuicomplex bij Kornwerderzand. Deze vissen willen tijdens hun stroomopwaartse migratie het IJsselmeer bereiken richting paai of opgroeigebieden, maar de Afsluitdijk vormt een barrière en veroorzaakt daarmee vertraging en of blokkering tijdens de stroomopwaartse migratie. Om deze reden zijn er plannen om een vispassage of een VismigratieRivier (VMR) te bouwen naast het spuicomplex te Kornwerderzand met als doel om de ecologische barrière, die de Afsluitdijk voor trekvissen vormt, te verzachten. Deze rapportage gaat in op de ruimtelijke verspreidingsdynamiek van kleine vis (driedoornige stekelbaars, spiering, botlarven en glasaal), het zoekgedrag en passagesucces van grotere vis (houting, zeeprik en zeeforel) en de aanwezigheid van diadrome vis buiten de spuikom.
Dosssier : Wolven
Jansen, G.J. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Jansman, H.A.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
fauna - zoogdieren - migratie - lupus vulgaris - wildbeheer - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - oost-nederland - wolven - mammals - migration - wildlife management - scientific research - east netherlands - wolves
Overzicht van onderzoek naar de mogelijke komst van de wolf naar Nederland.
Infrastructurele knelpunten voor de otter : overzicht van verkeersknelpunten met mate van urgentie voor het nemen van mitigerende maatregelen
Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2513) - 69
lutra lutra - migratie - zoogdieren - habitatfragmentatie - wegen - verkeersongevallen - habitats - inventarisaties - migration - mammals - habitat fragmentation - roads - traffic accidents - inventories
De afgelopen jaren zijn op veel plaatsen mitigerende maatregelen genomen om leefgebieden veiliger te maken voor de otter en de kans op verkeersslachtoffers te beperken. Echter, het aantal verkeersslachtoffers neemt ieder jaar toe, deels omdat bestaande voorzieningen in leefgebieden tekort schieten, deels omdat de otter zich aan het verspreiden is naar nieuwe leefgebieden. Om het aantal slachtoffers terug te dringen is het dringend noodzakelijk om op korte termijn verdere maatregelen te nemen. Op verzoek van het ministerie van EZ is een inventarisatie gemaakt van alle verkeersknelpunten binnen en tussen de huidige otterleefgebieden (situatie voorjaar 2013), zijn deze geprioriteerd en zijn oplossingsrichtingen beschreven.
Search performance and the spatial resource distribution
Huisman, T.J. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Frank van Langevelde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739391 - 100
fauna - dierecologie - migratie - foerageren - telemetrie - diergedrag - animal ecology - migration - foraging - telemetry - animal behaviour
In de afgelopen decennia heeft het onderzoek naar bewegingspatronen in de ecologie een vlucht genomen. Door de ontwikkeling van alsmaar kleinere gps-transmitters en chips worden tegenwoordig de bewegingsgegevens van een enorm aantal dieren en soorten opgeslagen. Naast deze enorme toename in beschikbare gegevens is er een ontwikkeling geweest in de theoretische modellen die besproken en gebruikt worden in de ecologische literatuur. Al deze ontwikkelingen tezamen vormen de nieuwe subdiscipline van de zogenaamde bewegingsecologie en het onderzoek in dit proefschrift valt precies onder deze noemer.
Pilot polderbemonstering 2013: beheersgebied Hoogheemraadschap Hollands Noorderkwartier
Keeken, O.A. van; Beentjes, R. ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Graaf, M. de; Boois, I.J. de - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C039/14) - 31
european eels - populatie-ecologie - fauna - migratie - polders - inventarisaties - noord-holland - population ecology - migration - inventories
Sinds de jaren ’50 van de vorige eeuw loopt de aalstand achteruit. Om te zorgen dat deze niet verder achteruit gaat, is in Europa en dus ook in Nederland een aalbeheerplan ingesteld. Onderdeel van dit plan is een inschatting maken van het aantal schieraal dat jaarlijks uit Nederland richting de Sargasso Zee migreert. Hiervoor is het nodig een inschatting te maken van de aanwezigheid van aal in polders. Daarom is in 2013 een pilotbemonstering gedaan in het beheersgebied van Hoogheemraadschap Hollands Noorderkwartier.
The first wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years was the victim of a wildlife crime
Gravendeel, B. ; Groot, G.A. de; Kik, M. ; Beentjes, K. ; Bergman, H. ; Caniglia, R. ; Cremers, H. ; Fabbri, E. ; Groenenberg, D. ; Grone, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Font, I. ; Hakhof, J. ; Harms, V. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Janssen, R. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Laros, I. ; Linnartz, L. ; Marel, D. van der; Mulder, J.L. ; Mije, S. van der; Nieman, A.M. ; Nowak, C. ; Randi, E. ; Rijks, M. ; Speksnijder, A. ; Vonhof, H.B. - \ 2013
Lutra 56 (2013)2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 93 - 109.
wolven - fauna - migratie - diergedrag - dna - biochemie - menselijke invloed - centraal-europa - noordoostpolder - wolves - migration - animal behaviour - biochemistry - human impact - central europe
On July 4th 2013 a dead subadult female wolf-like canid was found by the roadside between Luttelgeest and Marknesse in the Noordoostpolder in the central part of the Netherlands. As the last observations of wild wolves in the Netherlands date back to 1869 the discovery of this animal generated a lot of media attention. European wolf populations have been expanding since the 1950s and the first packs recently established themselves in Germany in geographic proximity of the Dutch border, so natural re-appearance of the species in the Netherlands seemed likely. We investigated the taxonomy of the animal, its geographical origin, and its most recent history. Macroscopic and biochemical analyses of the dead animal convincingly showed that it was a purebred wolf, related to populations from eastern Europe. Bullet impacts and shattered fragments found in the chest and flank, and a discrepancy between the timing of the post mortem and rigor mortis intervals indicated that this wolf was shot prior to illegal transport to the Netherlands. The wolf fed on beaver in either the Carpathian mountains or the Eifel which is too far for the animal to have walked from by itself within the 24 hours needed to digest its last meal. These geographical areas are the only regions where haplotypes and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes retrieved from both the dead wolf and the beaver remains in its stomach co-occur. We therefore conclude that the first Dutch wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years did not enter the Netherlands by itself but sadly proved to be the victim of wildlife crime. Keywords: Canis lupus, Europe, haplotypes, isotopes, microsatellites, wildlife forensics, wolf.
Ecologische verbinding De Groene Schakel en HOV Huizen-Hilversum : toetsing effecten HOV en advies voor mitigatie
Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2459) - 45
ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitatverbindingszones - habitatfragmentatie - wildpassages - migratie - infrastructuur - fauna - het gooi - noord-holland - ecological network - habitat corridors - habitat fragmentation - wildlife passages - migration - infrastructure
In opdracht van de provincie Noord-Holland is beoordeeld welke ontwerpvariant voor de HOV Huizen- Hilversum – inclusief aanpassingen aan de Weg over Anna’s Hoeve die daarmee samenhangen – de meeste kansen biedt aan de ontwikkeling van natuurverbinding De Groene Schakel. Daarnaast is onderzocht wat de ecologische functionaliteit zal zijn van de ecologische voorkeursvariant en hoe de andere ontwerpvarianten van deze ontwerpvariant verschillen wat betreft ecologische functionaliteit. Er zijn aanbevelingen gedaan voor aanvullende maatregelen die het ecologisch functioneren van De Groene Schakel kunnen optimaliseren.
Het raadsel van Luttelgeest
Jansen, B. - \ 2013
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 10 (2013)10. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 6 - 7.
wolven - fauna - migratie - verspreiding - opinies - noordoostpolder - wolves - migration - dispersal - opinions
'Niets was als het leek.’ Een betere manier om de gang van zaken rondom de wolf van Luttelgeest te beschrijven is er niet. Het begon al met de vindplaats. Nadat alle kranten hadden geschreven dat er in Luttelgeest een doodgereden, sterk op een wolf gelijkend dier was gevonden, meldde Omroep Flevoland dat het dier niet in Luttelgeest maar in Marknesse de geest had gegeven. Maar als het eenmaal in alle kranten heeft gestaan, krijg je dat niet meer veranderd, zodat het dier, als het eenmaal is opgezet, gewoon een bordje ‘De Wolf van Luttelgeest’ omgehangen zal krijgen.
Voorstel voor een wolvenplan voor Nederland : versie 2.0.
Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Lammertsma, D.R. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra rapport 2486) - 63
wolven - fauna - wildbeheer - overheidsbeleid - migratie - nederland - wolves - wildlife management - government policy - migration - netherlands
Eind 19e eeuw werd in Nederland de laatste wolf (Canis lupus) geschoten en in de 20ste eeuw was de wolf in bijna geheel Europa uitgeroeid. Vanaf het einde van de 20ste eeuw is de wolf echter bezig aan een opmars vanuit de resterende brongebieden in onder andere Spanje, Italië, Griekenland, de Balkan en verder noordelijk en oostelijk in Europa. Dit succes hangt samen met het vermogen van de wolf zich aan te passen aan uiteenlopende habitats, prooidiersoorten en de aanwezigheid van de mens. Dieren uit de Duits-West Poolse populatie naderen nu Nederland. Om hierop voorbereid te zijn trekken het ministerie van Economische Zaken, de provincies (IPO) en het Faunafonds samen op. Onderdeel van dit proactieve beleid is dit voorstel voor een wolvenplan voor Nederland, versie 2.0.
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