Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bringing in the floods : a comparative study on controlled flooding in the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese deltas
Staveren, Martijn F. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Warner; Flip Wester. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437035 - 174
water management - flooding - deltas - hydraulic engineering - rivers - environmental management - environmental policy - environmental control - netherlands - vietnam - bangladesh - waterbeheer - inundatie - delta's - waterbouwkunde - rivieren - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - milieubeheersing - nederland

This thesis investigates contested initiatives to restore controlled flooding in the deltas of the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese (Mekong) deltas. Restoring controlled flooding is a seemingly contradictory measure in densely populated delta areas, where approaches based on full flood prevention has been typically dominant for decades. This has instigated the question how the emergence of restored controlled flooding initiatives can be explained. Related, this study reflects on how controlled flooding could contribute to long-term flood risk management and sustainable development in deltas, which are simultaneously attractive and vulnerable places for humans to live in. In order to answer this question, a case study approach has been used to investigate social, environmental and technological factors that have shaped controlled flooding initiatives. Cases have been identified that materialized under different conditions: from very dynamic delta environments to relatively stable ones, and from interventions driven by “top-down” policies to “bottom-up” action to modify or remove embankments. This thesis has an article-based structure, which means that individual chapters (2-5) have been designed for publication with peer reviewed academic journals. Chapter 1 provides the general background information, problem definition, and objectives. Chapter 6 ties together the findings of the individual case study chapters and presents the conclusions.

Chapter 2 conceptualizes deltas as interacting social-ecological-technological systems. It argues that a better understanding of how hydraulic infrastructure influences social processes and environmental dynamics in deltas is critical to understand how deltas evolve over time. By means of the delta trajectories concept, the chapter presents a way to understand this interaction. It also presents a way to understand the sustainability of a delta trajectory, and discusses how new flood management concepts might contribute to “realigning” the development trajectory towards more sustainable system states.

In Chapter 3, the first controlled flooding case is investigated. The Noordwaard is an agricultural polder, located at the junction of tides and riverine discharge in the Netherlands. As part of the Room for the River programme, the northern embankments were lowered which enables the inflow of water during high water levels in the river Merwede. This reduces peak water levels in the river, supports the adjacent freshwater Biesbosch wetland by means of restored water dynamics, but also affects the possibilities for agricultural production. The chapter highlights that a strong coupling can be observed between the domains of water safety and nature development objectives, and that a top-down decision concluded a long stakeholder negotiation processes. From the perspective of “subsiding polder lands,” controlled flooding is not regarded for its strategic importance, as excessive sedimentation would hamper the intended design discharge of the area.

Chapter 4 explores the Tidal River Management concept. In the coastal zone of Bangladesh, community-enforced embankment breaches have opened up some of the polders or low-lying areas called “beels,” and exposed them to tidal influence again. Besides stimulating agricultural production and providing safer places to live in, the extensive network of polder embankments also caused increased sedimentation in the region’s rivers, and water logging in enclosed areas due to insufficient drainage possibilities. The chapter highlights that policy debates in Bangladesh have revolved around adopting “open” or “closed” approaches, where TRM represents a hybrid form. The case showed that TRM involves water management and sediment management, and that it represented a “social opening up” for local communities and NGOs to get involved with water projects and embankment removal.

Plans to restore seasonal flooding in the Mekong delta are center stage in Chapter 5. The Mekong delta system is very dynamic and dealing with the delta’s water resources, in connection with intensive rice production, have been heavily debated by Vietnamese and international policy makers. This chapter investigates a number of older and more recent long-term development plans for the Mekong delta. This analysis highlights how ideas about controlled flooding and flood control have gradually evolved over time. The most recent delta management plan suggests to restore seasonal flooding in some parts of the delta, as a way to safeguard downstream urban areas from peak flows, and as a way to improve the conditions for agricultural production.

Chapter 6 summarizes the findings of the case study chapters one by one, and concisely answers the research questions. It highlights key similarities and differences when it comes to social, environmental and technological dimensions, and discusses these findings with the literature on flood risk management policy, complex adaptive systems research, and delta studies. The findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics have been critical to emphasize the potential of restoring controlled flooding, but that social and technological factors have been important enablers or constrainers for controlled flooding initiatives to take shape. In itself, controlled flooding reconciles ecosystem-based ideas about flood management with more mainstream policies based on flood control. For this reason controlled flooding can be seen as a “niche-development” with limited influence on how flood management policies, and environmental delta systems, evolve. At the same time, controlled flooding has been acknowledged for its strategic opportunities, for example when it comes to diverting peak water discharges, land heightening by means of capturing suspended sediment, and by providing nutrient for agricultural. This offers opportunities for further thinking about and conceptual development of controlled flooding.

Verder vergroenen, verder verbreden : naar een effectieve bijdrage van het Europees landbouwbeleid en beleid voor agrarisch natuurbeheer aan groene opgaven
Doorn, Anne van; Westerink, Judith ; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Melman, Dick ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Breman, Bas - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2822) - 75
duurzame landbouw - vergroening - milieubeheer - beschermde soorten - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - landbouwbeleid - conservering op het bedrijf - sustainable agriculture - greening - environmental management - protected species - climatic change - biodiversity - agricultural policy - on-farm conservation
This report explores in what way greening and enhancing sustainability of agriculture could be best supported within the CAP: by greening of direct payments (1 st pillar) or by contracts for agri-environmental management (2 nd pillar). Additionally it is explored for which goals it would be meaningful to implement a collective approach for agri-environmental management, next to the current objectives of the support of internationally protected species. The most relevant issues in the Netherlands concerning the sustainable management of natural resources, climate change and biodiversity are the point of departure of the analysis. For a couple of issues it is analysed which objectives can be best reached with which measures and instruments within the CAP.
Passende Beoordeling ten behoeve van experimentele oesterkweek op perceel Stort 20 in de Kom van de Oosterschelde
Kamermans, Pauline - \ 2017
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C040/17) - 27
oesterteelt - oosterschelde - milieubeheer - aquacultuursystemen - natura 2000 - hangcultuur - oyster culture - eastern scheldt - environmental management - aquaculture systems - off-bottom culture
Sinds 2010 is aangetoond dat er in de Oosterschelde sprake is van een oester herpes virus waardoor er met name bij de jonge oesters een veel hogere sterfte optreedt. Het virus manifesteert zich bij een watertemperatuur tussen 16 en 18 oC. Het virus is in 2008 in Frankrijk aangetroffen en heeft daar tot grote sterfte onder de oesters geleid. Inmiddels zijn er aanwijzingen voor toenemende resistentie tegen het virus onder de oesters in Frankrijk. Daarnaast is er voor de oesterkweek in de Oosterschelde een probleem met geïntroduceerde oesterboorders die tot sterfte leiden van de oesters op de kweekpercelen. Om te komen tot herstel van de oesterproductie hebben de Nederlandse Oestervereniging (NOV) en het ministerie van Economische Zaken een plan van aanpak opgesteld om onder andere met behulp van nieuwe technieken de problemen te beheersen. Op een aantal locaties in de Kom van de Oosterschelde is met off-bottom kweek van oesters gestart. Door op verschillende locaties proeven te doen kunnen de resultaten met elkaar worden vergeleken. Een dergelijke vergelijking geeft de kwekers meer inzicht in de voor- en nadelen van het gebruik van verschillende locaties en methoden in de Oosterschelde. Ook op het oesterperceel Stort 20 in het sublitoraal van de Kom van de Oosterschelde heeft Jan Vette B.V. plannen om te experimenteren met off-bottom kweek van oesters. Voor nieuwe experimenten met off-bottom technieken dient de gebruikelijke vergunningprocedure voor activiteiten in Natura 2000-gebieden te worden doorlopen. Onderdeel van deze procedure is dat er een Passende Beoordeling wordt uitgevoerd waarin op basis van de best beschikbare kennis en informatie wordt getoetst of de beoogde activiteit geen wezenlijk negatief effect heeft op de instandhoudingsdoelen en daarmee de kernopgaven die in het aanwijzingsbesluit voor het betreffende Natura 2000-gebied zijn geformuleerd. De activiteiten die gerelateerd zijn aan experimentele oesterkweek op het oesterperceel Stort 20 in het sublitoraal van Kom van de Oosterschelde zijn geanalyseerd wat betreft de effecten op de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen van habitats en beschermde soorten. Ook is ingegaan op mitigerende maatregelen en cumulatieve effecten. In voorliggende Passende Beoordeling is de beschikbare informatie samengevat. De conclusie is dat er geen als significant te beoordelen negatieve effecten zijn te verwachten van experimentele oesterkweek op het oesterperceel Stort 20 in het sublitoraal van Kom van de Oosterschelde. Dit geldt zowel voor de Natura 2000-instandhoudingdoelen van habitats en soorten als voor aan de orde zijnde verbeteropgaven voor het Natura 2000 gebied de Oosterschelde.
Marine complex adaptive systems : theory, legislation and management practices
Bigagli, Emanuele - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Craglia. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431255 - 160
marine areas - marine environment - adaptation - environmental management - oceans - climate - environmental legislation - global warming - climatic change - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - adaptatie - milieubeheer - oceanen - klimaat - milieuwetgeving - opwarming van de aarde - klimaatverandering

Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodiversity. Moreover, they have a negative impact on maritime economic sectors and on the social welfare of dependent coastal populations. In order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional single-sector management, in the recent decades several scientific approaches emerged, based on the view of marine systems as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), i.e. systems where components interact in non-linear, path dependent ways, with lock-in and feedback loop mechanisms, and unpredictable effects also across scales. These approaches have been introduced into the texts of several international agreements related to marine CAS, and related management practices, with contrasting results in relation to effectiveness and integration of governance.

This thesis evaluates for the first time the current international and European legal frameworks from the perspective of marine CAS. To accomplish this objective, four research objectives are formulated: (1) Develop a framework for marine CAS assessment and management; (2) Evaluate the entire European Union (EU) legal framework against the framework developed; (3) Evaluate the international legal framework for the assessment and management of the global oceans against the framework developed; and (4) Evaluate the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into practice.

Chapter 2 develops a framework for marine CAS, based on the combination of two promising theoretical approaches: Adaptive Management (AM) and Transition Management (TM). The framework is based on the idea that AM and TM have the potential to overcome each other’s limitations, which are related to the insufficient attention to micro-level socio-economic components, and to the limited incorporation of environmental aspects into socio-technical assessments, respectively. More into detail, the proposed framework is articulated into three components. First, the two sets of marine social-ecological systems and connected socio-technical systems (e.g. fisheries, maritime transportation, coastal tourism and energy) must be clearly identified, and the complex interactions and influences between socio-economic patterns of production and consumption, and ecological components must be assessed. Second, the achievement of ecological resilience of a marine social-ecological system should be performed in coordination with transitions of unsustainable connected socio-technical systems. This implies that sustainability should be evaluated in relation to the pressures socio-technical systems generate on the ecological resilience of connected social-ecological systems, and related impacts. Third, the implementation of the two approaches should be articulated into iterative, learning- and science-based policy cycles, with mechanisms to foster coordination between the policy cycles of social-ecological and socio-technical systems. The benefits of this framework are threefold. First, the assessment of the two sets of social-ecological and socio-technical systems, taken together, allows to overcome current AM limitations and include micro-level socio-economic components into the assessment of ecological resilience. Second, by linking AM managers with established transition arenas, it is possible to overcome TM limitations and streamline the consideration of ecological aspects into the TM process. Third, by linking AM and TM policy cycles, it is possible to reduce the current legal and policy fragmentation.

Chapters 3 and 4 apply the framework proposed in Chapter 2 to evaluate the EU and global legal frameworks for the assessment and management of marine CAS. Chapter 3 presents the first comprehensive review ever realised of the entire EU legal framework, composed of more than 12,000 EU legal acts, from the perspective of marine CAS assessment and management. It concludes that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the assessment and management of EU marine CAS. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and integrate ecological resilience into the objectives of sector-based laws and policies.

Chapter 4 reviews 500 multilateral agreements, evaluated for the first time from the perspective of marine CAS. It shows that there is no international agreement aiming at the ecological resilience of the global oceans social-ecological system. Instead, the international legal framework is fragmented along two dimensions. On the one side, global agreements focus on specific objectives for determined socio-economic activities, ecological features or anthropogenic pressures. On the other side, regional agreements are in place for 18 ocean regions of the world, with a varying level of inclusion of elements of marine CAS assessment and management. The need is highlighted for a reformed global ocean governance framework, which should be based on a bio-geographical approach to the ecological resilience of the global oceans, and build on iteration, learning, and science-based advice to policy and management.

Chapter 5 evaluates the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into the practice of assessment and management of a case-study area, the Adriatic Sea. It shows the importance of the MSFD as the first policy trying to deliver a CAS approach to marine assessment and management. However, the case-study investigation confirms the three limitations of the MSFD, laying in: 1) an insufficient geographical approach, where implementation is driven at national level and the requirement of cross-border cooperation is weak; 2) the vagueness of legal requirements, and the limited capacity to include socio-economic aspects into the required assessment; and 3) an insufficient capacity to coordinate with other laws, policies and programmes at various levels of governance. Based on the identified limitations, suggestions are advanced on how to strengthen the implementation of the MSFD, both at Adriatic and EU level. These suggestions are further advanced in Chapter 6, which includes detailed proposals on how to foster integrated large-scale marine monitoring in the EU, in order to contribute to the implementation of the MSFD in an efficient and effective way, also in relation to costs.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the major findings of this thesis and evaluates the capacity of the framework to deliver a CAS approach to marine systems. It concludes that AM and TM, although holding different visions on sustainability and referring to different principles, have the potential to be put in synergy at the practical level. Further scientific research and management practices should focus on the need for AM and TM to overcome the relative isolation and foster synergies across sector-based management, in order to integrate environmental considerations into economic sectors. Suggestions are advanced to improve legal frameworks and policy practices at the global and EU level. They focus on the need: (i) to fill the gaps in the geographical scope of legal texts and to foster international cooperation at the right social-ecological scale; (ii) to increase guidance in translating complex scientific requirements into clear management objectives, and improve related data collection and sharing; and (iii) to reduce current legal and policy fragmentation through targeted, ecological resilience-based marine environmental impact assessments and maritime spatial planning. Lines for further scientific research are suggested, focusing on: (i) improving the evidence-base through additional case-studies; (ii) analysing legal frameworks and governance regimes in place for other marine social-ecological systems, like e.g. the United States of America, Canada, Australia and China; (iii) improving existing tools, or creating new ones for marine ecological resilience assessment; and (iv) developing innovative instruments and mechanisms to strengthen global oceans governance.

Advies inrichting en beheer beekdal Geeserstroom
Verdonschot, Piet F.M. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Jansen, Peter C. ; Massop, Harry T.L. ; Grootjans, Ab P. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra) - ISBN 9789463431279 - 128
beekdalen - waterlopen - milieubeheer - natuurbeheer - waterbeheer - wetlands - drenthe - brook valleys - streams - environmental management - nature management - water management
De in 2005 uitgevoerde herinrichting van het beekdal van de Geeserstroom bestond uit de omvorming van een regulier landbouwgebied naar een door natuurlijke waterhuishoudkundige processen aangestuurd natuurgebied, met een nevenfunctie voor waterberging. Vooraf was een 19de -eeuwse beekdallandschap voorzien, met in het midden een stromende beekloop. Het beekdal blijkt zich in de periode tot 2016 echter ontwikkeld te hebben tot een zogenaamd doorstroommoeras, dat inmiddels een grote diversiteit aan moerasvegetaties en een zeer soortenrijke moerasvogelgemeenschap kent. Een doorstroommoeras is een mengvorm van moeras en beek en vormt qua watertype een overgang tussen stromend en stilstaand water. Naast de genoemde ecologische waarden zijn er lokaal echter ook enkele waterhuishoudkundige knelpunten en waterkwaliteitsproblemen ontstaan.
Improving environmental sustainability of palm oil production in Thailand
Saswattecha, Kanokwam - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze; Lars Hein. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430401 - 277
palm oils - sustainability - environmental protection - environmental management - environmental impact - greenhouse gases - emission - thailand - palmoliën - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - milieueffect - broeikasgassen - emissie

Demand for palm oil in Thailand has increased as a result of Thai policies promoting the use of biodiesel. This increased demand results in negative effects on ecosystem services and increases environment pollution. Most existing studies focus on global warming impact alone, while other environmental impacts are being overlooked. Moreover, several mitigation options are widely studied but none of them has been investigated for cost-effectiveness. Such information is crucial for decision makers to explore possibilities for improving environmental performance towards sustainable palm oil production in Thailand. Therefore, this thesis aimed to analyse environmental impacts in the past and future, and to explore possibilities for improving environmental sustainability of the palm oil sector in Thailand. These objectives have been met through an integrated environmental assessment by coupling a landscape model and sectoral model which can be seen as the novelty of this thesis.

Systeemverantwoordelijkheid in het natuurbeleid : input voor agendavorming van de Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014
Boonstra, F.G. ; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 47) - 35
natuur - natuurbeleid - verantwoordelijkheid - overheid - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - nederland - nature - nature conservation policy - responsibility - public authorities - environmental management - environmental policy - netherlands
The Natinonal Government carries system responsibility for nature. Some ambiguity in the understanding ofthe concept of system responsibility seems to exist, however. The ways in which system responsibility isimplemented vary in practice also. The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment gives expression to itssystem responsibility within spatial planning in a largely facilitating manner, but its role also shows someregulating elements. With regard to water policy there is, on the contrary, a largely regulating interpretationwith some facilitating elements. The Ministry of the Interior has a facilitating role concerning the issue ofdemographic decline. The Ministry of Economic Affairs is still searching for a way to handle its systemresponsibility in nature policy and is showing at the time of this research (beginning 2013) an inclinationtowards a largely facilitating role. The Assessment of the Dutch Human Environment may be helpful with thissearch by clarifying the concept, indicating further options for implementation and making clear what theconsequences will be of the different possible roles.
Nationale parken in transitie : governance-implicaties van een veranderend beleidskader
Pleijte, M. ; During, R. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 87) - 78
nationale parken - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - milieubeheer - governance - financiën - national parks - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - environmental management - finance
De nationale parken verkeren in een transitie. Met de decentralisatie van het natuurbeleid heeft het Rijksinds januari 2013 veel Rijkstaken voor nationale parken laten vallen. Het Rijk is alleen nog verantwoordelijkom nationale parken in te stellen en te begrenzen. Provincies konden zelf beslissen of zij die vervallenRijkstaken al dan niet overnamen. Hierdoor is onduidelijk geworden wie nu verantwoordelijk is voor denationale parken en waar ze hun middelen vandaan moeten halen. Dit heeft geleid tot een zoektocht naarregionale inbedding en nieuwe financieringsvormen. Daarbij zijn grote verschillen ontstaan tussen nationaleparken. Het merendeel van de nationale parkorganisaties is hierdoor bezig met overleven. Een motie en eenamendement in de Tweede Kamer vormden begin 2015 de opmaat voor het Programma Nationale Parkenvan Wereldklasse, waarbij onder andere het ministerie van Economische Zaken en provincies zijn betrokken.Hierdoor is een groot contrast ontstaan tussen nieuwe ambities en de feitelijke situatie.---The national parks are going through a period of transition. Since January 2013, when the decentralisation ofnature policy began, the national government has abandoned many of its responsibilities, except thedelineation of national park boundaries. The provinces were free to decide whether or not to take over thesenational government tasks, which resulted in a diversity of commitments. Where provincial governmentcommitment was lacking, the park authorities sought closer integration into the regional economy andregional society and looked for new forms of financing. As a result, there are now large differences betweenthe national parks. Most of the national park organisations are simply trying to survive. A motion and asubsequent amendment in Parliament laid the foundation for the launch early in 2015 of the World ClassNational Parks Programme (Nationale Parken van Wereldklasse), with a contest for the most ambitiousinternationally oriented park. Among the organisations involved are the Ministry of Economic Affairs and theprovincial governments. The new ambitions created by this contest stand in stark contrast to the actualsituation on the ground.
Reflection of a collective learning journey : Strengthening KCCEM to build the capacity of Conservation professionals in the Albertine Rift Region NICHE/RWA/025
Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-014 ) - 130 p.
training - learning - professional competence - colleges - development - nature conservation - wildlife conservation - environmental management - tourism - rwanda - opleiding - leren - vakbekwaamheid - ontwikkeling - natuurbescherming - wildbescherming - milieubeheer - toerisme
Together with our support team from the Netherlands (Wageningen University), South Africa (South African Wildlife College) and Cameroon (Ecole de Faune) we embarked upon this journey of supporting the Kitabi College of Conservation and Environmental Management in Rwanda (KCCEM). The major building blocks of this learning journey are the development of a business model, the development of organisational capacity to implement the model, and the development of a range of products and services to be delivered with quality. All these three components operationalised within the policy frameworks and institutional context of Rwanda’s conservation, tourism and environmental management sector.
Pesticides in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) : a scoping study of current and future use, associated risks and identification of actions for risk mitigation
Lahr, Joost ; Buij, Ralph ; Katagira, Franciska ; Valk, Harold van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2760) - 71
pesticides - environmental management - risk - health - integrated pest management - extension - tanzania - pesticiden - milieubeheer - risico - gezondheid - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - voorlichting
SAGCOT, the ‘Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania’, is a coordinated initiative to boost agricultural output in southern Tanzania through public and private investment, to improve food security, reduce rural poverty and sustain the environment. The ‘Sustainability and Inclusion Strategy for Growth Corridors in Africa’ (SUSTAIN-Africa) programme by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) develops and demonstrates climate resilient solutions for water security and inclusive land resource and agricultural development in growth corridors and areas of intensive economic development in Africa. To develop an efficient, competitive and sustainable agricultural sector in SAGCOT, possible adverse effects of pesticide use need to be addressed and minimized. For this purpose a scoping study was conducted, consisting of a literature survey, a scoping mission and a stakeholder workshop. The study revealed that there are many issues related to pesticide management and pesticide risks that need attention when the SAGCOT is further developed and pesticide use increases. The most important recommendations of the study are (1) better implementation and enforcement of current rules and regulations for pesticides, (2) training and awareness creation for pesticide users, (3) creation of a multi-stakeholder platform for exchange on best pest and pesticide management practices in the SAGCOT, (4) a regulatory body at the local government authority level to enforce/monitor pesticide management and life cycle, and (5) development of a monitoring and evaluation framework on pesticides for the SAGCOT.
Camping De Braamhorst : quickscan naar het voorkomen van beschermde natuurwaarden op camping De Braamhorst e.o. i.r.t. de mogelijke komst van een asielzoekerscentrum voor 300 bewoners
Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Vries, D. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2756) - 27
natuurwaarde - natuur - inventarisaties - kampeerplaatsen - milieubeheer - natura 2000 - natuurbeheer - veluwe - natural value - nature - inventories - camp sites - environmental management - nature management
Dit is een quickscan van campingterrein De Braamhorst waar is gekeken naar beschermde natuurwaarden in relatie tot een voorgenomen locatie voor 300 asielzoekers.
Food from the Sulawesi Sea, the need for integrated sea use planning
Siahainenia, Audrie J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578869 - 180
mangroves - mangrove forests - fishes - habitats - marine areas - marine environment - fish stocks - environmental management - ecological disturbance - disturbance - sulawesi - mangrovebossen - vissen - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - visstand - milieubeheer - ecologische verstoring - verstoring - celebes

Mangroves occur in the tropics and subtropics region and an important coastal habitat for the artisanal fisheries along the coast of Indonesia. Around 19% of the total mangrove area in the world is located in Indonesia. Besides providing a barrier against coastal/Delta erosion, mangrove forest plays a significant role as a nursery area for most of the marine communities. Unluckily, 57% of the ±3.2 million ha of the mangroves in Indonesia is currently in degraded, mostly because of human activities (anthropogenic disturbance). The primary sources of anthropogenic disturbances to mangroves are increasing population growth rate and demand for seafood products as an essential protein, especially the wild shrimp, in the world market. These resulted in land-use conversion along estuarine areas not only for settlements and plantations but also for aquaculture ponds. The lack of awareness and understanding of the value and function of mangrove ecosystems contributed to the loss and damage the mangroves area.

Therefore, my research and field experiment aimed to quantify the effects of human disturbance on mangroves associated trophic cascades in Indonesia estuarine areas. The study was performed in the Berau District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia between 2005 and 2010. Data of mangrove extent from 1990 in the Berau Delta was used as base data with low human disturbance. We also interviewed the artisanal fishermen about their catches, origins, and fishing locations, in relation to the total catch per unit effort (CpUE).

The results had shown that the total mangroves area in the Berau Delta decreased by 54% between the 1990 and 2009, which led to fragmentation and alteration in the structural complexity of mangroves. The field experiment conducted at three locations with different levels of human disturbances revealed that the species richness was decreased with increased the level of human interference and the marine community tended to be dominated by only a few species. In the highly disturbed areas, the catch of small-scale fishermen tended to be lower. Furthermore, the result from a spatial statistical model indicated that the disturbance of mangrove habitats was influenced the distribution pattern of shrimp. The total CpUE of small-scale fishery in the study area was relatively small, and the area was probably not overexploited.

As a conclusion, mangroves habitat in the Berau Delta played a significant role in sustaining coastal fisheries. This important ecosystem supports a primary source of marine protein. Mangrove forests can only guarantee these marine resources if the people consciously maintain its viability through a strong management policy.

Friese en Groninger kwelderwerken: monitoring en beheer 1960-2014
Duin, W.E. van; Jongerius, H. ; Nicolai, A. ; Jongsma, J.J. ; Hendriks, A. ; Sonneveld, C. - \ 2016
IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C042/16) - 80 p.
zoutmoerassen - monitoring - geschiedenis - milieubeheer - waddenzee - groningen - friesland - salt marshes - history - environmental management - wadden sea
Resultaten monitoring en ontwikkeling van de kwelderwerken met een samenvattend hoofdstuk over de historie, waarin ook een overzicht wordt gegeven van de veranderingen die de afgelopen decennia hebben plaatsgevonden in het beheer en de bereikte doelen.
Kansen en dilemma’s bij het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en instituties : verslag van bijeenkomst in Zwolle op 24 juni 2015
[Unknown], - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 19
natuur - natuurbeheer - participatie - publieke participatie - milieubeheer - overijssel - nature - nature management - participation - public participation - environmental management
Deze bijeenkomst over kansen en dilemma’s bij het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en instituties is georganiseerd door Natuur en Milieu Overijssel en Alterra. Aan de hand van Overijsselse praktijkverhalen is ingegaan op het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven, overheden en andere instituties. Speciale aandacht ging uit naar de verbindende rol die intermediaire organisaties hierbij kunnen spelen. De bijeenkomst vond plaats in het kader van het leernetwerk ‘Samenspel tussen Burgerinitiatieven en Overheden in het groene domein’, maar was bedoeld voor alle geïnteresseerde ambtenaren van gemeenten, waterschappen en provincies, medewerkers van natuur- en landschapsorganisaties en burgerinitiatieven. Alhoewel de focus lag op leren door overheden en andere instituties, waren er ook meerdere initiatiefnemers aanwezig.
Haalbaarheid van BEX-BEA voor varkens- en pluimveebedrijven : verkenning van een verantwoordingsinstrument voor bedrijfsspecifieke milieuprestaties
Holster, H.C. ; Migchels, G. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Harn, J. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 914) - 32
varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - milieubescherming - milieubeheer - emissiereductie - ammoniak - overijssel - pig farming - poultry farming - environmental protection - environmental management - emission reduction - ammonia
Proeftuin Natura 2000 Overijssel (‘de Proeftuin’) richt zich op de realisatie van Natura 2000- doelstellingen in de provincie Overijssel met behoud van agrarisch ontwikkelingsperspectief. Het project combineert het ontwikkelen en toepassen van ammoniak reducerende maatregelen in de praktijk, met de kennisuitwisseling tussen veehouders, adviseurs en andere betrokkenen. Voor de melkveehouderij is de KringloopWijzer een bekend instrument voor het verantwoorden van de milieuprestaties. De BEX (Bedrijfsspecifieke Excretie) en BEA (Bedrijfsspecifieke Excretie Ammoniak) maken hier onderdeel van uit. De gedachte dat aantoonbaar goed milieugedrag door de ondernemer mag leiden tot een vorm van beloning is niet alleen voorbehouden aan de melkveehouderij. Ook de intensieve veehouderij zoekt naar ruimte om te ondernemen. De melkveehouderij zit complex in elkaar met bijvoorbeeld ruwvoeropbrengsten en rantsoenen (gras en mais) die kunnen variëren. Bij de intensieve veehouderij is de voersamenstelling nauwkeurig bekend. De aanname bij de start van deze verkenning was dan ook dat een BEX-BEA intensief eenvoudig is op te zetten.
An integrated ecosystem model for coral reef management where oceanography, ecology and socio-economics meet
Weijerman, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Wolf Mooij, co-promotor(en): E.A. Fulton; R.E. Brainard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574304 - 285
koraalriffen - milieubeheer - aquatische ecosystemen - aquatische ecologie - oceanografie - modellen - ecosystemen - sociale economie - coral reefs - environmental management - aquatic ecosystems - aquatic ecology - oceanography - models - ecosystems - socioeconomics

Summary

Widespread coral reef decline, including decline in reef fish populations upon which many coastal human populations depend, have led to phase-shifts from the coral-dominated systems, found desirable by humans, to algal-dominated systems that provide less ecosystem services, and the loss of functionally important species. Marine resource managers are challenged with providing strategies that can mitigate or prevent such phase shifts and losses and promote the sustainable use of marine resources. Additionally, managers need to take into account the impacts of these strategies on the socioeconomic conditions of the many resource users. To respond to these challenges scientists, managers and policy makers have advocated for an ecosystem-based approach instead of the traditional focus on individual (economically important) species. Ecosystem-based management includes the various dynamic processes that influence an ecosystem, such as hydrology, ecology, biogeochemistry, and human activities.

The management strategy evaluation (MSE) tool commonly used in single species stock assessments for evaluating socioeconomic and ecological tradeoffs of alternative management strategies, has now become more widely applied in multi-species or ecosystem assessments. Ecosystem modelling can include more of the key dynamic processes that drive ecosystems and by using that in an MSE framework provides a better understanding of the socio-ecological consequences of management options and quantifies these tradeoffs.

In this thesis, I review the use of minimal, intermediate and complex coral reef ecosystem models for their suitability of MSE applications. I conclude that complex models can integrate the myriad dynamic processes that govern coral reef ecosystems and are most suitable for MSE, but that minimal and intermediate models are needed to provide the relationships relevant to these dynamics. The main objective of this thesis was to develop a complex model and quantify the effects of watershed management and fishery regulations on coral reef ecosystem services against a backdrop of climate change impacts. For this model development, I selected the Atlantis ecosystem model framework and applied it to a case study of the coral reef ecosystems around Guam to evaluate the performance of alternative management strategies against identified ecosystem metrics.

Following the step-wise approach recommended for Integrated Ecosystem Assessments, I started with a workshop involving local stakeholders (including resource managers and other coral reef users) to identify the (1) overarching goal of coral reef management, (2) ecological indicators of reef status, and (3) socioeconomic indicators of reef users. Using an Ecopath model I identified additional ecosystem indicators of fishing impacts that could also be used as performance metrics in the ecosystem modelling of alternative strategies. Published relationships for key coral reef dynamics were used to apply the Atlantis framework to coral reef ecosystems. I then developed and parameterized the Guam Atlantis model including 42 functional species groups and the system impacts of eutrophication, sedimentation, fishing and ocean warming and acidification. I validated the model simulations of no local or global stressors, a ‘control run’, following common guidelines for Atlantis development and I validated the added dynamics with published and empirical data or with expert judgement. Due to the absence of time series, model skill assessment was difficult but I could compare biomass of included fish groups after a 1985–2015 simulation with observational data in 2011. These results showed that the model is biased and overestimates various fish groups. However, because the origin of the bias is unknown, rectifying the bias at this point was not possible. Despite this, based on the model validations I concluded that the model was ‘scenario ready’ and suitable for use as a basis of relative comparisons of management strategies, allowing for evaluations to be conducted in an internally consistent context.

I applied the model to evaluate the relative performance of management strategies against a set of criteria based on the overall goals identified by local resource managers. These included: (1) improved water quality, (2) increased reef resilience, (3) enhanced fish biomass, and (4) similar or improved fishery landings. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed ‘best’ for at least one of the performance indicators. The integrated ‘full regulation’ scenario (size and bag limits, marine preserves and no land-based sources of pollution) outperformed other scenarios with two thirds of the performance metrics approaching the criteria at the cost of reef-fish landings. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, the selected scenarios performed fairly equally, but none could prevent a collapse in coral biomass by mid-century under a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario. To get a better understanding of how these same management scenarios influence the economically important tourism sector and the socially important reef-fishing sector, I coupled the Guam Atlantis model to two human behavior models, one representing divers and the other fishers.

Ecosystem modelling also allows for the comparison of cumulative impacts. Assessments of individual and cumulative impacts of three stressors to reef ecosystems: land-based sources of pollution, fishing and climate change, showed that, to-date, fishing has had the most negative influence on ecosystem metrics that represent reef status, resilience and functioning, and climate change will have the most negative effect in the future most noticeably on the benthic community structure. Cumulative simulations generally showed that the actual effect was slightly less than could be expected based on the sum of their individual effects, keeping in mind that the actual effect size was negative.

With this model now developed, it provides a tool for assessing and quantifying a range of questions in support for EBM for coral reef ecosystems.

Innovations in urban agriculture
Schans, J.W. van der; Renting, Henk ; Veenhuizen, René Van - \ 2014
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2014)28. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 3 - 12.
urban agriculture - innovations - urban areas - food security - environmental management - urban environment - regional food chains - stadslandbouw - innovaties - stedelijke gebieden - voedselzekerheid - milieubeheer - stadsomgeving - regionale voedselketens
This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.
Het ontwerpen van een nieuw duurzaam bewaar- en verwerkingssysteem voor bloembollen
Gude, H. ; Dam, M.F.N. van; Bulle, A.A.E. ; Vreeburg, P.J.M. ; Wildschut, J. ; Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2014
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 33
bloembollen - cultuurmethoden - duurzame landbouw - innovaties - milieubeheer - opslag - kwaliteitszorg - aangepaste technologie - optimalisatiemethoden - desinfectie - inventarisaties - ornamental bulbs - cultural methods - sustainable agriculture - innovations - environmental management - storage - quality management - appropriate technology - optimization methods - disinfection - inventories
De huidige bewaar-, verwerkings- en ontsmettingssystemen voor bloembollen functioneren verre van optimaal: de bewaring wordt gekenmerkt door een hoog energieverbruik, tijdens het verwerken en ontsmetten treedt verspreiding van ziekten op, en stress en verwonding van de bollen dragen bij aan uitval door ziekten en andere vormen van kwaliteitsverlies. Daarnaast staat het ontsmetten onder grote druk door de risico’s van blootstelling van medewerkers en emissie van middelen naar het milieu. Het sorteren van bollen voorkomt niet dat in de broeierij grote variatie in groeisnelheid en bloemkwaliteit optreedt en de onmogelijkheid om bollen geautomatiseerd rechtop te planten brengt hoge arbeidskosten met zich mee. Dit project had tot doel innovatieve technieken voor de verschillende onderdelen van het verwerken (inclusief ontsmetten) en bewaren te inventariseren en die te integreren tot een totaalsysteem waarin energiezuinig bewaard wordt, blootstelling aan en emissie van middelen tot het verleden behoren, en gezondere en kwalitatief betere bollen geproduceerd worden.
Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms
Grekova, E. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572232 - 150
milieubeheer - ketenmanagement - firma's - bedrijven - prestatieniveau - innovaties - voedselindustrie - dranken - nederland - environmental management - supply chain management - firms - businesses - performance - innovations - food industry - beverages - netherlands

Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry growth, using the Dutch food and beverage processors as a subject of the study. In–house environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM have a promising potential to induce sustainable growth in the industry because they are increasingly connected not only to improved environmental but also to an improved economic performance. However, the implications of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM for the firm performance are not clear-cut and require further investigation. Prompted by the promising potential of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM, the current research agenda focuses on their determinants: internal organizational capabilities and external factors (such as the roles of public policies, consumer demand, and other stakeholder pressures). Therefore, the present dissertation aims to investigate determinants of environmental innovation and of supply chain-oriented EM and their impact on firm performance.

Chapter 2 illustrates in a dynamic perspective how changing institutional pressures and internal organizational factors influence the development of chain-oriented EM. Overall, institutional pressures are proven to be an important determinant. However, pressures on different levels vary considerably with respect to their impact. We found that pressures from supply chain partners and increasingly from long-term public–private environmental covenants significantly influence the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Interestingly, regulative institutional pressure from public authorities appeared to have no impact on supply chain-oriented EM. These findings are of particular interest as they suggest that Dutch public policy has chosen to rely on a responsibility culture, initiative, and self-organization, rather than on direct steering. This policy setting seems to work since our data evidence a progress in the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Furthermore, the findings show that food processors with more developed EM systems, associated with the presence of continuous improvement capabilities, are more likely to advance their EM by implementing supply chain-oriented EM. In course of time, as firms increasingly consider the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM as appropriate behaviour, institutional pressures become less influential and internal organizational factors become crucial to enable the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM.

Chapter 3 offers further insights into organizational capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Prior research rarely considered how firms use their existing capabilities and the capabilities developed within their environmental strategy to come up with new and better ways to reduce the environmental impact. We investigate whether the integration of environmental concerns within the firm can provide an additional impetus to the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM, when combined with innovative orientation. In this context, we assess performance implications of capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Compared with the past research, we consider supply chain-oriented EM as an organizational capability for the integration of supply chain partners into EM, not as a set of environmental practices. The findings show that the development of supply chain-oriented EM is supported by both capabilities of innovative orientation and environmental integration and is accelerated by their combination. Furthermore, integration capabilities on in-house and supply chain levels appeared to be interconnected. The capability to integrate environmental concerns within the firm induces the integration of environmental concerns in the supply chain relationships. Finally, it is shown that the overarching capability to engage supply chain in EM pays off. This capability is induced by the implementation of interconnected environmental practices that involve supply chain partners (green purchasing, environmental collaboration with customers, and eco-design).

Chapter 4 advances the understanding of the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on firm performance by introducing in environmental research the problem of appropriation of benefits created by the partners. Grounded in the Resource based view spin-offs, we claim that supply chain-oriented EM can enhance the performance of the focal firm not only directly, but also indirectly. The indirect relationship implies that supply chain-oriented EM stimulates the focal firm to implement more environmentally sustainable processes that in turn contribute to firm's performance. We found that supply chain-oriented EM involving customers can induce in-house environmental innovation that results in strong performance improvements. Interestingly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers brings about weak performance improvements as a result of appropriation of the advantage realized by suppliers. Therefore, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers has a limited value and potential for Dutch food processors. Possibly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers can induce process changes among suppliers, not focal firms. In this context, Chapter 4 illustrates the necessity to integrate the characteristics of supply chain actors into the research on the implications of supply chain-oriented EM. The findings regarding the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on the sustainability of internal operations have a link with firm performance. Supply chain-oriented EM that involves suppliers was shown to induce no significant improvements in environmental sustainability of operations among food processors. Unlike supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers, supply chain-oriented EM involving customers has an indirect effect on the firm performance via environmental innovation.

Firm’s network can be seen as a rich source of knowledge. Having access to knowledge and resources of the partners in supply chains and networks does not imply that a firm can appropriate (i.e. capture) corresponding benefits that could enhance environmental sustainability of in-house operations and performance. The exploitation of external knowledge requires the development of organizational capability to realize the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it and ultimately exploit it – absorptive capacity. Chapter 5 brings absorptive capacity into the discussion regarding the role of external partners in environmental innovation. Environmental innovation can also rely on internal knowledge sources. Development and accumulation of internal knowledge can be supported by the continuous improvement capability vested in the EM system. Therefore, Chapter 5 informs the discussion of the roles of internal and external knowledge for environmental innovation by considering organizational capabilities for knowledge sourcing: absorptive capacity to exploit external knowledge and continuous improvement to develop and accumulate internal environmental knowledge. The findings demonstrate that Dutch food processors develop environmental innovations relying on both external knowledge in their network tapped with the help of absorptive capacity and on internal knowledge built within the EM system with the help of continuous improvement capabilities. These findings challenge the presence of a substitution effect between internal and external knowledge. We expand the research on the determinants of environmental innovation by considering not only different knowledge sources but by providing insights into the knowledge sourcing process.

Overall, the dissertation evidences an increasing importance of internal organizational capabilities to enable sustainable industry growth. Internal organizational capabilities appeared to be decisive to induce environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM. Also the appropriation of benefits created in cooperation with external partners and exploitation of external knowledge require certain organizational capabilities. In the earlier periods of corporate environmentalism, external pressures were of primary importance to induce the reduction of the environmental impact. Nowadays, the increasing role of organizational capabilities implies that a lot of power is concentrated in the hands of managers. For public policy, these findings suggest a focus on the development of instruments to stimulate the accumulation of organizational capabilities and capacity building.

Aspects of data on diverse relationships between agriculture and the environment
Elbersen, B.S. ; Beaufoy, G. ; Jones, G. ; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Breman, B.C. ; Hazeu, G.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra (EU rapport 07-0307/2012/633993/ETU/B1) - 225
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - graslanden - bebossing - milieubeheer - landbouw - bufferzones - akkerranden - gegevensbeheer - cap - grasslands - afforestation - environmental management - agriculture - buffer zones - field margins - data management
The main objectives presented in the report are: 1) To examine data gaps in the field of ecologically valuable grasslands and land at risk of abandonment by gathering existing data and making recommendations on how the gaps might best be filled to underpin the present and future policy process in these fields 2) To gather existing data and providing best/less good practice examples in relation to the environmental impacts of afforestation in agricultural lands in order to underpin the present and future policy process and environmental policy objectives 3) To find and present best/less good practice examples in relation to optimal design and management of riparian buffer strips in the context of environmental policy objectives.
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