Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Cumulative effects assessment: proof of concept marine mammals
Piet, Gerjan ; Boon, Arjen ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Meulen, Myra van der; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Teal, Lorna ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C002/17) - 107
marine mammals - marine ecology - environmental impact - environmental assessment - ecological risk assessment - zeezoogdieren - mariene ecologie - milieueffect - milieutoets - ecologische risicoschatting
This development of the framework and approach for a Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is based on a literature review. The literature identified some key challenges that need to be addressed for CEA to evolve into a consistent, appropriate tool to assist decision-making. These challenges included • A clear distinction of the receptor-led CEA from the dominating stressor-led Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approaches and • Enabling CEA to provide ecosystem-relevant information at an appropriate regional scale. Therefore this CEA is explicitly developed to be a receptor-led and fully integrated framework, i.e. involving multiple occurrences of multiple pressures (from single and/or different sources) on multiple receptors, as opposed to other existing approaches dealing with only a subset of those pressures or receptors, hence our use of the phrase iCEA for integrated CEA. As a proof of concept for this iCEA we selected one receptor, the ecosystem component marine mammals. The main conclusions of this exercise (see Chapter 6) are that the iCEA framework and approach presented in this study appear suitable to fulfil its main purpose and ultimately inform the policy process as described in the conception phase. However it should be acknowledged this is only the very first step in a process where through many iterations new information can be introduced and assessed (relative to existing information) based on the criteria provided resulting in an improved iCEA with increasing confidence levels. As more information becomes available the relative importance of impact chains and its corresponding information modules may change giving direction to new areas for research. For further development of this iCEA towards its intended applications we can distinguish between the first purpose, i.e. identification of the main impact chains contributing to the risk that a specific ecosystem component is impacted, which can be achieved with the approach presented here focussing on one specific ecosystem component and the second purpose, i.e. an evaluation of the performance of possible management strategies, which would require all ecosystem components to be included as would be required for ecosystem-based management. Thus to further the development and application of this iCEA towards its (two) purpose(s) the recommendation is to: • Include the available information presented in this report into the iCEA and develop the Bayesian Belief Network such that it can process this information and its associated confidence into an assessment that identifies the main impact chains for the marine mammals. • Extend the framework and approach to (all) the other ecosystem components so that a truly integrated CEA is possible. Note that this is likely to affect the identification of what should be considered the main pressures to guide management. • Improve the information modules that emerged from the evaluation as the most promising to increase the confidence in the outcome of the iCEA. Note that the previous two steps may result in a different prioritisation of the information modules as the importance of pressures and hence impact chains changes.
Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands
Wipfler, E.L. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Os, E.A. van; Wingelaar, G.J. ; Cornelese, A.A. ; Bergstedt, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2604) - 41
glastuinbouw - cultuur zonder grond - pesticiden - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - waterverontreiniging - milieutoets - scenario-analyse - greenhouse horticulture - soilless culture - pesticides - authorisation of pesticides - water pollution - environmental assessment - scenario analysis
Een studie is uitgevoerd naar de impact op de toelaatbaarheid van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen als de nieuwe oppervlaktewater exposure scenario’s voor substraatteelten in Nederlandse kassen worden ingevoerd. Ook is de gevoeligheid van de modeluitkomsten bepaald voor een aantal belangrijke modelparameters. De berekende milieuconcentratie in oppervlaktewater van de 35 bekeken gewasgewasbeschermingsmiddel combinaties lag in 27 gevallen hoger dan het bijbehorende toelatingscriterium. Voor deze combinaties zullen end-of-pipe reductietechnieken nodig zijn om de milieuconcentraties voldoende te verlagen.
Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment
Upton, J.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): L. Shalloo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570771 - 171
elektriciteit - energiegebruik - melkveehouderij - reductie - kosten - technologie - innovaties - economische analyse - milieutoets - electricity - energy consumption - dairy farming - reduction - costs - technology - innovations - economic analysis - environmental assessment

The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolishment of European Union milk quotas in 2015, which will result in an increased use of resources such as land, water, and energy, and increased emissions to the environment. In order to develop strategies to reduce electricity consumption associated costs and GHG emissions, it was necessary to understand the consumption trends and the hot-spots of electricity consumption within the farm. Therefore, we performed a life cycle assessment by quantifying the energy use on 22 commercial Irish dairy farms, from cradle-to-farm-gate. This analysis demonstrated that a total of 31.7 MJ of energy was required to produce one kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity consumption was found to represent 12% of total cradle-to-farm-gate energy use or 60% of direct energy, and was centered on milk harvesting. Following this analysis we devised two main groups of strategies, i.e. ‘cost strategies’ and ‘energy strategies’. ‘Cost strategies’ consisted of measures that could save on-farm costs but no energy or related emissions, such as, moving to a new electricity tariff or decoupling large electricity users, such as water heating, from milking times and shifting them to off-peak periods when electricity price is lower. Examples of ‘energy strategies’ are; the use of variable speed vacuum pumps on the milking machine, pre-cooling of milk and solar thermal technologies to provide hot water for cleaning purposes. A mechanistic model of electricity consumption that simulates farm equipment on an hourly and monthly basis was developed to further evaluate the ‘cost’ and ‘energy’ strategies. We used this model to show that a Day & Night electricity tariff minimised annual electricity costs, while a Flat tariff would increase the electricity costs by between 16% and 34%, depending on farm size. We also discovered that milking earlier in the morning and later in the evening reduced the simulated annual electricity consumption and related GHG emissions by between 5% and 7%, depending on farm size. An analysis of ‘energy strategies’ was carried out which revealed that that the ideal blend of technologies to maximise farm profitability while also reducing electricity consumption and GHG emissions, consisted of a direct expansion milk tank with pre-cooling of milk with well water to 15°C, electrical water heating and standard vacuum pumps. An individual farmer can also choose to increase his or her use of renewable energy by adding solar thermal water heating with the trade-off of reduced profitability and negative return on investment figures. This analysis highlighted the need for an investment appraisal approach to technology investments on dairy farms.

Onderzoek aan Albuz CVI1 10-015, CVI1 10-02, CVI1 10-025, CVI1 10-03, CVI1 10-04 en CVI1 10-05 spuitdoppen ter verkrijging van de status driftarm en voor classificatie op basis van driftgevoeligheid
Groot, T.T. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Agrosystems (Rapport / Plant Research International 522) - 24
spuiten - spuitdoppen - emissie - reductie - normen - druppelgrootte - meting - milieutoets - spraying - fan nozzles - emission - reduction - standards - droplet size - measurement - environmental assessment
Het Lozingenbesluit Open Teelt en Veehouderij (LOTV, nu Activiteitenbesluit Milieubeheer) bepaalt dat bij bespuitingen van een gewas met veldspuitapparatuur de buitenste strook bespoten moet worden met driftarme spuitdoppen. Uit de resultaten van druppelgroottemetingen wordt aangegeven of de in dit onderzoek onderzochte spuitdoppen, bij bepaalde drukken, volgens het Lozingenbesluit aangemerkt kunnen worden met de status driftarm. Bij de beoordeling van de toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen en de beperking van de teeltvrije zone in het Lozingenbesluit kan gewerkt worden met het driftpercentage dat bij een zekere dop-drukcombinatie behoort. Dop-drukcombinaties zijn daartoe in te delen in driftreductieklassen van 50, 75, 90 en 95%. In deze rapportage worden de Albuz spleetdoppen CVI110-015, CVI110-02, CVI110-025, CVI110-03, CVI110-04 enCVI110-05 bij een druk van 1 bar, en de doppen CVI110-04 n CVI110-05 ook bij 1,5 bar, onderzocht op hun druppelgroottespectrum. Aan de hand van druppelgroottemetingen wordt beoordeeld of deze optypen bij de aangegeven spuitdruk aan de status driftarm volgens het Lozingenbesluit (Activiteitenbesluit Milieubeheer) voldoen. Daarnaast wordt bepaald tot welke driftreductie klasse een bepaalde dop- drukcombinatie behoort.
Milieurapportage Boom- en Vaste Plantenteelt van 2009 en 2010 : grote afname van de milieubelasting inmiddels gerealiseerd
Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2012
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving BBF - 72
boomkwekerijen - vasteplantenkwekerijen - maatregelen - milieubeheer - milieutoets - doelstellingen - innovaties - verbetering - forest nurseries - perennial nurseries - measures - environmental management - environmental assessment - objectives - innovations - improvement
In de boomkwekerij en de vaste plantenteelt is de milieubelasting in de periode 1998-2010 met maar liefst 86% gedaald. In de totale land- en tuinbouw is dit 85%. De doelstelling was 95% en is dus niet helemaal gehaald. Duidelijk is dat de boomkwekerij forse inspanningen heeft geleverd en dat de boomkweker blijft innoveren om de milieubelasting verder terug te dringen. Verdere afname zal nog een grote inspanning vergen. De sector geeft tegelijkertijd aan dat verdere maatregelen wel bedrijfseconomisch verantwoord moeten zijn.
Ecosysteemdiensten in Nederland : Verkenning Betekenis en Perspectieven ; Achtergrondrapport bij Natuurverkenning 2011
Melman, T.C.P. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 111) - 202
ecosysteemdiensten - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - milieutoets - nederland - ecosystem services - feasibility studies - economic analysis - sustainability - environmental policy - environmental assessment - netherlands
Een verkenning is uitgevoerd naar de potentiële betekenis van het concept ecosysteemdiensten voor het omgevingsbeleid. Vanuit de literatuur is bepaald wat het begrip inhoudt en is verkend hoe het praktisch en betekenisvol kan worden toegepast in het beleid. Een groot aantal aandachtspunten die daarbij aan de orde komen wordt aangestipt. Daarmee wordt een beeld geschetst van kracht en zwakte van het concept. Afzonderlijke aandacht wordt geschonken aan waardering en monetarisering van ecosysteemdiensten. Naast algemene beschouwingen over het concept wordt op een aantal ecosysteemdiensten meer specifiek ingegaan, toegespitst op de Nederlandse situatie. De Bevindingen zijn onder meer bedoeld als input voor de natuurverkenning die het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) zal uitbrengen. Trefwoorden: duurzaamheid, ecosysteemdiensten, monetarisering, natuurverkenning, waardering
Ecological models for regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: Developing a strategy for the future.
Thorbek, P. ; Forbes, V. ; Heimbach, F. ; Hommen, U. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2010
SETAC America : SETAC and CRC Press - ISBN 9781439805114 - 127
pesticiden - milieufactoren - milieutoets - risicoschatting - simulatiemodellen - ecologie - landbouw en milieu - ecologische risicoschatting - pesticides - environmental factors - environmental assessment - risk assessment - simulation models - ecology - agriculture and environment - ecological risk assessment
Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that prevent ecological modeling being used routinely in regulatory submissions, and explores the actions needed to overcome these obstacles. The book focuses on the following issues: Uncertainties in the process of model development, such as design, analysis, documentation, and communication, The availability of data and background information needed for optimal modeling, The limited knowledge of modeling, The lack of confidence in the outcome of ecological models and their reliability in pesticide risk assessment, It also suggests future solutions to these challenges, including: A guidance document on the modeling process, Case studies that show how ecological models can provide reliable ecologically relevant risk assessments, Training the people who generate or evaluate results obtained by ecological models, Focusing on ecological models, such as unstructured population models, stage-structured matrix models, and individual- or agent-based models, this volume helps regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and scientists assess the risk of plant protection products in nontarget organisms.
Spray drift from Knapsack sprayers : a study conducted within the framework of the Sino-Dutch Pesticide Environmental Risk Assessment Project PERAP
Franke, A.C. ; Kempenaar, C. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2010
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 658) - 20
pesticiden - milieutoets - risicoschatting - gewasbescherming - met de rugzak rondtrekken - drift - ecosystemen - pesticides - environmental assessment - risk assessment - plant protection - backpacking - ecosystems
Drift from the application of crop protection products can cause damage to neighboring crops, ecosystems and human health. In this report, estimations of spray drift with reference to Chinese agricultural systems are provided, based on data from literature and a modeling study. As knapsack sprayers make up the most important tool for pesticide application in China, this study focussed on drift from knapsack sprayers. The results presented in this report will be used to model a pesticide drift and conduct an environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Chinese agricultural systems, as part of the Sino-Dutch Pesticide Environmental Risk Assessment Project PERAP.
SENSOR : sustainable impact assessment: tools for environmental social and economic effects of multifunctional land use in European regions
Verweij, P.J.F.M. ; Roller, J.A. te; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Knapen, M.J.R. ; Randen, Y. van; Winter, W.P. de; Franke, G.J. - \ 2009
[S.l.] : S.n. - 78
landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - computer software - milieutoets - milieueffect - economische evaluatie - europese unie - landgebruiksmonitoring - milieueconomie - milieusociologie - land use - sustainability - environmental assessment - environmental impact - economic evaluation - european union - land use monitoring - environmental economics - environmental sociology
Strategic environmental assessment and planning
Carsjens, G.J. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Environmental Sciences, Land Use Planning
milieutoets - methodologie - landgebruiksplanning - environmental assessment - methodology - land use planning
Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf
Vries, P. de; Karman, C.C. - \ 2009
Den Helder : IMARES (Report /Wageningen IMARES no. C012/09) - 47
offshore - mariene constructies - afvalwater - zeewater - milieutoets - ecologische risicoschatting - nadelige gevolgen - risicovermindering - monitoren - marine structures - waste water - sea water - environmental assessment - ecological risk assessment - adverse effects - risk reduction - monitors
The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as the basis of their biannual reporting obligations. The Netherlands has for as yet mainly followed a source (immission) based approach, and therefore did not adopt a specific risk based approach. In this study an overview is provided of current approaches to assess the ecological risk of produced water discharges and it is investigated how these approaches can be used in the Dutch situation for produced water management as intended by the OIC.
Integrated environmental assessment of agriculture in the Czech Republic : the case of dairy cattle
Havlikova, M. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852131 - 159
milieutoets - milieubeleid - agrarische afvalstoffen - melkvee - tsjechië - ammoniakemissie - environmental assessment - environmental policy - agricultural wastes - dairy cattle - czech republic - ammonia emission
Agricultural activities strongly affect landscapes and also cause a variety of environmental
and health problems in many European countries. Environmental policies to minimise this
negative impacts of agriculture differ between countries. This thesis focuses on
environmental consequences of agricultural activities in the Czech Republic and
possibilities to reduce the associated environmental problems. The causes and solutions of
these air, water and soil pollution problems are complex, and designing sustainable farming
systems requires integration of social, economic, and natural sciences.
The agriculture practices in the Czech Republic have changed dramatically due to political
changes during last decade. These changes ameliorate environmental problems to some
extent through a reduction in the use of fertilizers and livestock numbers. However,
agriculture still poses a threat to the environment and human health. The agricultural
productivity may intensify in the future leading to increased pollution. Now the Czech
Republic is a member of the European Union, Czech farmers have to deal with many new
regulations set by European Commission aiming at reducing environmental problems.
The overall objective of this thesis is to assess the future environmental impact by the
agricultural sector in the Czech Republic. National and European environmental policies
and the interaction between human activities and environmental trends have been
considered. The novel aspect of this thesis is to include process-based emission factors in a
region specific model to quantify both emissions and their potential environmental and
health impacts. Additionally, these results are used in another purposely developed model
to assess the reduction costs involved. To achieve the overall objective three specific
research aims are defined.
The first aim is to analyse different emission estimation methods with respect to their
usefulness for an integrated assessment at the national scale. The second is to evaluate the
potential environmental impact of agricultural emissions at the sub-national level while
considering different agricultural practices and environmental characteristics. The third aim
is to integrate emission estimation methods and impact assessment approaches in a model
to assess the cost-effectiveness of environmental policy measures. This model is applied
in a case study focusing on dairy cattle as one of the most polluting sub-sectors of Czech
agriculture. It is used to analyse the current situation and to explore future trends up to
2020 as affected by (i) different views of hypothetical model users on importance of
environmental impact, (ii) changes in projected animal numbers and management and (iii)
changes in the application of emission reduction measures.
Integrated assessments that analyse environmental problems by agriculture simultaneously,
need complete, detailed and consistent emission estimates that consider possible
interrelations between different pollutants. Three types of emission estimation methods
were analysed: emission factor, regression analyses and process-based methods. Selected
examples of emission estimation methods were reviewed to illustrate the large variety in
methods available. These methods were evaluated based on three steps: (1) Comparison of
emission estimation methods with respect to specific characteristics, (2) Scoring of methods
based on quality and country-specific criteria and the extent to which interrelations between
pollutants are accounted for, and (3) Multi-Criteria Analysis taking into account the relative
importance of the different criteria. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated by
applying it to a case study focusing on agriculture in the Czech Republic.
The evaluation of emission estimation methods reveals large differences. We conclude that
the following methods best meet our criteria: the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse
Gas Inventories, methods from the INITIATOR model and the detailed method of the
EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook. Based on this analysis we suggest that combining parts of
each of the four methods forms a sound basis for a new emission estimation method for
quantifying agricultural emissions of air, water and soil pollution simultaneously.
The potential environmental and health impact of selected agricultural emissions was
evaluated based on a new innovative approach. Emission estimates were combined with a
country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy cattle in nine
regions defined according to specific environmental characteristics. In this thesis different
characterisation factors available in the literature were compared and evaluated with respect
to usefulness for a study focusing on dairy cattle in the Czech Republic. We conclude that
for our case the most appropriate set of characterisation factors are those from Sepällä et al.
(2006) and EDIP (2003). These factors are based on the most recent data and best available
scientific models and take into account, where possible national and regional differences.
However, a weakness of these combinations may be potential internal inconsistencies
We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrate
(NO-
3), phosphate (PO4
-3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), methane (CH4), and nitrous
oxide (N2O) to a number of environmental and health problems. The results show large
regional differences in the current environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural
production in the Czech Republic. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global
warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average,
depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in
regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate
vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure
management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas.
A linear optimisation model (DAIRY) including Multi-Criteria Analysis was developed to
analyse cost-effectiveness of policy measures to reduce the environmental impact of dairy
cattle in the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model combines process-based and emission
factor approaches to calculate the above-mentioned emissions, and site-dependent
characterisation factors to assess their contribution to acidification, terrestrial and aquatic
eutrophication, global warming and human toxicity. In addition, a so-called overall
environmental impact (OEI) indicator was used to assess the environmental performance of
dairy cattle. The DAIRY model was used to analyse the current situation and to explore
future trends up to 2020, under different environmental and cost constraints.
The analysis of past and future trends of environmental and health impact by dairy cattle
reveals decreasing trends over time, mainly as a result of reduced cattle numbers. In 2005
the OEI was considerably lower than in 1990. In the No Control scenario, which assumes
no emission control, the 2020 environmental impact is 9% lower than in 2005, mainly as a
result of continued reduction in cattle numbers. Technical measures aimed at reducing
ammonia emissions may reduce the 2020 uncontrolled OEI levels by 10%. Implementation
of all technical measures considered would reduce the 2020 OEI levels by 30% at the
national level. In optimised scenarios, the reductions in OEI in 2020 range from 1% to 30%
relative to the No Control scenario, while the costs to achieve this reduction range between
0.2 and 16 MEuro. We show that targets for OEI close to maximum feasible reduction can
be realized at about one-third of the costs of non-optimised scenarios. In such cost-effective
scenarios the model tends to select measures to reduce aquatic eutrophication and climate
change first, which is in contrast to current policies aiming at acidification and terrestrial
eutrophication. Cost-optimal solutions at the national level are not always the cheapest
solutions at the regional level.
The future environmental impact of dairy cattle in the Czech Republic was analysed for two
reference scenarios. The No Control scenario assumes no emission control while the Policy
Scenario aims at cost-effective reduction of the OEI by 20% relative to No Control
scenario. Next, we explored how these calculated trends change as result of different
assumption on (i) different views of hypothetical model users on importance of
environmental impact, (ii) changes in projected animal numbers and management and (iii)
changes in the application of emission reduction measures.
The reference scenarios indicate that the overall environmental impact by dairy cattle is
mainly associated with global warming and aquatic eutrophication while leaching and
housing are the two most contributing processes. The costs to reduce OEI by 20% are 12
MEuro. The most cost-effective combination of measures to achieve this target includes
manure efficiency improvement and improved timing of manure application. The results
suggest that regardless of model users views on the relative importance of different
environmental problems, global warming and aquatic eutrophication are most important.
However, the relative shares of these two in OEI depend on the valuation of the
environmental impact categories. This, in turn, has an impact on the costs of reducing OEI,
because it is cheaper to reduce emissions of nitrate than emissions of greenhouse gases. As
a result costs to reduce 20% OEI range from 7 to 26 MEuro for different sets of valuation
factors. The model result also suggests that dairy cattle kept in slurry-based systems have a
better environmental performance than dairy cattle kept in straw-based systems. In addition,
cattle numbers influence the OEI and the reduction costs more than changes in milk yield.
The costs of reducing OEI by 20% relative to uncontrolled level range between 2 and 16
MEuro for scenarios with different assumptions on animal numbers and manure
management. Taking into account unintended side-effects of reduction measures on the
environment as a criterion for selection of measures, increases the reduction costs
considerably. The changes in applicability of emission reduction measures lead to costs
ranging between 24 and 50 MEuro.
The research approach taken in this thesis is based on a unique combination of methods to
estimate emissions, their potential environmental impact and possible solutions. These
serve as essential building blocks of the DAIRY model. A major strength of the DAIRY
model is that it allows for comprehensive analyses at the sector level and for identification
of cost-effective ways to reduce the overall environmental impact of dairy cattle. As such, it
can serve as example for other countries and sectors.
Lochside Environmental Seabed Survey, UK 2007
Dalfsen, J. van; Witbaard, R. - \ 2008
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C015/08) - 42
milieutoets - karteringen - exploratie - verenigd koninkrijk - beoordeling - gezondheid - milieueffect - sociale gevolgen - sociale kwesties - environmental assessment - surveys - exploration - uk - assessment - health - environmental impact - social impact - social issues
In July 2007 Geolab Nor AS carried out an environmental survey for Chevron Upstream Europe at the Lochside prospect at UKCS block 213/22 and 23 in the Farao Shetland Channel. The objective of the survey was to describe the physico-chemical and biological characteristics in the Lochside prospect area. This environmental characterisation is needed for as part of a Corporately required Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (ESHI) and a regulatory required Environmental Statement prior to potential exploration drilling operations in 2008.
Aberlour Environmental Seabed Survey, UK 2007
Dalfsen, J. van; Witbaard, R. - \ 2008
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C016/08) - 33
milieutoets - karteringen - verenigd koninkrijk - karakteristieken - fysicochemische eigenschappen - milieu-analyse - biologische processen - environmental assessment - surveys - uk - characteristics - physicochemical properties - environmental analysis - biological processes
In July 2007 Geolab Nor AS carried out an environmental survey for Chevron North Sea Limited / Chevron Upstream Europe at the Aberlour prospect at UKCS block 213/28 in the Faroe Shetland Channel. The objective of trhe survey was to describe the physico-chemical and biological characteristics in the Aberlour prospect area.
Water and environment in decision-making : water assessment, environmental impact assessment, and strategic environmental assessment in dutch planning, a comparison
Dijk, J.M. van - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk, co-promotor(en): Marjan Hidding. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048770 - 323
milieutoets - ruimtelijke ordening - beoordeling - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - milieubeleid - besluitvorming - nederland - overheidsbeleid - gebiedsgericht beleid - environmental assessment - physical planning - assessment - water management - water policy - environmental policy - decision making - netherlands - government policy - integrated spatial planning policy
In the urbanised delta of the Netherlands, it is important to take water-related and environmental impacts fully into account when deciding on socio-economic activities. This is the aim behind Water Assessment (WA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). This thesis is centred on a comparative research of these policy instruments. The overall research aim is to ex-plain the character and effectiveness of WA, EIA and SEA, and compare each of them with the others, also in relation to their broader policy context. The method that is used in this thesis is positioned at the intersection of theory and practice. It is a method underpinned, philosophically, in Aristotle‘s phronesis and apagoge. Phronetic research is a context-dependent and reflective analysis of practice, which leads to contributing to that practice. Apagoge refers to retroductive inferences. The method used — the ‗method of articulation‘ — is anchored by these core ideas, which form a base for the research. Articulation is a method that facilitates linking heterogeneous concepts from theory, not only with each other, but also with the prac-tical phenomena that are being studied. In the content perspective, the decisions in relation to WA, EIA and SEA, in which decision-makers balance the socio-economic interests of societal initiatives with the water-related and environmental interests, are conceptualized as ‗trade-offs‘. Un-certainty and ambiguity are inherent to such decision-making processes. In the steer-ing perspective, the umbrella concept for three modes of coordination — markets, hierarchy and networks — is ‗metagovernance‘, while in the planning perspective, the core concepts are rational and communicative planning approaches with a power complement. This set of concepts is used to explain the similarities and differences among WA, EIA and SEA. Second, the effectiveness, strengths and weaknesses of these in-struments are shown, based on several evaluations. Third, these instruments are then positioned within the historical context of Dutch and European water management, environmental and spatial planning policies. The thesis ends by offering practical con-tributions to the further development of WA, EIA and SEA in the Netherlands
Cross-roads of planet earth's life : exploring means to meet the 2010 biodiversity target : solution-oriented scenarios for Global Biodiversity Outlook 2
Brink, B.J.E. ten; Alkemade, R. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Clement, J. ; Eickhout, B. ; Fish, L. ; Heer, H. de; Kram, T. ; Manders, T. ; Meijl, H. van; Miles, L. ; Nellemann, C. ; Lysenko, I. ; Oorschot, M. van; Smout, F. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Vuuren, D. van; Westhoek, H. - \ 2007
Bilthoven [etc.] : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) [etc.] (CBD technical series no. 31) - ISBN 9789292250713 - 90
biodiversiteit - milieutoets - milieuwetgeving - milieubescherming - hulpbronnenbehoud - overheidsbeleid - modellen - wereld - biodiversiteitsbepaling - aarde - Nederland - biodiversity - environmental assessment - environmental legislation - environmental protection - resource conservation - government policy - models - world - biodiversity assessment - earth - Netherlands
A scenario study from 2000 to 2050 has been performed (by Natuur en Milieuplanbureau, UNEP and WCMC) to explore the effects of future economic, demographic and technical developments on environmental pressures and global biodiversity. Policy options that affect global biodiversity were analysed on their contribution to the 2010 biodiversity targets agreed upon under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The mean species abundance of natural occurring species was used as indicator for biodiversity. To analyse the economic and environmental consequences of changes in global drivers and policies, we developed a global economic-biophysical framework by combining the extended GTAP model (Van Meijl et al., 2005) with the IMAGE model (Alcamo et al., 1998; IMAGE Team, 2001).
Current quality status of CABETs environmental laboratory and necessary steps to meet GLP requirements
Bie, P.A.F. de; Hui, J. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra / ICAMA - 11
milieutoets - milieubeleid - milieubescherming - regelingen - milieuwetenschappen - Nederland - environmental assessment - environmental policy - environmental protection - regulations - environmental sciences - Netherlands
Current quality status of CABETs environmental laboratory and necessary steps to meet GLP requirements. June 18 – 22, 2007
Integrated Water Resources Management. Global Theory, Emerging Practice and Local Needs
Mollinga, P.P. ; Dixit, A. ; Athukorala, K. - \ 2006
New Delhi : SAGE Publications (Water in South Asia vol. 1) - ISBN 0761935495 - 403
watervoorraden - zuid-azië - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - ontwikkeling - beheer van waterbekkens - milieutoets - overheidsbeleid - integraal waterbeheer - water resources - south asia - water management - water supply - development - watershed management - environmental assessment - government policy - integrated water management
Oil contaminated sediments in the North Sea: environmental effects 20 years after discharges of OBM drill cuttings
Daan, R. ; Mulder, M. ; Witbaard, R. - \ 2006
Den Burg Texel : Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ-Rapport 2006-4) - 29
olieverontreinigingen - verontreiniging - besmetters - mariene sedimenten - milieutoets - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - marien milieu - noordzee - verontreinigde sedimenten - milieu-analyse - mariene biologie - oil spills - pollution - contaminants - marine sediments - environmental assessment - environmental degradation - environmental impact - marine environment - north sea - contaminated sediments - environmental analysis - marine biology
Integrated assessment of silvoarable agroforestry at landscape scale
Palma, J.H.N. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt; Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): Bob Bunce; F. Herzog. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9085044936 - 135
agroforestry - agrosilviculturele systemen - bomen - gewassen - akkerbouw - milieutoets - landschap - europa - agrosilvicultural systems - trees - crops - arable farming - environmental assessment - landscape - europe
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