Direct blood PCR in combination with Nucleic Acid Laterla Flow Immuno-Assay for the detection of Plasmodium species in malaria endemic settings.
Mens, P.F. ; Bes, H.M. ; Sondo, P. ; Amerongen, A. van - \ 2012
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50 (2012)11. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 3520 - 3525.
real-time pcr - rapid diagnostic-tests - molecular diagnosis - parasite detection - amplification - microscopy - kenya - field - assay
Declining malaria transmission and known difficulties with current diagnostic tools for malaria, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in particular at low parasite densities, still warrant the search for sensitive diagnostic tests. Molecular tests need substantial simplification before implementation in clinical settings in countries where malaria is endemic. Direct blood PCR (db-PCR), circumventing DNA extraction, to detect Plasmodium was developed and adapted to be visualized by nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (NALFIA). The assay was evaluated in the laboratory against samples from confirmed Sudanese patients (n = 51), returning travelers (n = 214), samples from the Dutch Blood Bank (n = 100), and in the field in Burkina Faso (n = 283) and Thailand (n = 381) on suspected malaria cases and compared to RDT and microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of db-PCR-NALFIA compared to the initial diagnosis in the laboratory were 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.909 to 0.969) and 97.4% (95% CI = 0.909 to 0.969), respectively. In Burkina Faso, the sensitivity was 94.8% (95% CI = 0.88.7 to 97.9%), and the specificity was 82.4% (95% CI = 75.4 to 87.7%) compared to microscopy and 93.3% (95% CI = 87.4 to 96.7%) and 91.4% (95% CI = 85.2 to 95.3%) compared to RDT. In Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity were 93.4% (CI = 86.4 to 97.1%) and 90.9 (95% CI = 86.7 to 93.9%), respectively, compared to microscopy and 95.6% (95% CI = 88.5 to 98.6%) and 87.1% (95% CI = 82.5 to 90.6) compared to RDT. db-PCR-NALFIA is highly sensitive and specific for easy and rapid detection of Plasmodium parasites and can be easily used in countries where malaria is endemic. The inability of the device to discriminate Plasmodium species requires further investigation.
Carbon nanoparticles in lateral flow methods to detect genes encoding virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
Noguera, P. ; Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A. ; Tuil, M. van; Wal, F.J. van der; Boer, A. de; Moers, A.P.H.A. ; Amerongen, A. van - \ 2011
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 399 (2011)2. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 831 - 838.
molecular diagnosis - pathogenic bacteria - immunoassay - biosensors - food - pcr - statistics - particles - agreement - samples
The use of carbon nanoparticles is shown for the detection and identification of different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli virulence factors (vt1, vt2, eae and ehxA) and a 16S control (specific for E. coli) based on the use of lateral flow strips (nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay, NALFIA). Prior to the detection with NALFIA, a rapid amplification method with tagged primers was applied. In the evaluation of the optimised NALFIA strips, no cross-reactivity was found for any of the antibodies used. The limit of detection was higher than for quantitative PCR (q-PCR), in most cases between 104 and 105 colony forming units/mL or 0.1–0.9 ng/µL DNA. NALFIA strips were applied to 48 isolates from cattle faeces, and results were compared to those achieved by q-PCR. E. coli virulence factors identified by NALFIA were in very good agreement with those observed in q-PCR, showing in most cases sensitivity and specificity values of 1.0 and an almost perfect agreement between both methods (kappa coefficient larger than 0.9). The results demonstrate that the screening method developed is reliable, cost-effective and user-friendly, and that the procedure is fast as the total time required is