Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The relationship between job demands, job resources and teachers’ professional learning : is it explained by self-determination theory?
Jansen in de Wal, Joost ; Beemt, Antoine van den; Martens, Rob L. ; Brok, Perry J. den - \ 2018
Studies in Continuing Education (2018). - ISSN 0158-037X
Job demands - job resources - motivation - self-determination theory - teacher professional learning

Although teachers’ commitment to continuous professional learning is crucial for high quality education, research shows that this learning cannot be taken for granted. To better understand how teachers’ learning at work can be supported, this study investigates how effects of job demands (i.e. work pressure and emotional pressure) and job resources (i.e. task autonomy, transformational leadership, and collegial support) on teachers’ learning commitment (i.e. learning frequency and engagement) can be explained by basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, as posited by self-determination theory. At two occasions, approximately one year apart, data was collected in a sample of 678 (T1) and 536 (T2) Dutch secondary school teachers. Structural equation models showed the consecutive positive longitudinal relationships between teachers’ experience of job resources, basic psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and commitment to professional learning. Job demands were not related to basic need satisfaction over and above the effects of job resources. Implications for how self-determination theory and the job demands resources model can mutually inform each other are discussed. In addition, implications for stimulating teachers’ professional learning in practice are provided.

Leadership styles in two Ghanaian hospitals in a challenging environment
Aberese-Ako, Matilda ; Agyepong, Irene Akua ; DIjk, Han van - \ 2018
Health Policy and Planning 33 (2018). - ISSN 0268-1080 - p. ii16 - ii26.
capacity - Context - frontline health worker - Ghana - hospital managers - leadership - low- and middle-income country - management - motivation

Hospital managers' power to exercise effective leadership in daily management can affect quality of care directly as well as through effects on frontline workers' motivation. This paper explores the influence of contextual factors on hospital managers' leadership styles and the motivation of frontline workers providing maternal and new born care in two public district hospitals in Ghana. It draws on data from an ethnographic study that involved participant observation, conversations and in-depth interviews conducted over 20 months, with frontline health workers and managers. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 11 was used to facilitate coding, and common patterns emerging from the codes were grouped into themes. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethical Review Committee. Contextual factors such as institutional rules and regulations and funding constrained managers' power, and influenced leadership styles and responses to expressed and observed needs of frontline workers and clients. The contextual constraints on mangers' responses were a source of demotivation to both managers and frontline workers, as it hampered quality health service provision. Knowing what to do, but sometimes constrained by context, managers described 'feeling sick' and frustrated. On the other hand in the instances where managers' were able to get round the constraints and respond effectively to frontline health workers and clients' needs, they felt encouraged and motivated to work harder. Effective district hospital management and leadership is influenced by contextual factors; and not just individual manager's knowledge and skills. Interventions to strengthen management and leadership of public sector hospitals in low- and middle-income countries like Ghana need to consider context and not just individual managers' skills and knowledge strengthening.

Do outreach activities in secondary STEM education motivate students and improve their attitudes towards STEM?
Vennix, Johanna ; Brok, Perry den; Taconis, Ruurd - \ 2018
International Journal of Science Education 40 (2018)11. - ISSN 0950-0693 - p. 1263 - 1283.
motivation - Outreach - secondary education - STEM - subject-related attitudes

The present study investigated outreach activities, developed by STEM-based companies or universities in co-creation with secondary education with the aim to inform students about and motivate them for a career in STEM by connecting the work-context with school-science. Although many of such activities are being offered, little is known about their effects. We investigated students’ perceptions with the outreach learning environment, perceived need-fulfilment, self-reported motivation and attitudes towards STEM. Data were gathered from 729 high-school students engaged in 12 activities in the USA and the Netherlands. The students completed a questionnaire, which contained questions about four elements of our theoretical frame based on the Self-Determination-Theory (SDT). Perceived needs-fulfilment and motivation were measured using the basic-psychological-needs-scale and the self-regulation-questionnaire. Attitudes were measured using the test-of-science-related-attitudes. Learning environment perceptions were measured in a previous study using subscales of what-is-happing-in-this-classroom (WIHIC), constructivist-learning-environments-scale (CLES) and classroom-environment-scale (CES) and typified by activity characteristics. Multilevel analyses of variance were conducted for the two motivation scales (controlled and autonomous-motivation) and the two attitude scales (social-implication and career-interest). Activity characteristics explained almost all variance in these variables between activities. Specific characteristics of outreach activities that statistically significantly related to autonomous motivation and positive general attitudes towards STEM were: workshop-format, understanding science, an out-of-school component. The attitude towards a possible STEM-career was positively associated with autonomous-motivation and negatively associated with controlled-motivation. Thus, outreach learning environments indeed created opportunities to increase students’ motivation in STEM and attitude towards STEM, but the impact varied according to particular characteristics of the activities.

Simulating pigs : Understanding their motivations, behaviour, welfare and productivity
Boumans, Iris - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; Gert Jan Hofstede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432122 - 200
pigs - pig farming - sustainability - motivation - animal behaviour - behaviour disorders - animal welfare - simulation models - animal production - varkens - varkenshouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - diergedrag - gedragsstoornissen - dierenwelzijn - simulatiemodellen - dierlijke productie

The transition towards sustainable pig production systems is receiving increasing attention nowadays. Pig behaviour plays a central role in sustainability, as it is an important indicator for pig welfare and can also affect other sustainability issues. Understanding behaviour and related welfare consequences requires to understand motivations underlying behaviour. The two aims of this thesis were: 1) to assess the use of agent-based modelling for understanding pig behaviour and underlying motivation, and 2) to apply agent-based modelling for increasing our understanding of pig behaviour, and related animal welfare and productivity performance.

We first explored the use of agent-based modelling with tail biting behaviour in pigs as a case study. An agent-based model was developed to understand the causation of tail biting behaviour. Subsequently, we developed a mechanistic and dynamic simulation model to gain more understanding of feeding behaviour and internal (physiological) factors. The model integrates knowledge from physiology and ethology, and combines growth with a behavioural decision model based on motivation. This model included motivations underlying feeding behaviour and various feeding patterns of an individually housed growing pig. To deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying feeding patterns of pigs within 24 hours, hormonal circadian rhythms were included in the model in a follow-up study. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin explained the alternans pattern, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day, of feeding in pigs. Next, an agent-based model of feeding and social interaction in commercially group-housed pigs was developed to deepen our understanding of the complex interaction between internal physiological factors and external social factors. Social factors (e.g. competition level and social facilitation) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance and approach) affected social interactions among pigs and feeding behaviour. The causation of variation among pigs was further explored in this model. Pig characteristics were important in various feeding, social interaction and growth patterns in pigs.

In general, agent-based modelling proved to be a useful method to understand animal behaviour and underlying motivations. It contributed to further understanding of tail biting, feeding and social behaviour in pigs. Furthermore, agent-based modelling showed to be a novel method to find and assess behaviours as welfare indicators, and to contribute to understanding trade-offs and synergies between sustainability issues, such as animal welfare and productivity.

What motivates single women to migrate from northern Ghana to Accra?
Tufuor, Theresa ; Sato, Chizu - \ 2017
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 71 (2017)1. - ISSN 0029-1951 - p. 46 - 59.
gender - Ghana - motivation - north–south migration - single women
In recent decades there has been a large migration stream of single women from the north to Accra in Ghana. Existing studies have focused on young migrant women’s livelihood strategies in their place of destination. However, once-married women – divorced and widowed women and neglected wives – also migrate, and their motivations for migration are less known. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative methods, the authors investigate the effects of gender norms, age, marital status, socio-economic status, and position in households on women’s decisions to migrate. The results revealed that migrant women from resource-poor households, regardless of age, marital status and position in households, commonly cited a gain in autonomy as an important motivation for their migration. From a differentiated perspective, young unmarried women aspired to prepare themselves for often expensive religious marriage ceremonies, whereas once-married women invest in their children’s education and build their own housing. By paying attention to the effects of gender norms, age, marital status, socio-economic status, and position in households on women’s decisions to migrate, the study illuminates the contradictory ways in which their migration practices are both shaped by and shape gender ideologies in parts of contemporary northern Ghana.
Frontline health worker motivation in the provision of maternal and neonatal health care in Ghana
Aberese-Ako, Matilda - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong, co-promotor(en): G.J.E. Gerrits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578937 - 160
health care workers - motivation - organizations - management - ghana - attitudes to work - patient care - health policy - ethnography - reproductive health - child health - gezondheidswerkers - motivatie - organisaties - bedrijfsvoering - houding t.o.v. werk - patiëntenzorg - gezondheidsbeleid - etnografie - reproductieve gezondheid - gezondheid van kinderen

The health of mothers and neonates is a concern for many countries, because they form the future of every society. In Ghana efforts have been made to address quality health care in order to accelerate progress in maternal and child health and reduce maternal and neonatal mortality through the implementation of a number of polices including a fee exemption for pregnant women for antenatal, delivery and postnatal care and a national health insurance scheme among others. However these interventions have not led to an improvement in the quality of health care and concerns have been raised whether health workers are sufficiently motivated to provide health care that is responsive to the needs of mothers and children. This study set out to study motivation as an individual quality of the worker, however it became obvious in the analytical phase that motivation is an outcome of interactions between the worker and the work environment. So the research resorted to analyse and understand the various ways in which interpersonal interactions and organisational processes contribute to the motivation of health workers and quality of care in a Ghanaian hospital setting. The research tried to answer the following questions: what are the interpersonal processes that influence health worker motivation; what are the organisational and managerial processes that influence health worker motivation; how does the setup of the Ghana health sector and its associated policies influence health worker motivation and how does health worker motivation influence health worker response to client health needs? The research focused on the quality of interpersonal interaction, such as attitudes, motivation, trust and conflict, on a number of organizational characteristics such as power relations, power being defined as the ability to affect organizational outcomes, uncertainty in decision-making and the provision of resources to deliver quality health care and on wider policy-making that affects the ability of health care institutions to take care of the staff (remuneration, human resource management) and the decision-making space of health facility managers.

In order to investigate health worker motivation in a real life setting ethnographic research was conducted for twenty months in two hospitals; a specialist referral hospital and a district hospital that offer basic maternal and child health services in the greater Accra region in Ghana. Between 2011 and 2013, data was collected in mostly the maternity and new-born units of both hospitals. The researcher interacted with hospital staff including nurses, doctors, anaesthetists, orderlies, laboratory technicians, accounts officers and managers and collected data on daily activities and interactions in the hospital environment. The hospitals, which had different characteristics, were not selected for comparative purposes, but to enable a better understanding of how the organizational context influences worker motivation. Conversations were useful in helping the researcher to understand social phenomena. Interviews were conducted to explore social phenomena in depth. Participant observation was also a very important tool in helping the researcher to observe at first- hand how health care is provided in a natural hospital environment. An important source of information consisted of the reactions of hospital staff on the research and the researcher and the researcher’s emotional reactions to this, as it helped her to experience motivation, which was very useful in understanding and analysing motivational processes in the hospital environment.

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethics Review board (approval number GHS-ERC:06/01/12) and the proposal was reviewed by the Wageningen School of Social Sciences board. Written informed consent was obtained from all interview participants. Verbal consent was obtained for conversations and pseudonyms are used for the names of the study hospitals and frontline workers throughout the thesis.

Interpersonal processes including limited interaction and communication between collaborating frontline workers and perceived disrespect from colleagues and managers contributed to poor relations between frontline workers. A high number of frontline workers engaged in locum (private practice) in private hospitals. Such workers came to work late, or left early and some even skipped their official work to engage in locum practice. Workers also believed that some of their colleagues sneaked in their clients from their locum site to the hospital and charged them illegal fees, which they did not share with colleagues. Such practices and perceptions contributed to distrust relations among workers and to a poor organisational climate, which resulted in demotivation of staff, poor collaboration in the provision of health care, and eventually to conflicts. Conflicts contributed to delays in the provision of care and those who were willing to work felt disempowered, as they were unable to marshal their resources with collaborating professionals to respond to clients’ needs. They also contributed to angry and bitter workers and negative perceptions of other professional groups. Sometimes cases were postponed and on some occasions clients had to be referred to other facilities.

Organisational and managerial processes equally influenced health worker motivation in various ways. Health workers perceived distributive, procedural and interactional injustice in organisational and managerial processes as they perceived that managers were not responding to their personal and organisational needs, which compromised their ability to offer quality health care. Health workers perceived distributive injustice in the fact that they worked hard and deserved to be given incentives to offset the stoppage of bonuses that the government initially paid to workers when the fee exemption for maternal health was introduced. Workers felt their managers were not meeting the hospitals’ needs for essential medical supplies, equipment and were incapable of putting up appropriate infrastructure to accommodate workers and an overwhelming number of clients. They perceived interactional injustice because of the fact that managers did not communicate with them on decisions that affected them and that managers were out of touch with the needs of workers. They complained that they were not respected by their superiors, who shouted at them when they made mistakes, and suggested that managers and superiors did not treat them with dignity in matters of discipline. Workers further argued that managers did not care whether they had adequate workforce to support them to provide quality health care. Some felt overworked and some felt burn out.

However, managers felt disempowered at their level as well. The setup of the Ghana health sector and its associated policies remains largely centralised, so managers who are expected to meet the needs of frontline health workers and their hospitals, do not have the power to do so. They could not beef up staff numbers, since recruitment and allocation of staff to health facilities is centralised. In addition, managers received little financial support to run their hospitals. Their main source of funding was from reimbursement of funds from the National Health Insurance Authority, but reimbursement usually delayed for up to six months and they did not receive subvention from the Ghana Health Service or the Ministry of Health (MOH) to run their hospitals, so they were always cash strapped. Also the MOH, which is the body responsible for putting up infrastructure, could not meet the infrastructure needs of the hospitals. Additionally managers had to deal with conflicting policies including procurement policies that made decisions on purchasing essential supplies and drugs bureaucratic and slowed managers’ response to frontline worker and organisational needs. As a result, managers faced uncertainty in securing human and physical resources. To cope with uncertainties managers had to distribute their funds thinly among competing priorities of worker and organisational needs. At times managers had to sacrifice certain needs of workers and their hospitals in order to meet others. Consequently, workers lost trust in managers, which demotivated them in the provision of health care. Also the fee exemption policy made health care accessible to the general populace, but it did not lead to a commensurate increase in salaries, infrastructure development and increase in staff numbers. For that matter managers and frontline workers were overwhelmed with client numbers and had to turn some away. Both hospital managers and frontline workers perceived that policy makers and their superiors were not interested in how they provided care to clients or even their own safety, which demotivated them.

It is important to note that some workers were observed to be intrinsically motivated and responded to the health needs of clients, despite the fact that they faced similar challenges as those who were demotivated. Such workers explained that their sources of motivation included a belief in a supreme being, the desire to maintain work standards and others perceived that clients had a right to quality health care. Also some indicated that they derived inner satisfaction when they were able to provide quality care to clients.

Demotivation contributed to absenteeism, workers reporting to work late and some closing early as strategies to avoid collaborating with colleagues that they did not feel comfortable working with, which further worsened the conflict situation. Some workers also picked and chose to work with particular professionals. Workers exercised power negatively in two ways: 1. Some workers exhibited negative attitudes towards their colleagues, which contributed to poor interaction and poor communication. It further created gaps in clinical decision making. 2. Workers transferred their frustrations and disappointments to clients by shouting at clients and insulting them, which compromised with the quality of care that clients received. Another important consequence of demotivation was that workers got angry, some felt frustrated, and some reported experiencing high blood pressure. Consequently it affected the wellbeing of health workers who were supposed to cater for clients. Also demotivation became so deeply seated in some workers that they appeared to be beyond redemption. Some even hated the hospital environment that they worked in and others chose to leave the hospital.

For health workers to be able to respond to the health needs of clients who visit the hospital there is the need that their personal needs including demand for better terms and conditions of service, incentives and training needs are catered for. Also their organisational needs including demand for essential supplies, equipment, appropriate infrastructure among others need to be addressed. Additionally managers have to be transparent, communicate and interact more frequently with frontline workers to enable them appreciate managers’ efforts in meeting workers’ personal and organisational needs. Also for managers to be able to meet the needs of frontline workers and their organisations managers must be given the power to make decisions on human and other resources. Also managers should be supported with the necessary funds, so that they can meet the multiple needs of their workers and hospitals.

Health worker motivation in the hospital context is determined by an interaction of interpersonal and organisational processes that are shaped by external and internal influencers, who exercise power in their bid to influence organisational outcomes. Thus this study contributes to theory by propounding that motivation is not an individual quality of the worker, but it is an outcome of interactions between the worker and the work environment. Also power and trust relations within and outside the hospital influence worker motivation and for that matter theories on organisational power and trust relations are central to understanding and analysing worker motivation.

Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions
Salmon, S.J. ; Vet, E. de; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Fennis, B.M. ; Veltkamp, M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 45 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 113 - 120.
limited-resource account - ego depletion - physical-activity - decision-making - strength model - united-states - food choices - behavior - consumption - motivation
Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a healthy product was associated with a social proof heuristic, referring to the tendency to adopt the option preferred by others. A healthy low-fat cheese was promoted with banners stating it was the most sold cheese in that supermarket. A state of low self-control was experimentally induced in the supermarket, and compared to a high self-control condition. Participants low in self-control were more likely to buy the low-fat cheese, when this product was associated with the social proof heuristic, compared to when it was not. This suggests that under low self-control conditions, presenting social proof cues may benefit healthy purchases.
Hoe maken gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk?
Rijn, E. van; Hassink, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (PRI rapport 625) - 17
gemeenten - beleid - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - voedselproductie - bewonersparticipatie - sociale factoren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - onderzoek - municipalities - policy - urban agriculture - urban areas - food production - community participation - social factors - sustainability - motivation - research
Elke pionierende gemeenteambtenaar, ondernemer, burger die zich bezighoudt met stadslandbouw moet als het ware zelf het wiel weer uitvinden: welke regels zijn voor mijn initiatief van toepassing, waar kan ik ontwikkelen, wie heeft kennis van zaken en hoe kan ik initiatieven faciliteren. Het Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw is een landelijk netwerk van gemeentelijke ambtenaren in de stadslandbouw. Het biedt de deelnemers de ruimte om gezamenlijk blokkades aan te pakken, elkaar te inspireren, richting te geven aan beleid en kansen te grijpen. Het netwerk brengt pioniers bij elkaar en stimuleert met hen de ontwikkeling van stadslandbouw in Nederland. In 2014 was er bij deelnemers behoefte om een beter zicht te krijgen op de manieren waarop gemeenten met stadslandbouw initiatieven omgaan en stadslandbouw faciliteren en ondersteunen. Besloten werd om interviews te houden met beleidsmedewerkers van gemeenten die bij het stedennetwerk zijn aangesloten. Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek naar hoe gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk maken en waarom zij stadslandbouw belangrijk vinden. De belangrijkste motieven voor stadslandbouw zijn voedsel, gevolgd door participatie, sociale aspecten, duurzaamheid en ‘overige thema’s’. De motieven die slechts door één gemeente genoemd werden, worden hier niet nader vermeld. De volgorde wordt bepaald door het aantal keren dat het motief genoemd is.
Combining malaria control with house electrification: adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems, Rusinga Island, western Kenya
Oria, P.A. ; Alaii, J. ; Ayugi, M. ; Takken, W. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2015
Tropical Medicine and International Health 20 (2015)8. - ISSN 1360-2276 - p. 1048 - 1056.
treated bed nets - randomized controlled-trial - lake victoria - burkina-faso - risk - prevention - hiv - acceptability - motivation - villages
objective To investigate community adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) after 3- to 10-week use. methods Solar-powered mosquito trapping system, which also provided power for room lighting and charging mobile phones, were installed in houses in Rusinga Island, western Kenya. We used a structured checklist for observations and a semi-structured questionnaire for interviews in 24 homesteads. We also analysed the subject of 224 community calls to the project team for technical maintenance of SMoTS. results Most respondents cared for SMoTS by fencing, emptying and cleaning the trap. Our observations revealed that most traps were fenced, clean and in good working condition. A significantly higher proportion of community calls was lighting-related. Lighting was the main reason respondents liked SMoTS because it reduced or eliminated expenditure on kerosene. However, some respondents observed they no longer heard sounds of mosquitoes inside their houses. All respondents reportedly slept under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) before receiving SMoTS. After receiving SMoTS, most respondents reportedly continued to use ITNs citing that the project advised them to do so. Some beach residents stopped using ITNs because they no longer heard mosquitoes or due to heat discomfort caused by lights. conclusion Electricity-related incentives played a greater role in encouraging adherence to recommended behaviours for proper deployment of SMoTS than the potential health benefits in the early stages of the intervention. Although energy-related financial incentives may play a role, they are insufficient to ensure adherence to health advice, even in the short term. Ongoing community engagement and research monitors and addresses adherence to recommended behaviours including continuation of current malaria control strategies.
Quality assessment of practice nurse communication with type 2 diabetes patients
Mulder, B.C. ; Belzen, M. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2015
Patient Education and Counseling 98 (2015)2. - ISSN 0738-3991 - p. 156 - 161.
primary-care - self-management - physical-activity - interventions - motivation - education - people - medicine - weight - advice
Objective Nurse self-management support for type 2 diabetes patients may benefit from applying theory-based behavior change counseling. The 5As Model was used to assess if, and how, nurses applied the five key elements of self-management support in standard care. Methods Seven practice nurses audio-recorded consultations with 66 patients. An existing instrument for assessing counseling quality was used to determine if the 5As were applied. Applied As were compared with quality criteria, to provide an in-depth assessment. Results In almost every consultation, nurses assessed health behaviors, and arranged a follow-up meeting. However, nurses advised behavior change in less than half of the consultations, while setting goals and assisting patients to overcome barriers were used even less. Comparing applied As with quality criteria revealed several issues that could be improved. Conclusion Nurses consistently discussed health behaviors with patients, but important elements of self-management support were not applied.
Kennis delen onder leraren: Een onderzoek naar de relaties tussen Occupational Self-Efficacy, Werk bevlogenheid, Human Resource Management en Kennis delen
Vermeulen, M. ; Runhaar, P.R. ; Konermann, J. ; Sanders, K. - \ 2014
Pedagogische Studiën 91 (2014)6. - ISSN 0165-0645 - p. 397 - 410.
job resources - performance - behavior - organizations - commitment - metaanalysis - motivation - workplace - community - exchange
Knowledge sharing is one of the professionalizetion processes and is an important factor in the competition between organizations and for innovation processes to sustain. In this study the central theme is the way knowledge sharing is affected by occupational self-efficacy (OSE), work engagement and High Commitment HRM (HC-HRM). In investigating these relations the AMO framework is used. The research data were obtained by 126 teachers from one secondary school. However from the regression analyses it was learned that the relationship between the variables OSE, HC HRM and work engagement with knowledge sharing was more complex than expected. Additional analyses by means of a three-way interaction analysis suggests that the combination of high experienced HC-HRM and low experienced OSE or the other way around is, related to more knowledge sharing. The findings are important for managers who want to promote processes of knowledge sharing in their school organization.
Methods for cross--point analysis of double-demand functions in assessing animal preferences.
Engel, B. ; Webb, L.E. ; Jensen, M.B. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Bokkers, E.A.M. - \ 2014
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 160 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 138 - 147.
different rooting materials - linear mixed models - motivation - likelihood - inference - pigs
Cross point analysis of double demand functions provides a compelling way to quantify the strength of animal preferences for two simultaneously presented resources. During daily sessions, animals have to work to gain access to (a portion of) either resource, e.g. by pressing one of two panels a required number of times (the workload). Each panel is linked to one of the simultaneously presented resources. Workloads are varied over sessions and resources. Per session, for each resource the number of times that an animal is rewarded by access to the resource is observed. Four statistical approaches for analysis of these observations, including two novel approaches, are presented and discussed. The two novel approaches are based on relative numbers of rewards, i.e. analyses of proportions, while the other two methods that have been used before are based on absolute numbers of rewards, i.e. analyses of counts. Data from an experiment investigating preferences of Holstein-Friesian bull calves for two types of roughage (chopped and long hay) will be used to illustrate the calculations. The rationale of the four statistical approaches is given, and their pros and cons are discussed. The two novel approaches will be recommended for future practical use; they are directly tuned to the essential property of a double-demand experiment that animals have a choice between resources and consequently comprise considerably less population parameters than the other two approaches, allowing for more direct and clear interpretation. The novel approaches are less sensitive to model assumptions (more robust), and associated computer algorithms for fitting these models to the data are more reliable.
Mastery-approach doelen en zelfeffectiviteit als voorspellers van burnout en werkbevlogenheid: De adaptieve rol van het vormen van uitwisselingsrelaties met collega’s
Poortvliet, P.M. ; Perdeck, J. - \ 2014
Gedrag en organisatie : tijdschrift voor sociale, arbeids- en organisatiepsychologie 27 (2014)2. - ISSN 0921-5077 - p. 188 - 212.
dominant achievement goals - performance goals - job demands - information exchange - american-dream - behavior - motivation - resources - mediation - model
How is work motivation related to the experience of job-related well being? In the present article we investigated this question by looking at the joint relationship of mastery-approach goals and self-efficacy with burnout and work engagement. The results of a cross-sectional investigation among 361 employees in healthcare, ICT services, and other sectors largely confirm our expectation that the relationship between mastery-approach goals and burnout are more strongly negative when levels of experienced self-efficacy were low. Furthermore, when self-efficacy was relatively low, mastery-approach goals and work engagement had a more positive relationship. This joint relation between mastery-approach goals and self-efficacy could be partially explained by the observation that workers with relatively strong mastery-approach goals and high levels of self-efficacy reported to have high-quality exchange relationships with their colleagues. Altogether, these results point at the importance of setting mastery-approach goals in social work settings, especially when experienced levels of self-efficacy are low, because those goals are negatively connected with feelings of burnout and positively with experiencing work engagement.
Understanding Positive Attitudes toward Helping Peers: The Role of Mastery Goals and Academic Self-Efficacy
Poortvliet, P.M. ; Darnon, C. - \ 2014
Self and Identity 13 (2014)3. - ISSN 1529-8868 - p. 345 - 363.
achievement goals - performance goals - organizational citizenship - information exchange - seeking behaviors - early adolescents - job-satisfaction - motivation - task - orientation
The present research was designed to document the relationship between mastery and performance goals and attitudes toward helping others, and to test the mediating role of self-efficacy. Two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) showed that students with mastery goals hold stronger positive attitudes toward helping peers, relative to students with performance goals. Furthermore, a field study (Study 3) indicated that students’ mastery goals were positively related to holding positive attitudes toward helping fellow students, whereas performance goals were not. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that this could be explained by the intra-individual process of academic self-efficacy. Finally, it was shown that a negative relationship existed between performance goals and helping peers only for individuals with relatively weak mastery goals
The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics
Komduur, R.H. ; Molder, H. te - \ 2014
Public Understanding of Science 23 (2014)8. - ISSN 0963-6625 - p. 886 - 902.
technology-assessment - quit smoking - life-style - obesity - susceptibility - understandings - information - motivation - disease - smokers
This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as ‘build’), indicating that participants treat ‘behaviour’ as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users’ response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general
Parels en puzzels bij weidegang = 'Pearls and puzzles' with grazing
Vrolijk, M. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 680) - 30
melkveehouderij - melkvee - dierenwelzijn - begrazing - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - diergezondheid - rendement - dierlijke productie - diergedrag - huisvesting, dieren - dairy farming - dairy cattle - animal welfare - grazing - sustainability - motivation - farm management - animal health - returns - animal production - animal behaviour - animal housing
Choosing a suitable farming system and optimising and continuing this approach in practice gives dairy farmers the most 'pearls' and the fewest 'puzzles'. This applies both to grazing and non-grazing systems.
Relaties tussen recreanten, ondernemers en landschap
Goossen, C.M. ; Langers, F. ; Boer, T.A. de - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 329) - 74
openluchtrecreatie - landschap - investering - verblijfsrecreatie - motivatie - nederland - outdoor recreation - landscape - investment - short stay tourism - motivation - netherlands
De recreatiemotieven Gezelligheid en Tussen uit zijn de belangrijkste motieven. Investeringen gebaseerd op wensen van recreanten met het motief Tussen uit, is des te belangrijker omdat dit motief in omvang zal toenemen. Bedrijven die aan zee of grote meren of parken liggen, hebben een extra voordeel omdat recreanten die meer met dit motief er op uit trekken vaker naar deze typen landschappen gaan. Het motief Gezelligheid blijft groot, maar zal in omvang iets afnemen. Bedrijven die zich richten op recreanten met dit motief lijken een extra voordeel te hebben als ze in duingebieden, in of nabij recreatiegebieden of waterrijke gebieden liggen. De markt voor verblijfsrecreatie begint verzadigd te raken zodat keuzes belangrijker worden. Enthousiaste ondernemers investeren in natuur en landschap vanwege hun intrinsieke motivatie en/of voordelen voor hun bedrijf. De bezwaarhebbenden investeren niet omdat ze het niet belangrijk vinden, weerstand tegen regelgeving en/of er onvoldoende voordeel in zien. De twijfelaars willen wel, maar hebben de financiële middelen niet, een beperkte schaalgrootte en onvoldoende ruimtelijke ontwikkelmogelijkheden en/of opzien tegen de organisatorische rompslomp. Voor investeringen in de regio zijn streekfondsen het meest interessant
The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material
Seters, J.R. van; Ossevoort, M.A. ; Tramper, J. ; Goedhart, M.J. - \ 2012
Computers and Education 58 (2012)3. - ISSN 0360-1315 - p. 942 - 952.
computer-simulations - gender-differences - prior knowledge - hypermedia - feedback - motivation - instruction - education - game - tool
Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive elearning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics in a heterogeneous student group by collecting demographic data and measuring motivation and prior knowledge. We also measured the learning paths students followed and learning strategies they used when working with adaptive e-learning material in a molecular biology course. We then combined these data to study if and how student characteristics relate to the learning paths and strategies they used. We observed that students did follow different learning paths. Gender did not have an effect, but (mainly Dutch) BSc students differed from (international) MSc students in the intrinsic motivation they had and the learning paths and strategies they followed when using the adaptive e-learning material
Perverse effects of other-referenced performance goals in an information exchange context
Poortvliet, P.M. ; Anseel, F. ; Janssen, O. ; Yperen, N.W. van - \ 2012
Journal of Business Ethics 106 (2012)4. - ISSN 0167-4544 - p. 401 - 414.
achievement goals - multiple-goal - orientation - mastery - task - motivation - behavior - model - work - satisfaction
A values-centered leadership model comprised of leader stakeholder and economic values, follower values congruence, and responsible leadership outcomes was tested using data from 122 organizational leaders and 458 of their direct reports. Alleviating same-source bias concerns in leadership survey research, follower ratings of leadership style and follower ratings of values congruence and responsible leadership outcomes were collected from separate sources via the split-sample methodology. Results of structural equation modeling analyses demonstrated that leader stakeholder values predicted transformational leadership, whereas leader economic values were associated with transactional leadership. Follower values congruence was strongly associated with transformational leadership, unrelated to transactional leadership, and partially mediated the relationships between transformational leadership and both follower organizational citizenship behaviors and follower beliefs in the stakeholder view of corporate social responsibility. Implications for responsible leadership and transformational leadership theory, practice, and future research are discussed.
An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack
Bialkova, S.E. ; Trijp, H.C.M. van - \ 2011
Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)6. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 592 - 601.
eye-movements - visual-attention - print advertisements - scene perception - time-course - search - choice - model - motivation - fixations
A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention and choice. Rather the following measures are obtained: (1) respondents' eye-movements, in terms of dwell time, fixation duration, number of fixations, and saccade size; (2) response times indicating the speed with which choice decisions are made: and (3) consumers' actual choices from an assortment. The efficiency and sensitivity of the methodology is illustrated in a small scale empirical application. Overall, the methodology seems to be a promising tool for answering puzzling questions in consumer attention and decision making with straightforward potential extensions to enlarge its scope.
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