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The socioeconomic vulnerability index: A pragmatic approach for assessing climate-change led risks-A case study in southwestern coastal Bangladesh
Ahsan Bapon, N. ; Warner, J.F. - \ 2014
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 8 (2014). - ISSN 2212-4209 - p. 32 - 49.
adaptive capacity - social vulnerability - multiple stressors - natural hazards - cyclone sidr - adaptation - indicators - framework - level - uncertainty
We develop a Socioeconomic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) for climate change affected communities in seven unions1 of Koyra upazilla 2 in south-western coastal Bangladesh. We survey 60 households from each union to collect data on various vulnerability domains and socioeconomic indicators. The SeVI aggregate these collected data using a composite indicator index, where a relative weight is assigned to each indicator with a view to obtaining weighted average index scores for different vulnerability domains in different unions. Results suggest that southern and south-eastern unions are relatively more vulnerable, which are the most exposed to natural hazards and mostly surrounded by the mangrove forest Sundarbans. Furthermore- social, economic and disaster frequency are found as more influential indicators to adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure respectively in Koyra. This pragmatic approach is useful to figure out and monitor socioeconomic vulnerability and/or assess potential adaptation-policy effectiveness in data scarce regions by incorporating scenarios into the SeVI for baseline comparison.
Towards a renewed research agenda in ecotoxicology
Artigas, J. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Babut, M. ; Caracciolo, A.B. ; Charles, S. ; Chaumot, A. ; Combourieu, B. ; Dahllöf, I. ; Despréaux, D. ; Ferrari, B. ; Friberg, N. ; Garric, J. ; Geffard, O. ; Gourlay-Francé, C. ; Hein, M. ; Hjorth, M. ; Krauss, M. ; Lange, H.J. de; Lahr, J. ; Lehtonen, K.K. ; Lettieri, T. ; Liess, M. ; Lofts, S. ; Mayer, P. ; Morin, S. ; Paschke, A. ; Svendsen, C. ; Usseglio-Polatera, P. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Vindimian, E. ; Williams, R. - \ 2012
Environmental Pollution 160 (2012). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 201 - 206.
effect-directed analysis - risk-assessment - intrinsic variability - invertebrate traits - bacterial community - multiple stressors - ecological traits - european rivers - toxicity tests - bioavailability
New concerns about biodiversity, ecosystem services and human health triggered several new regulations increasing the need for sound ecotoxicological risk assessment. The PEER network aims to share its view on the research issues that this challenges. PEER scientists call for an improved biologically relevant exposure assessment. They promote comprehensive effect assessment at several biological levels. Biological traits should be used for Environmental risk assessment (ERA) as promising tools to better understand relationships between structure and functioning of ecosystems. The use of modern high throughput methods could also enhance the amount of data for a better risk assessment. Improved models coping with multiple stressors or biological levels are necessary to answer for a more scientifically based risk assessment. Those methods must be embedded within life cycle analysis or economical models for efficient regulations. Joint research programmes involving humanities with ecological sciences should be developed for a sound risk management.
Categorisation of typical vulnerability patterns in global drylands
Sietz, D. ; Lûdeke, M.K.B. ; Walther, C. - \ 2011
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 21 (2011)2. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 431 - 440.
water-use - rangeland degradation - multiple stressors - land degradation - rural poverty - south-africa - livelihoods - desertification - sustainability - mexico
Drylands display specific vulnerability-creating mechanisms which threaten ecosystems and human well-being. The upscaling of successful interventions to reduce vulnerability arises as an important, but challenging aim, since drylands are not homogenous. To support this aim, we present the first attempt to categorise dryland vulnerability at a global scale and sub-national resolution. The categorisation yields typical patterns of dryland vulnerability and their policy implications according to similarities among the socio-ecological systems. Based on a compilation of prevalent vulnerability-creating mechanisms, we quantitatively indicate the most important dimensions including poverty, water stress, soil degradation, natural agro-constraints and isolation. A cluster analysis reveals a set of seven typical vulnerability patterns showing distinct indicator combinations. These results are validated by case studies reflecting the cluster-specific mechanisms and their spatial distribution. Based on these patterns, we deduce thematic and spatial entry points for reducing dryland vulnerability. Our findings could contribute new insights into allocating the limited funds available for dryland development and support related monitoring efforts based on the manageable number of key indicators.
Impact of triphenyltin acetate in microcosms simulating floodplain lakes; I influence of sediment quality
Roessink, I. ; Crum, S.J.H. ; Bransen, F.F.J. ; Leeuwen, E. van; Kerkum, F. van; Koelmans, A.A. ; Brock, T.C.M. - \ 2006
Ecotoxicology 15 (2006)3. - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 267 - 293.
fresh-water microcosms - insecticide dursban(r) 4e - active ingredient chlorpyrifos - community tolerance pict - triorganotin compounds - fungicide carbendazim - organotin compounds - multiple stressors - permutation tests - primary producers
Floodplain lakes in the Rhine-Meuse delta of the Netherlands vary considerably in levels of sediment-bound toxicants. Microcosm experiments were done to compare the ecological impact of the fungicide triphenyltin acetate (TPT) between test systems with clean or polluted sediments (10 microcosms each). Differences in sediment quality affected the structure of the aquatic communities that developed in the microcosms. Initially, a faster growth of the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii was observed on the polluted sediments, which contained not only toxicants but also higher organic matter and nutrient levels. Dynamics of TPT concentrations in the overlying water were very similar between the two types of test system. Higher levels of TPT, however, were found in the sediment compartment of the clean sediment systems containing a smaller macrophyte biomass. TPT was very persistent in the sediments. In both test systems representatives of several taxonomic groups showed clear responses to a single application of TPT, although benthic Nematoda were not affected. Although a few differences in the intensity and/or duration of TPT-related population responses were observed between the two types of test system, the background pollutants in the polluted sediment hardly affected the overall sensitivity of the aquatic community to the additional chemical stressor TPT.
Functional stability of microbial communities in contaminated soils near a zinc smelter (Budel, the Netherlands)
Tobor-Kaplon, M.A. ; Bloem, J. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 2006
Ecotoxicology 15 (2006)2. - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 187 - 197.
ecosystem function relationship - heavy-metal tolerance - bacterial communities - multiple stressors - biodiversity - adaptation - thymidine - pollution - gradient - impacts
Environmental pollution causes adverse effects on many levels of ecosystem organization; it might affect the use efficiency of available resources which will make the system more sensitive to subsequent stress. Alternatively the development of community tolerance may make the system more resistant to additional stresses. In this study we investigate the functional stability, measured in the terms of resistance and resilience, of microbial populations inhabiting contaminated soils near a zinc smelter. With functional stability we mean that we look at processes rather than at population dynamics. We measure changes in respiration and bacterial growth rate in response to addition of stress (lead, salt) or disturbance (heat). We used soils that differ in the level of pollution with zinc and cadmium originating from an adjacent smelter. Our results showed, with regard to respiration, that the most polluted soils have the lowest stability to salt (stress) and heat (disturbance). This confirms the hypothesis that more stressed systems have less energy to cope with additional stress or disturbance. However, bacterial growth rates were affected in a different way than respiration. There was no difference between the soils in resistance and resilience to addition of lead. In case of salt treatment, the least polluted soils showed highest stability. In contrast, the least polluted soils were the least stable to increased temperature, which supports the hypothesis that more stressed soils are more stable to additional stress/disturbance due to properties they gained when exposed to the first stress (pollution by the smelter). Thus, the responses of microbial processes to stress, their nature and size, depend on the kinds of stress factors, especially whether a subsequent stress is similar to the first stress, in terms of the mechanism with which the organisms deal with the stress.