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Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions
Gils, J.A.G. ; Coppens, L.J.C. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Raterman, B.W. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2015
Water Research 81 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 356 - 365.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - inventarisaties - nederland - waste water treatment - water treatment - drugs - surface water - inventories - netherlands - personal care products - endocrine disrupting compounds - organic persistent pollutants - health-risk assessment - municipal waste-water - aquatic environment - drinking-water - climate-change - transformation products - continental-scale
For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.
Effect of temperature on denitrifying methanotrophic activity of 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera'
Kampman, C. ; Piai, L. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Water Science and Technology 70 (2014)10. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1683 - 1689.
waterzuivering - denitrificatie - biologische behandeling - water treatment - denitrification - biological treatment - anaerobic methane oxidation - municipal waste-water - nitrogen removal - membrane bioreactor - sewage-treatment - uasb-digester - degrees-c - bacteria - enrichment - nitrite
The activity of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria at 11-30 degrees C was assessed in short-term experiments. The aim was to determine the feasibility of applying denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in low-temperature anaerobic wastewater treatment. This study showed that biomass enriched at 21 degrees C had an optimum temperature of 20-25 degrees C and that activity dropped as temperature was increased to 30 degrees C. Biomass enriched at 30 degrees C had an optimum temperature of 25-30 degrees C. These results indicated that biomass from low-temperature inocula adjusted to the enrichment temperature and that low-temperature enrichment is suitable for applications in low-temperature wastewater treatment. Biomass growth at
High loaded MBRs for organic matter recovery from sewage: Effect of solids retention time on bioflocculation and on the role of extracellular polymers
Faust, L. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Kemperman, A.J.B. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2014
Water Research 56 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 258 - 266.
waterzuivering - membranen - biofilms - organische stof - water treatment - membranes - organic matter - municipal waste-water - submerged membrane bioreactor - improved energy recovery - activated-sludge process - microbial community - surface-properties - substances eps - performance - extraction - constituents
High loaded MBRs (HL-MBR) can concentrate sewage organic matter by aerobic bioflocculation for subsequent anaerobic conversion to methane or volatile fatty acids. In the range of very short solid retention times (SRT), the effect of SRT on bioflocculation and EPS production in HL-MBR was investigated. This short SRT range was selected to find an optimum SRT maximising recovery of organics by aerobic bioflocculation and minimizing losses of organics by aerobic mineralization. Bioflocculation was studied in five HL-MBRs operated at SRTs of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 d. The extent of flocculation, defined as the fraction of suspended COD in the concentrate, increased from 59% at an SRT of 0.125 d to 98% at an SRT of 5 d. The loss of sewage organic matter by biological oxidation was 1, 2, 4, 11 and 32% at SRT of 0.125–5 d. An SRT of 0.5–1 d gave best combination of bioflocculation and organic matter recovery. Bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations, in particular EPS-protein concentrations, increased when the SRT was prolonged from 0.125 to 1 d. This suggests that these EPS-proteins govern the bioflocculation process. A redistribution took place from free (supernatant) EPS to bound (floc associated) EPS when the SRT was prolonged from 0.125 to 1 d, further supporting the fact that the EPS play a dominant role in the flocculation process. Membrane fouling was most severe at the shortest SRTs of 0.125 d. No positive correlation was detected between the concentration of free EPS and membrane fouling, but the concentration of submicron (45–450 nm) particles proved to be a good indicator for this fouling.
Electrochemical phosphate recovery from nanofiltration concentrates
Kappel, C. ; Yasadi, K. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Metz, S.J. ; Kemperman, A.J.B. ; Nijmeijer, K. ; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Witkamp, G.J. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2013
Separation and Purification Technology 120 (2013). - ISSN 1383-5866 - p. 437 - 444.
amorphous calcium-phosphate - municipal waste-water - aqueous-solution - precipitation - hydroxyapatite - magnesium - struvite - removal - substitution - experiences
The high total phosphorus content of raw domestic wastewater with its significant eutrophication potential offers an excellent possibility for phosphate recovery. Continuous recirculation of NF concentrate to an MBR and simultaneous phosphate recovery from the NF concentrate can be applied to produce reusable water, recovering phosphates, while at the same time decreasing the scaling potential of the recirculated NF concentrate, prolonging the retention times of slowly biodegradable soluble compounds (e.g. micropollutants) and recirculating multivalent cations to promote the bio-flocculation. Here we introduce an electrochemical system to recover phosphates. An electrochemical cell was divided into an anode and a cathode compartment separated by a cation exchange membrane. Precipitation of phosphates from nanofiltration concentrate was induced by locally increasing the pH at the cathode surface by water electrolysis and thereby creating supersaturated conditions at the cathode. 70–95% recovery of total phosphate was achieved at a pH of 8–10 near the cathode. Ion analysis, XRD and ATR-FTIR spectra indicated that the precipitate consisted of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and minor proportions of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). The amount of ACC was dependent on the pH. Calcium phosphate scaling at the cathode surface did not occur due to H2-gas formation preventing nucleation and growth at the cathode.
Potential and limitations of phosphate retention media in water protection: a process-based review of laboratory and field-scale tests
Klimeski, A. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Uusitalo, R. ; Turtola, E. - \ 2012
Agricultural and Food Science 21 (2012)3. - ISSN 1459-6067 - p. 206 - 223.
phosphorus sorbing materials - constructed wetland systems - municipal waste-water - blast-furnace slags - activated red mud - aqueous-solutions - filter materials - sorption capacity - ionic-strength - surface runoff
The application of phosphorus (P)-sorbing materials offers a possible solution for treating municipal wastewater and agricultural runoff. In this paper we discuss P retention and release mechanisms, and review studies on the P retention of different materials and their use as reactive media in filter beds. The main mechanisms for P retention are sorption on metal (mostly Fe or Al) hydroxide surfaces and, in alkaline conditions, the formation of Ca-P precipitates. The retention of P is strongly affected by the chemical composition of a material, its particle size and pH-related effects on sorption and precipitation both during testing and in practical operation. Laboratory tests are sensitive to solution chemistry (pH, alkalinity, ionic strength and composition, P concentration) and affected by material-to-solution ratio, contact time and agitation. Moreover, due to deviations from realistic field conditions, laboratory tests may produce imprecise estimates of the retention capacity and retention kinetics. In particular, materials that contain soluble substances (e.g., CaO) that elevate the pH of the ambient solution to high levels may in batch tests suggest a high capacity for P retention, but will most probably show much lower retention in field settings. On the other hand, materials containing metal oxides also retain P via slow reactions, and their retention capacity may be underestimated in short equilibrations. Appropriate laboratory test procedures will depend on their intended applications and material properties. Long-term field-scale tests are few in number, but some of them have shown promising results. Field-scale tests have, however, highlighted the design of the filters as a critical factor in their efficiency.
Soil as a filter for groundwater quality
Keesstra, S.D. ; Geissen, V. ; Mosse, K. ; Piiranen, S. ; Scudiero, E. ; Leistra, M. ; Schaik, L. van - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)5. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 507 - 516.
municipal waste-water - preferential flow - solute transport - mitigation strategies - lumbricus-terrestris - earthworm burrows - structured soils - land application - site preparation - vadose zone
The filtering function of soil is an important ecosystem service for groundwater and surface water protection. The efficiency of soils as a filter depends on the behaviour of pollutants in the soil and the hydrological transport processes. This paper aims to identify knowledge gaps in processes influencing pollutant behaviour in soils and their potential transport to groundwater. Currently most soil-filter function research is approached from two disciplines, one originating from agronomical/environmental sciences; one from more fundamental hydrological process research. Combining insights and approaches from both disciplines through collaboration could lead to better understanding of this complex system and enhance assessments of management strategy changes, both over the long term as well as in different climatic settings.
Polyurethane rotating disc system for post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated sewage
Tawfik, A. ; Klapwijk, A. - \ 2010
Journal of Environmental Management 91 (2010)5. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 1183 - 1192.
municipal waste-water - biological contactor rbc - domestic sewage - nitrogen removal - escherichia-coli - bacteria - effluent - biofilm - feasibility - performance
The performance of polyurethane rotating discs (RBC-1) versus polystyrene rotating discs (RBC-2) for the treatment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent fed with domestic wastewater was investigated. Both RBC units were operated at the same organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.5 gCOD/m(2) d. and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 h. The residual values of COD fractions (CODsuspended, CODcolloidal and CODsoluble) in the treated effluent of RBC-1 and RBC-2 were similar. However, the removal efficiency of ammonia in the RBC-1 (87 +/- 4%) was significantly higher than that found for RBC-2 i.e. 24 +/- 6%. Moreover, RBC-1 achieved a substantial removal efficiency of 99.0 +/- 1% for Escherichia colt (E. coli), while RBC-2 removed 91.2 +/- 0.3%. Based on these results, optimization of RBC-1 treating UASB reactor effluent was extensively performed. The RBC-1 was operated at an OLR's of 4.0, 11 and 23 gCOD/m(2) d. The results obtained showed that increasing the OLR from 11.0 to 23.0 gCOD/m(2) d and decreasing the HRT from 2.5 to 1.25 h significantly declined the effluent quality of CODtotal and ammonia. However, the residual values of CODtotal and ammonia remained unaffected when increasing the OLR from 4.0 to 11.0 gCOD/m(2) d and by decreasing the HRT from 5 to 2.5 h. Bacteriological examination showed that the mean residual count of E. coli remained at a level of 10(4)/100 ml, in the effluent of RBC-1 independent on the imposed HRT. Accordingly, it is recommended to operate RBC-1 for treatment of anaerobically pre-treated sewage at an OLR of 11 gCOD/m(2) d and an HRT of 2.5 h. A feed-less (ammonia limitation) period of 9.0 days followed by 9.0 days feeding with high OLR of 26 gCOD/m(2) d. (raw sewage) was investigated to elaborate, if the nitrifiers of the RBC-1 are capable to convert ammonia to nitrate after totally 18 days when retuning back to the normal operating conditions. The results of the experiment clearly show a strong and immediate detrimental effect of imposing high OLR of 26 gCOD/m(2) d on the nitrification process in the nitrifying RBC unit. However, after returning back to the original OLR of 10.6 gCOD/m(2) d, the nitrification efficiency in the RBC unit was recovered within 2-3 days.
Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation
Silva, G.H.R. ; Daniel, L.A. ; Bruning, H. ; Rulkens, W.H. - \ 2010
Bioresource Technology 101 (2010)18. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 6981 - 6986.
municipal waste-water - drinking-water - ozonation - aldehyde - acid - uv
This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 min. The wastewater used in this research was generated by the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), University of São Paulo - Brazil. The total coliform inactivation range was 2.00-4.06 log(10), and the inactivation range for Escherichia coli was 2.41-4.65 log(10). Mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 37.6%, 48.8% and 42.4% for doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1), respectively. Aldehyde formation varied with dosage only when the ozone dose was increased from 5.0 to 8.0mg O(3)L(-1) for acetaldehyde and from 5.0 to 8.0 and from 8.0 to 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for glyoxal