Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Dietary supplementation of 11 different plant extracts on the antioxidant capacity of blood and selected tissues in lightweight lambs
Leal, Leonel N. ; Jordán, María J. ; Bello, José M. ; Otal, Julio ; Hartog, Leo A. den; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Martín-Tereso, Javier - \ 2019
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2019). - ISSN 0022-5142
kidney - lambs - liver - muscle - plant extracts - plasma

BACKGROUND: Due to the growing public concern regarding the addition of chemical antioxidants to foods, focus has shifted towards natural alternatives. Because of their antioxidant potential, culinary herbs and spices have long been used to extend the shelf-life of foods. However, a better understanding of the fate of these products following intake is required to assess their use in lamb diets. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-eight Rasa Aragonesa male lambs (70 days old) were supplemented (5.0 g kg −1 compound feed) with bay, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, thyme, turmeric, cumin, caraway, dill, cinnamon and nutmeg extracts for 14 days before slaughter. Dietary supplementation with plant extracts had no effect on intake, growth performance or antioxidant activity in blood (TEAC values). In muscle, nutmeg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the radical-scavenging capacity (TEAC), whereas a decrease in the radical-scavenging capacity was found for lambs supplemented with oregano, dill, cinnamon and nutmeg (ORAC values). In liver, nutmeg supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity (TEAC), whereas bay (ORAC), turmeric, cinnamon and nutmeg (DPPH values) decreased (P < 0.05) the radical-scavenging capacity of the tissue. In kidney, a lower (P < 0.05) radical-scavenging capacity (TEAC values) was found in lambs supplemented with oregano, cumin and caraway, whereas, turmeric, cumin, caraway, cinnamon and nutmeg increased (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity (ORAC values) in kidney. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of lamb diets with plant extracts affected radical-scavenging activity in muscle, liver and kidney. However, due to the divergent results of the different assays for the same tissue, it is not advisable to discriminate plant extracts using this approach.

Dose, timing, and source of protein intake of young people with spastic cerebral palsy
Anker–van der Wel, Ieke ; Smorenburg, Ana R.P. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Verschuren, Olaf - \ 2019
Disability & Rehabilitation (2019). - ISSN 0963-8288 - 6 p.
Cerebral palsy - children - disability - muscle - nutrition - protein intake

Purpose: Since the dose, timing and source of dietary protein intake are important for muscle growth and development, the aim of this study was to examine the dose, timing and source of protein intake of young people with cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Dietary intake was assessed in 19 children with spastic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I–V; Eating and Drinking Classification System levels I–V; 10 males, 9 females; mean [SD] age 11 years 2 months [3 years 3 months]) using a 3-day food diary. The data were analyzed for three age categories (4–8, 9–13, and 14–17 years). Results: Average 3-day protein intake (62.1 g [27.9 g]) was within the recommended boundaries with a minimum of 1.0 g/kg body weight/day and a maximum of 4.1 g/kg body weight/day. However, dinner was the only mealtime that provided at least 25 g of protein, which is needed for optimal muscle maintenance. The main food groups that contributed to protein intake were ‘milk and milk products’, ‘meat, meat products and poultry’, and ‘bread’. Conclusions: These observations suggest timing of protein intake can be improved with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Recent studies have shown that smaller muscles and early atrophy are already present at young age in individuals with cerebral palsy. Besides physical training, adequate protein intake (with optimal dose, timing and source of protein) may be a key factor in the prevention and treatment of loss of muscle mass in children with cerebral palsy. In a relatively small sample this study shows that overall protein intake (dose) was in line with recommendations and also that the source of the protein seemed sufficient to contain all essential amino acids. Improvement of the timing of protein intake throughout the day, with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch, seems important to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.

Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors
Kruyt, J.W. ; Quicazan Rubio, E.M. ; Heijst, G.J.F. van; Altshuler, D.L. ; Lentink, D. - \ 2014
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 11 (2014)99. - ISSN 1742-5689 - 12 p.
leading-edge vortices - insect flight - calypte-anna - hovering hummingbird - revolving wings - lift production - flapping wings - aerodynamics - muscle - performance
Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy. Previous quasi-steady experiments with a wing spinner set-up provide no support for this prediction. To test this more carefully, we compare the quasi-steady hover performance of 26 wings, from 12 hummingbird taxa. We spun the wings at angular velocities and angles of attack that are representative for every species and measured lift and torque more precisely. The power (aerodynamic torque × angular velocity) required to lift weight depends on aerodynamic efficacy, which is measured by the power factor. Our comparative analysis shows that AR has a modest influence on lift and drag forces, as reported earlier, but interspecific differences in power factor are large. During the downstroke, the power required to hover decreases for larger AR wings at the angles of attack at which hummingbirds flap their wings (p <0.05). Quantitative flow visualization demonstrates that variation in hover power among hummingbird wings is driven by similar stable leading edge vortices that delay stall during the down- and upstroke. A side-by-side aerodynamic performance comparison of hummingbird wings and an advanced micro helicopter rotor shows that they are remarkably similar.
Combating inflammaging through a Mediterranean whole diet approach: The NU-AGE project's conceptual framework and design
Santoro, A. ; Pini, E. ; Scurti, M. ; Palmas, G. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Brzozowska, A.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Vos, W.M. de - \ 2014
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 136-137 (2014). - ISSN 0047-6374 - p. 3 - 13.
cd8(+) t-cells - style diet - cellular senescence - older-adults - longevity - immunosenescence - phenotype - frailty - system - muscle
The development of a chronic, low grade, inflammatory status named “inflammaging” is a major characteristic of ageing, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Inflammaging is both local and systemic, and a variety of organs and systems contribute inflammatory stimuli that accumulate lifelong. The NU-AGE rationale is that a one year Mediterranean whole diet (considered by UNESCO a heritage of humanity), newly designed to meet the nutritional needs of the elderly, will reduce inflammaging in fully characterized subjects aged 65–79 years of age, and will have systemic beneficial effects on health status (physical and cognitive). Before and after the dietary intervention a comprehensive set of analyses, including omics (transcriptomics, epigenetics, metabolomics and metagenomics) will be performed to identify the underpinning molecular mechanisms. NU-AGE will set up a comprehensive database as a tool for a systems biology approach to inflammaging and nutrition. NU-AGE is highly interdisciplinary, includes leading research centres in Europe on nutrition and ageing, and is complemented by EU multinational food industries and SMEs, interested in the production of functional and enriched/advanced traditional food tailored for the elderly market, and European Federations targeting policy makers and major stakeholders, from consumers to EU Food & Drink Industries.
Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: a controlled dietary intervention study
Altorf-van der Kuil, W. ; Brink, E.J. ; Boetje, M. ; Siebelink, E. ; Bijlsma, S. ; Engberink, M.F. ; Tome, D. ; Bakker, S.J. ; Baak, M.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 110 (2013)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 810 - 822.
discriminant-analysis - nitrogen isotopes - urinary-excretion - amino-acids - 3-methylhistidine - values - muscle - milk
In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in, thirty men and seventeen women (22 (sd 4) years) received three high-protein diets (aimed at approximately 18 % of energy (en%)) in random order for 1 week each, with approximately 14 en% originating from either meat, dairy products or grain. We used a two-step approach to identify biomarkers in urine and plasma. With principal component discriminant analysis, we identified amino acids (AA) from the plasma or urinary AA profile that were distinctive between diets. Subsequently, after pooling total study data, we applied mixed models to estimate the predictive value of those AA for intake of protein types. A very good prediction could be made for the intake of meat protein by a regression model that included urinary carnosine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine (98 % of variation in intake explained). Furthermore, for dietary grain protein, a model that included seven AA (plasma lysine, valine, threonine, a-aminobutyric acid, proline, ornithine and arginine) made a good prediction (75 % of variation explained). We could not identify biomarkers for dairy protein intake. In conclusion, specific combinations of urinary and plasma AA may be potentially useful biomarkers for meat and grain protein intake, respectively. These findings need to be cross-validated in other dietary intervention studies.
Protein micro-structuring as a tool to texturize protein foods
Purwanti, N. ; Peters, J.P.C.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2013
Food & Function 4 (2013)2. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 277 - 282.
amino-acids - dietary-protein - rheological properties - statistical-mechanics - high-carbohydrate - elderly people - whey - requirements - muscle - microstructure
Structuring protein foods to control the textural properties receives growing attention nowadays. It requires decoupling of the product properties such as water holding capacity and the mechanical properties from the actual protein concentration in the product. From an application point of view, both increasing and lowering the protein content in the food are interesting. Foods enriched with proteins are important due to their reported health benefits, but increasing the protein content in food products generally leads to products that are firmer and have a more rubbery mouth-feel than the regular products, making them less attractive. A reduced protein content, for example in meat- or cheese-analogues, is relevant because it leads to a lower caloric intake per serving and it enhances its economic potential. Decoupling of the protein concentration and product properties can be obtained by changing the internal structure of those food products. This paper outlines the use of protein aggregates and particles in a protein matrix as a tool to obtain different textural properties of a model protein product. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was taken as a model protein. However, further investigation of WPI microparticles should focus on a better understanding of their swelling behaviour in the protein matrix to fully use the potential of those protein particles as a tool to decouple product properties and actual protein concentration.
Stiffening in gels containing whey protein isolate
Purwanti, N. ; Veen, E. van der; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2013
International Dairy Journal 28 (2013)2. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 62 - 69.
physicochemical changes - body-composition - filled gels - aggregation - stability - matrix - bars - microstructure - storage - muscle
Gels made only from whey protein isolate (WPI) stiffened over the first few days of storage, after which the textural properties remained nearly constant. However, protein gels containing WPI microparticles, at the same total protein content, stiffened over a longer period than those without microparticles. This stiffening was suggested to be the result of rearrangement of crosslinks in the gel. Addition of particles induces additional effects leading to water distribution between the protein particles and continuous phase. The stiffness change over time was different for gels made from a mixture of locust bean gum and xanthan gum containing microparticles. The stiffness of matrix gel and of gels containing 20% (w/w) microparticles was rather stable over time; microscopy analysis of these gels showed that particle size was constant after 72 h storage. Nevertheless, changes were observed in small deformation; this might be the consequence of slow rearrangements within the protein particles.
Analysis of factors to predict piglet body weight at the end of the nursery phase
Paredes Escobar, S.P. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Awati, A. ; Buist, W.G. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Hees, H.M.J. van; Quiniou, N. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)9. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3243 - 3251.
intrauterine growth-retardation - within-litter variation - birth-weight - postnatal-growth - size - performance - sows - consequences - traits - muscle
In pig production, within-batch variation in body weight (BW) gain of piglets during the nursery period (up to 10 weeks of age) can be high and is of high economic importance. Homogeneity of BW within batches of animals is important as it influences the efficiency of use of the grower and finisher facilities, and provides an extra value for the fattening farms. In the current study, factors for a low BW at the end of the nursery period of pigs were determined by analysing datasets from three different Swine Research Centres in the Netherlands and France. The entire dataset contained information on 77,868 individual piglets born in the period between 2005 and 2010. BW was determined at different time points over the pre- and post-weaning phase, and sex, season of birth; litter information (litter size at day of birth and after cross-fostering, number of piglets born alive per litter, number of total born littermates, sow parity number); cross-fostered animals (yes or no), and pen group size over the post-weaning period were recorded. A risk factor analysis approach was used to analyze the datasets to determine factors that predict piglet BW at the end of the nursery period. BW at the end of the nursery period corrected for age was mainly determined by season (P <0.001), sex (P <0.001), birth weight (P <0.001), weaning weight (P <0.001) and BW at 6 wk of age (P <0.001). These variables were consistent among datasets and explained approximately 70% of the overall variation in BW at the end of the nursery period. Litter information did not significantly (P > 0.05) contribute to explaining the BW at the end of the nursery period. To discard the possibility of intrauterine growth retarded piglets (IUGR) being the reason for the influence of birth weight (BiW) as an explanatory factor in the regression model, a further analysis was performed on the effect of this category of piglets on the results of the regression analysis. Overall, it was concluded that piglet's BW at the end of the nursery phase is mainly determined by season, sex, birth and weaning weight and BW at 6 weeks of age. Piglets with a BiW higher than the mean BiW minus 2.5 times the SD have the potential to compensate during the subsequent phases of growth.
Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Stolker, A.A.M. - \ 2011
Analytica Chimica Acta 685 (2011)2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 170 - 175.
antimicrobial residues - mass-spectrometry - veterinary drugs - uplc-tof - muscle - milk - laboratories - validation - samples - kidney
A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum residue limits [1]. The suitability of the materials was demonstrated with a homogeneity and a stability study. This study showed that cryogenically minced spiked muscle material is suited for proficiency tests aiming at the screening and the confirmatory analysis. Of the 26 participants, 23 carried out their in-house screening approach involving microbial, biochemical or instrumental methods, or a combination of these to cover the broad range of antibiotic groups. The false negative rate was 73% for microbial methods, 50% for biochemical and 22% for instrumental methods. These results indicate that substantial effort is needed to improve screening approaches and that more regular proficiency tests are needed to reveal the shortcomings in the currently applied screening methods.
Feasibility of a liver transcriptomics approach to assess bovine treatment with the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
Rijk, J.C.W. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Hendriksen, P.J.M. ; Hende, J. van; Groot, M.J. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2010
BMC Veterinary Research 6 (2010). - ISSN 1746-6148
gene-expression-biomarkers - messenger-rna expression - anabolic agents - androgen - tissues - muscle - abuse - sport
Background Within the European Union the use of growth promoting agents in animal production is prohibited. Illegal use of natural prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is hard to prove since prohormones are strongly metabolized in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of a novel effect-based approach for monitoring abuse of DHEA. Changes in gene expression profiles were studied in livers of bull calves treated orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM) with 1000 mg DHEA versus two control groups, using bovine 44K DNA microarrays. In contrast to controlled genomics studies, this work involved bovines purchased at the local market on three different occasions with ages ranging from 6 to 14 months, thereby reflecting the real life inter-animal variability due to differences in age, individual physiology, season and diet. Results As determined by principal component analysis (PCA), large differences in liver gene expression profiles were observed between treated and control animals as well as between the two control groups. When comparing the gene expression profiles of PO and IM treated animals to that of all control animals, the number of significantly regulated genes (p-value 1.5) was 23 and 37 respectively. For IM and PO treated calves, gene sets were generated of genes that were significantly regulated compared to one control group and validated versus the other control group using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). This cross validation, showed that 6 out of the 8 gene sets were significantly enriched in DHEA treated animals when compared to an 'independent' control group. ConclusionThis study showed that identification and application of genomic biomarkers for screening of (pro)hormone abuse in livestock production is substantially hampered by biological variation. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that comparison of pre-defined gene sets versus the whole genome expression profile of an animal allows to distinguish DHEA treatment effects from variations in gene expression due to inherent biological variation. Therefore, DNA-microarray expression profiling together with statistical tools like GSEA represent a promising approach to screen for (pro)hormone abuse in livestock production. However, a better insight in the genomic variability of the control population is a prerequisite in order to define growth promoter specific gene sets that can be used as robust biomarkers in daily practice.
Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Larsen, R. ; Mierke-Klemeyer, S. ; Maehre, H. ; Schram, E. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2010
Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene 61 (2010)4. - ISSN 0003-925X - p. 139 - 144.
coronary-heart-disease - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - taurine content - 16 countries - selenium - fish - mortality - seafood - muscle - model
Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days, and 5 fish were at regular time intervals randomly drawn from the pool, filleted and freeze-dried. The samples were analyzed for contents of selenium, taurine and fatty acids. During ice storage, water content at fillets increased due to influx of water from melted ice. Only concentrations of water soluble taurine were found to decrease significantly, approximately 25 %, whereas concentration of selenium and the fatty acid profile did not substantially change during storage.
Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Holthoon, F.L. van; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Bennekom, E.O. van; Heskamp, H.H. ; Zuidema, T. ; Rhijn, J.A. van - \ 2010
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 396 (2010)8. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 3027 - 3040.
beta-lactam antibiotics - solid-phase extraction - bovine-milk - precolumn derivatization - antimicrobial residues - degradation-products - confirmatory assay - kidney - muscle - amoxicillin
Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ß-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is described for the determination and confirmation of eight penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). To prevent degradation of penicillin residues during workup, a derivatisation procedure was developed, by which penicillins were converted to stable piperidine derivatives. Deuterated piperidine derivatives were synthesised for all relevant penicillins, enabling the use of isotope dilution for accurate quantification. Penicillin residues were derivatised in the crude extract with piperidine and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The penicillin piperidine derivatives were determined by LC–MS/MS. The method was validated at the current MRLs, which range from 25–300 µg kg-1 in muscle and kidney to 4–30 µg kg-1 in milk as well as at the target value of 100 µg kg-1 chosen for animal feed, according to the EU requirements for a quantitative confirmatory method. Accuracy ranged from 94–113% (muscle), 83–111% (kidney) and 87–103% (milk) to 88–116% (animal feed). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD)r) ranged from 5–13% (muscle, n¿=¿18), 4–17% (kidney, n¿=¿7) and 5–18% (milk, n¿=¿7) to 11–32% (animal feed, n¿=¿18). Inter-day precision (RSDRL, n¿=¿18) ranged from 6–23% (muscle) to 11–36% (animal feed). From the results, it was concluded that the method was fit for purpose at the target MRLs in animal tissue and target levels for animal feed
Label-Free and Multiplex Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk Using Imaging surface Plasmon Resonance-Based immunosensor
Rebe, S. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Norde, W. - \ 2009
Analytical Chemistry 81 (2009)18. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 7743 - 7749.
linked-immunosorbent-assay - beta-lactam antibiotics - biosensor immunoassay - food-products - drug residues - fluoroquinolones - aminoglycosides - antibody - muscle - tests
Monitoring of antimicrobial drug residues in foods relies greatly on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is a need for a high-throughput screening method with a broad-spectrum detection range. This paper describes the development of a microarray biosensor, based on an imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) platform, for quantitative and simultaneous immunodetection of different antibiotic residues in milk. Model compounds from four major antibiotic families: aminoglycosides (Neomycin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, and Streptomycin), sulfonamides (Sulfamethazine), fenicols (Chloramphenicol), and fluoroquinolones (Enrofloxacin) were detected using a single sensor chip. By multiplexing seven immunoassays in a competitive format, we were able to measure all the target compounds at parts per billion (ppb) levels in buffer and in 10×-diluted milk. The assays for Neomycin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Enrofloxacin, and Sulfamethazine were sensitive enough for milk control at maximum residue levels as established in the European Union. The overall performance of the biosensor was determined to be comparable to that of conventional four-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors, in terms of assay sensitivity and robustness. Combining the advantages of a SPR sensor and a microarray, utilization of the biosensor described here offers a promising alternative to the existing methods and is highly relevant for multianalyte food profiling.
Comparison of three microbial screening methods for antibiotics using routine monitoring samples
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Rapallini, M. ; Oostra, S. ; Elferink, J.W.A. - \ 2009
Analytica Chimica Acta 637 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 298 - 304.
antimicrobial residues - kidney tissue - meat - animals - poultry - muscle - drugs - assay - milk
Monitoring large numbers of slaughter animals for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably carried out using microbiological screening methods, because of their high cost-effectiveness. An evaluation of the Nouws antibiotic test (NAT) was performed on routine monitoring samples and the performance of the method was compared with two other microbial screening methods: Screening test for antibiotic residues (STAR) and Premi®Test. Analysis of 591 samples yielded four MRL violations. Three of them concerned tetracyclines that were only detected with the NAT and the STAR method. The fourth, 172 µg kg-1 Sulfadiazine, was detected by all three methods. Additionally, 156 µg kg-1 Tulathromycin was found in porcine meat, while for this residue no MRL in muscle has been established.
Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry
Huet, A.C. ; Charlier, C. ; Weigel, S. ; Benrejeb Godefroy, S. ; Delahaut, P. - \ 2009
Food Additives and Contaminants 26 (2009)10. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 1341 - 1347.
quinolones - muscle
A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in European Decision 2002/657/EC: detection capability, specificity/selectivity, decision limit, repeatability, ruggedness and stability. The detection capability estimated for norfloxacin, the reference fluoroquinolone, was below 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ng g-1 for poultry meat, egg and fish, respectively. The screening assay proved specific and showed satisfactory sensitivity below the MRL levels even though flumequine and oxolinic acid had lower cross-reactivities. A wide range of non-MRL substances were also detected at concentrations below 10 ng g-1. Repeatability was good with both intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation
Comparison of a fluoroquinolone surface plasmon resonance biosensor screening assay with established methods
Weigel, S. ; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Elferink, J.W.A. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Huet, A.C. ; Delahaut, P. ; Schittko, S. ; Flerus, R. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2009
Food Additives and Contaminants 26 (2009)4. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 441 - 452.
veterinary drug residues - beta-lactam antibiotics - quinolone residues - inhibition tests - poultry meat - muscle - eggs - ciprofloxacin - enrofloxacin - products
The performance of a previously developed immunochemical biosensor screening method for fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in poultry muscle, fish and egg was compared with established methods. Blank sample material of the target matrices was individually spiked with the FQs at half maximum residue levels. Homogeneity of the test materials was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Identical sets of spiked samples as well as incurred samples from a previous feeding experiment were sent to three independent laboratories and analysed by LC-MS/MS, a microbiological assay and the new biosensor assay. The new method correctly identified all contaminated samples and demonstrated advantages in sensitivity and analysis time compared to the microbiological screening assay
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor - Activation Promotes Infiltration of Alternatively Activated Macrophages into Adipose Tissue
Stienstra, R. ; Duval, C.N.C. ; Keshtkar Ghiasabadi, S. ; Laak, J. van der; Kersten, A.H. ; Müller, M.R. - \ 2008
Journal of Biological Chemistry 283 (2008)33. - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 22620 - 22627.
ppar-gamma - insulin-resistance - gene-expression - obesity - polarization - thiazolidinediones - differentiation - inflammation - adipocytes - muscle
Obesity is associated with infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. Adipose macrophages may contribute to an elevated inflammatory status by secreting a variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recent data suggest that during diet-induced obesity the phenotypeofadipose-resident macrophages changes from alternatively activated macrophages toward a more classical and pro-inflammatory phenotype. Here, we explore the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on obesity-induced inflammation in 129SV mice fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. High fat feeding increased bodyweight gain, adipose tissue mass, and liver triglycerides. Rosiglitazone treatment further increased adipose mass, reduced liver triglycerides, and changed adipose tissue morphology toward smaller adipocytes. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone markedly increased the number of macrophages in adipose tissue, as shown by immunohistochemical analysis and quantification of macrophage marker genes CD68 and F4/80 +. In adipose tissue, markers for classically activated macrophages including IL-18 were down-regulated, whereas markers characteristic for alternatively activated macrophages (arginase 1, IL-10) were up-regulated by rosiglitazone. Importantly, conditioned media from rosiglitazone-treated alternatively activated macrophages neutralized the inhibitory effect of macrophages on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that alternatively activated macrophages may be involved in mediating the effects of rosiglitazone on adipose tissue morphology and mass. Our results suggest that short term rosiglitazone treatment increases infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue. The alternatively activated macrophages might play a role in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent expansion and remodeling of adipose tissue.
Characterization, expression profiles, intercellular distribution and association analysis of porcine PNAS-4 gene with production traits
Mo, D.L. ; Zhu, Z.M. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Li, X.Y. ; Yang, S.L. ; Wang, H. ; Wang, H.L. ; Li, K. - \ 2008
BMC Genetics 9 (2008). - ISSN 1471-2156 - 10 p.
negative posttranscriptional regulation - utr sequence motif - cell hybrid panel - high-resolution - pig - muscle - meishan - growth - genome - complementary
Background - In a previous screen to identify differentially expressed genes associated with embryonic development, the porcine PNAS-4 gene had been found. Considering differentially expressed genes in early stages of muscle development are potential candidate genes to improve meat quality and production efficiency, we determined how porcine PNAS-4 gene regulates meat production. Therefore, this gene has been sequenced, expression analyzed and associated with meat production traits. Results - We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine PNAS-4 gene encoding a protein of 194 amino acids which was expressed in the Golgi complex. This gene was mapped to chromosome 10, q11¿16, in a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 1 where the human homologous gene was localized. Real-time PCR revealed that PNAS-4 mRNA was widely expressed with highest expression levels in skeletal muscle followed by lymph, liver and other tissues, and showed a down-regulated expression pattern during prenatal development while a up-regulated expression pattern after weaning. Association analysis revealed that allele C of SNP A1813C was prevalent in Chinese indigenous breeds whereas A was dominant allele in Landrace and Large White, and the pigs with homozygous CC had a higher fat content than those of the pigs with other genotypes (P <0.05). Conclusion - Porcine PNAS-4 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein accumulated in the Golgi complex, and its mRNA showed a widespread expression across many tissues and organs in pigs. It may be an important factor affecting the meat production efficiency, because its down-regulated expression pattern during early embryogenesis suggests involvement in increase of muscle fiber number. In addition, the SNP A1813C associated with fat traits might be a genetic marker for molecular-assisted selection in animal breeding.
Development of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for (fluoro) quinolones in egg, fish, and poultry meat
Huet, A.C. ; Charlier, C. ; Singh, G. ; Benrejeb Godefroy, S. ; Leivo, J. ; Vehniainen, M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. ; Weigel, S. ; Delahaut, P. - \ 2008
Analytica Chimica Acta 623 (2008)2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 195 - 203.
linked-immunosorbent-assay - indirect competitive elisa - quinolone residues - animal products - fluoroquinolones - ciprofloxacin - immunoassay - antibodies - muscle - enrofloxacin
The aim of this study was to develop an optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, for use as a screening test for 13 (fluoro)quinolones, including flumequine, used as veterinary drugs in food-producing animals. For this, we immobilised various quinolone derivatives on the sensor chip and tested binding of a range of different antibodies (polyclonal and one engineered antibody) in the presence and absence of free (fluoro)quinolones. The main challenge was to detect flumequine in an assay giving good results for the other compounds. One antigen¿antibody combination proved satisfactory: polyclonal antibodies raised against a dual immunogen and, on the sensor chip, a fluoroquinolone derivative. It was the first time that this concept of the bi-active antibody was described in the literature. The assay, optimised for detection in three matrices (poultry muscle, fish, and egg), was tested on incurred samples prepared by liquid extraction followed by two washing steps. This rapid, simple method proved adequate for detecting at least 13 (fluoro)quinolones at concentrations below established maximum residue levels (MRLs). The reference molecule norfloxacin could be detected in the range of 0.1¿10 ¿g kg¿1 in extracts of egg and poultry meat and in the range of 0.1¿100 ¿g kg¿1 in extracts of fish. The determined midpoints of these calibration curves were about 1, 1.5 and 3 ¿g kg¿1 in poultry meat, egg and fish, respectively.
Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC-ToF-MS
Stolker, A.A.M. ; Rutgers, P. ; Oosterink, J.E. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Rhijn, J.A. van; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2008
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (2008)6. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 2309 - 2322.
flight mass-spectrometry - growth-promoting agents - residue analysis - strategies - muscle - urine
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC¿ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins, quinolones, sulphonamides, pyrimidines, tetracylines, nitroimidazoles, tranquillizers, ionophores, amphenicols and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). After protein precipitation, centrifugation and solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were analysed by UPLC¿ToF-MS. From the acquired full scan data the drug-specific ions were extracted for construction of the chromatograms and evaluation of the results. The analytical method was validated according to the EU guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. At the concentration level of interest (MRL level) the results for repeatability (%RSD¿
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