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Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ¿-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens
Koppenol, A. ; Delezie, E. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Buyse, J. ; Everaert, N. - \ 2015
The Veterinary Journal 203 (2015)2. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 244 - 249.
n-3 fatty-acids - red-blood-cells - antibody-responses - escherichia-coli - serum - system - immunoglobulin - proliferation - inflammation - performance
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (¿-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n¿=¿120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n¿=¿180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, a1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens.
Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases
Assman, G. ; Buono, P. ; Valle, E. Della; Farinaro, E. ; Ferns, G. ; Krogh, V. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2014
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 24 (2014)12. - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 1272 - 1300.
coronary-heart-disease - n-3 fatty-acids - randomized controlled-trial - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - dietary fiber intake - cardiovascular risk-factors - stanol ester consumption - vitamin-e - plant sterols - fish consumption
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet–health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional diet adopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health.
The role of red processed meat in colorectal cancer development a perspective
Oostindjer, M. ; Alexander, J. ; Amdam, G.V. ; Andersen, G. ; Bryan, N.S. ; Chen, D. ; Corpet, D.E. ; Smet, S. de; Dragsted, L.O. ; Haug, A. ; Karlsson, A.H. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Kok, E.J. ; Kulseng, B. ; Milkowski, A.L. ; Martin, R.J. ; Pajari, A.M. ; Paulsen, J.E. ; Pickova, J. ; Rudi, K. ; Sodring, M. ; Weed, D.L. ; Egelandsdal, B. - \ 2014
Meat Science 97 (2014)4. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 583 - 596.
mucin-depleted foci - aberrant crypt foci - endothelium-dependent vasodilation - familial adenomatous polyposis - colonic epithelial-cells - n-3 fatty-acids - dna-damage - intestinal tumorigenesis - microtubule stability - potential mechanisms
This paper is based on a workshop held in Oslo, Norway in November 2013, in which experts discussed how to reach consensus on the healthiness of red and processed meat. Recent nutritional recommendations include reducing intake of red and processed meat to reduce cancer risk, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological and mechanistic data on associations between red and processed meat intake and CRC are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms are unclear. There is a need for further studies on differences between white and red meat, between processed and whole red meat and between different types of processed meats, as potential health risks may not be the same for all products. Better biomarkers of meat intake and of cancer occurrence and updated food composition databases are required for future studies. Modifying meat composition via animal feeding and breeding, improving meat processing by alternative methods such as adding phytochemicals and improving our diets in general are strategies that need to be followed up.
Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial
Brouwer, I.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Klaasen, V.M. ; Smit, L.A. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Goede, J. de; Heijboer, A.C. ; Kromhout, D. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
n-3 fatty-acids - cancer risk - dietary-fat - metaanalysis - men - disease
Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 262 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration,4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Findings: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 20.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0.12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). Interpretation: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from 20.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.
Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study
Vandevijvere, S. ; Geelen, A. ; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Dallongeville, J. ; Mouratidu, T. ; Dekkers, A. ; Börnhorst, C. ; Breidenassel, C. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 736 - 747.
serum cholesteryl esters - n-3 fatty-acids - dietary-intake - energy-intake - additional measurements - micronutrient intake - biochemical markers - adipose-tissue - vitamin-c - validation
Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, ß-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake
Omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. The final verdict?
Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Lipidology 23 (2012)6. - ISSN 0957-9672 - p. 554 - 559.
n-3 fatty-acids - randomized controlled-trials - postmyocardial infarction patients - fatal myocardial-infarction - fish consumption - cardiovascular-disease - eicosapentaenoic acid - risk - metaanalysis - mortality
Purpose of review: The fish fatty acids eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) may be protective against fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden cardiac death. This review summarizes the recent findings of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Recent findings: A recently published meta-analysis of 17 prospective cohort studies showed that eating fish once a week compared to eating less fish was associated with a 16% lower risk of fatal CHD. Epidemiologic studies with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death as endpoint observed also an inverse relation with fish consumption. In contrast, a recently published meta-analysis of 14 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in cardiovascular patients did not show a protective effect of an additional amount of EPA-DHA on fatal CHD and sudden cardiac death. Subgroup analyses suggested that this could be because of a low absolute risk as a consequence of the state-of-the-art drug treatment. Summary: Eating fatty fish once or lean fish twice a week is recommended for both primary and secondary prevention of CHD. A definite statement cannot be made about the dosage of EPA-DHA required for secondary prevention of CHD
Biomarker-based evaluation of two 24-h recalls for comparing usual fish, fruit and vegetable intakes across European centers in the EFCOVAL Study
Vries, J.H.M. de; Crispim, S.P. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Ruprich, J. ; Dofkova, M. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Keyzer, W. de; Lillegaard, I.T.L. ; Lafay, L. ; Rousseau, A.S. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Slimani, N. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2011
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (2011). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S38 - S47.
serum cholesteryl esters - life-style factors - n-3 fatty-acids - food-consumption - plasma carotenoids - alcohol-consumption - level correlations - adipose-tissue - lipid classes - dietary
Background/Objectives: A standardized methodology is important to enable consistent monitoring of dietary intake across European countries. For this reason, we evaluated the comparability of the assessment of usual food intake collected with two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and a food propensity questionnaire (FPQ) among five European centers. Subjects/Methods: Two 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) were performed to determine fish, fruit and vegetable (FV) consumed by 600 adults in Belgium (BE), the Czech Republic (CZ), France (FR), the Netherlands (NL) and Norway (NO) in a validation study. An FPQ was used to identify non-consumers. Information from the 24-HDRs and FPQ were used to estimate individual usual food intake by the Multiple Source Method (MSM). Blood samples were drawn to determine fatty acids in phospholipids and serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fish, and FV intake, respectively. Results: The pooled correlation between usual fish intake and eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid in phospholipids was 0.19 in men and 0.31 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.50) and center-specific correlations ranged between 0.08 (CZ) and 0.28 (BE and NO) in men, and between 0.19 (BE) and 0.55 (FR) in women. For usual FV intake, the pooled correlation with serum carotenoids was 0.31 in men and 0.40 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.10); the center-specific correlations varied between 0.07 (NO) and 0.52 (FR) in men, and between 0.25 (NL) and 0.45 (NO) in women. Conclusion: Two standardized 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft and an FPQ appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals according to their fish and FV intake in a comparable way among five European centers.
Perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption among Russian consumers
Dijk, H. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Honkanen, P. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2011
Appetite 56 (2011)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 227 - 234.
food-related hazards - n-3 fatty-acids - comparative optimism - information-seeking - european countries - heart-disease - beliefs - involvement - prevention - knowledge
Knowledge about differences in consumer perceptions of health risks and benefits related to fish consumption is important for the development of targeted health interventions associated with dietary choice. The purpose of this study is to identify individual differences in Russian consumers according to their perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption. By application of a cluster analysis on perceptions of personal risks and benefits associated with the consumption of fish, four groups of Russian consumers were classified as: very positive; positive; moderately positive; and ‘high risk–high benefit’ about the healthiness of fish consumption. Differences in perceptions of personal risks and benefits across consumers were related to self-reported fish consumption, optimism about personal risks and benefits, and optimism about personal knowledge about risks and benefits. Implications for the development of targeted health interventions to influence perceptions of risks and benefits associated with fish consumption, and ultimately fish consumption, are discussed. It is concluded that optimism regarding perceptions and knowledge of health risks, and health benefits should be taken into account when developing interventions aimed at consumer health.
Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are converted by 3T3-L1 adipocytes to N-acyl ethanolamines with anti-inflammatory properties
Balvers, M.G.J. ; Verhoeckx, K.C.M. ; Plastina, P. ; Wortelboer, H.M. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2010
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 1801 (2010)10. - ISSN 1388-1981 - p. 1107 - 1114.
n-3 fatty-acids - insulin-resistance - cannabinoid receptor - endocannabinoids - system - cyclooxygenases - inflammation - macrophages - activation - anandamide
n-3 PUFAs have beneficial health effects which are believed to be partly related to their anti-inflammatory properties, however the exact mechanisms behind this are unknown. One possible explanation could be via their conversion to N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), which are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Using fatty acid precursors we showed that 3T3-L1 adipocytes are indeed able to convert docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to their NAE derivatives docosahexaenoyl ethanolamine (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamine (EPEA), respectively. This synthesis took place on top of an apparent background formation of these NAEs in standard culture medium. In addition we were able to demonstrate the presence of DHEA, but not of EPEA, in human plasma. DHEA and EPEA were found to decrease LPS induced adipocyte IL-6 and MCP-1 levels. Results of combined incubations with PPAR-¿ and CB2 antagonists suggest a role of these receptors in mediating the reduction of IL-6 by DHEA. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that in addition to other pathways, formation of N-acyl ethanolamines may contribute to the biological activity of n-3 PUFAs. Different targets, including the endocannabinoid system, may be involved in the immune-modulating activity of these “fish-oil-derived NAEs.”
Fish consumption and markers of colorectal cancer risk: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Pot, G.K. ; Majsak-Newman, G. ; Geelen, A. ; Harvey, L. ; Nagengast, F.M. ; Witteman, B.J.M. ; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Timmer, R. ; Tan, A. ; Wahab, P.J. ; Hart, A.R. ; Williams, M.P. ; Przybylska-Philips, K. ; Dainty, J.R. ; Schaafsma, G. ; Kampman, E. ; Lund, E.K. - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 354 - 361.
inflammatory-bowel-disease - rectal cell-proliferation - whole crypt mounts - n-3 fatty-acids - eicosapentaenoic acid - healthy-subjects - colonic-mucosa - rat colon - apoptosis - oil
Background: Diet is a major factor in the etiology of colorectal cancer, with high fish consumption possibly decreasing colorectal cancer risk, as was shown in several observational studies. To date, no intervention trials have examined the possible beneficial effects of fish intake on colorectal cancer risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effects of a 6-mo intervention with oil-rich or lean fish on apoptosis and mitosis within the colonic crypt. Design: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled intervention trial, patients with colorectal polyps, inactive ulcerative colitis, or no macroscopic signs of disease were recruited (n = 242) and randomly allocated to receive dietary advice plus either 300 g oil-rich fish (salmon) per week (n = 82), 300 g lean fish (cod) per week (n = 78), or only dietary advice (DA) (n = 82). Apoptosis and mitosis were measured in colonic biopsy samples collected before and after intervention (n = 213). Results: The total number of apoptotic cells per crypt did not increase in the salmon or cod group: –0.10 (95% CI: –0.36, 0.16) and –0.06 (95% CI: –0.32, 0.20), respectively, compared with the DA group. The total number of mitotic cells per crypt decreased nonsignificantly in the salmon group (–0.87; 95% CI: –2.41, 0.68) and in the cod group (–1.04; 95% CI: –2.62, 0.53) compared with the DA group. Furthermore, the distribution of mitosis within the crypt did not significantly change in either group. Conclusion: An increase in the consumption of either oil-rich or lean fish to 2 portions weekly over 6 mo does not markedly change apoptotic and mitotic rates in the colonic mucosa. This trial was registered at as NCT00145015
Which are the greatest recent discoveries and the greatest future challenges in nutrition?
Katan, M.B. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Connor, W.E. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Seidell, J. ; Vessby, B. ; Willett, W. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 2 - 10.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - coronary-heart-disease - neural-tube defects - n-3 fatty-acids - dependent diabetes-mellitus - impaired glucose-tolerance - fetal origins hypothesis - serum-cholesterol - blood-pressure - beta-carotene
Background: Nutrition science aims to create new knowledge, but scientists rarely sit back to reflect on what nutrition research has achieved in recent decades. Methods: We report the outcome of a 1-day symposium at which the audience was asked to vote on the greatest discoveries in nutrition since 1976 and on the greatest challenges for the coming 30 years. Most of the 128 participants were Dutch scientists working in nutrition or related biomedical and public health fields. Candidate discoveries and challenges were nominated by five invited speakers and by members of the audience. Ballot forms were then prepared on which participants selected one discovery and one challenge. Results: A total of 15 discoveries and 14 challenges were nominated. The audience elected Folic acid prevents birth defects as the greatest discovery in nutrition science since 1976. Controlling obesity and insulin resistance through activity and diet was elected as the greatest challenge for the coming 30 years. This selection was probably biased by the interests and knowledge of the speakers and the audience. For the present review, we therefore added 12 discoveries from the period 1976 to 2006 that we judged worthy of consideration, but that had not been nominated at the meeting. Conclusions: The meeting did not represent an objective selection process, but it did demonstrate that the past 30 years have yielded major new discoveries in nutrition and health.
Identification of potential serum biomarkers of inflammation and lipid modulation that are altered by fish oil supplementation in healthy volunteers
Roos, B. de; Geelen, A. ; Ross, K. ; Rucklidge, G. ; Reid, M. ; Duncan, G. ; Caslake, M.J. ; Horgan, G. ; Brouwer, I.A. - \ 2008
Proteomics 8 (2008)10. - ISSN 1615-9853 - p. 1965 - 1974.
tumor-necrosis-factor - n-3 fatty-acids - high-density-lipoprotein - human endothelial-cells - acute-phase response - eicosapentaenoic acid - dietary supplementation - plasma triglycerides - mobilizing factor - factor-alpha
Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but mechanisms are not well understood. We used proteomics to identify human serum proteins that are altered by n-3 LCPUFA. Such proteins could identify pathways whereby they affect CHD. Eighty-one healthy volunteers entered a double blind randomised trial to receive 3.5 g of fish oil or 3.5 g of high oleic sunflower oil daily. Serum was collected before and after 6 wk of intervention. Serum was analysed by proteomics using 2-DE. Proteins that were differentially regulated were identified by MS. We also analysed serum apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and haptoglobin. Serum levels of apo A1, apo L1, zinc--2-glycoprotein, haptoglobin precursor, -1-antitrypsin precursor, antithrombin III-like protein, serum amyloid P component and haemopexin were significantly downregulated (all p
Analysis of docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in Crypthecodinium cohnii by 13C labelling and desaturase inhibitor experiments
Swaaf, M.E. de; Rijk, T.C. de; Meer, P. van der; Eggink, G. ; Sijtsma, L. - \ 2003
Journal of Biotechnology 103 (2003)1. - ISSN 0168-1656 - p. 21 - 29.
n-3 fatty-acids - marine microalgae - omega-3-fatty-acids - triacylglycerols
The lipids of the heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii contain the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) to a level of over 30&Eth;The pathway of 22:6 synthesis in C. cohnii is unknown. The ability of C. cohnii to use 13C-labelled externally supplied precursor molecules for 22:6 biosynthesis was tested by 13C NMR analysis. Furthermore, the presence of desaturases (typical for aerobic PUFA synthesis) was studied by the addition of specific desaturase inhibitors in the growth medium. The addition of 1-13C acetate or 1-13C butyrate in the growth medium resulted in 22:6 with only the odd carbon atoms enriched. Apparently, two-carbon units were used as building blocks for 22:6 synthesis and butyrate was first split into two-carbon units prior to incorporation in 22:6. When 1-13C oleic acid was added to the growth medium, 1-13C oleic acid was incorporated into the lipids of C. cohnii but was not used as a precursor for the synthesis of 22:6. Specific desaturase inhibitors (norflurazon and propyl gallate) inhibited lipid accumulation in C. cohnii. The fatty acid profile, however, was not altered. In contrast, in the arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina, these inhibitors not only decreased the lipid content but also altered the fatty acid profile. Our results can be explained by the presence of three tightly regulated separate systems for the fatty acid production by C. cohnii, namely for (1) the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids, (2) the conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids and (3) the de novo synthesis of 22:6 with desaturases involved.
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