Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Economische prikkels voor vergroening in de landbouw
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smit, A.B. ; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 37) - 92 p.
stimulansen - economie - melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbehoud - agrarische economie - groene hart - flevoland - nederland - incentives - economics - dairy farming - arable farming - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource conservation - agricultural economics - netherlands
In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden verkend om een duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen door economische prikkels te stimuleren. Het onderzoek betreft de economische prikkels en externe effecten in de melkveehouderij in het Groene Hart en de akkerbouw in Flevoland. Over het algemeen zal een lastenverzwaring in het gebruik van bijvoorbeeld kunstmest en gewasbeschermings-middelen relatief weinig effect hebben. Daarentegen zal het belasten van hoge emissies en het belonen van lage emissies naar verwachting meer stimuleren om negatieve externe effecten te verminderen.
Ecosystemen opnemen in de boekhouding
Hein, L.G. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - ecosystemen - duurzame ontwikkeling - effecten - economische aspecten - economische modellen - natural resource economics - ecosystems - sustainable development - effects - economic aspects - economic models
Lars Hein, hoogleraar ecosystem services and environmental change, werkt aan systemen om de waarde van ecosysteemdiensten uit te drukken in geld. Als overheden de waarde van natuurlijke hulpbronnen op hun balansen hebben staan, dan kunnen ze onderbouwde besluiten nemen over het beheer van ecosystemen.
'Overstap naar bio gaat te traag' : Johan Sanders, hoogleraar valorisatie plantaardige productieketens, is bezorgd
Gruiter, J. de; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
Chemie Magazine 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 20 - 23.
chemische industrie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - verandering - economische ontwikkeling - hoogleraren - interviews - chemical industry - biobased chemistry - natural resource economics - change - economic development - professors
De chemische industrie in Nederland heeft een uitstekende uitgangspositie om haar fossiele grondstoffen voor een substantieel deel in te ruilen voor biomassa. Het zou goed zijn voor de chemie, voor de landbouwsector en voor de werkgelegenheid. “Maar het gaat te traag”, vindt hoogleraar valorisatie van plantaardige productieketens Johan Sanders van Wageningen UR. “We hebben nu nog de kans om aan te haken. Over tien jaar niet meer”, waarschuwt hij.
Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services
Silvis, H.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu, Wageningen UR (WOt-rapport 123) - 68
ecosysteemdiensten - economische theorie - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieueconomie - ecologie - welvaartseconomie - kosten-batenanalyse - ecosystem services - economic theory - natural resource economics - environmental economics - ecology - welfare economics - cost benefit analysis
to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about ecosystem services, distinguishing between pre-classical economics, classical economics, neoclassical economics and modern economics. In addition, specific attention is given to two special branches of economics: (i) natural resource and environmental economics and (ii) ecological economics. Natural resource and environmental economics basically deals with a welfare economics analysis of natural resource and environmental issues, such as pollution control, natural (i.e. renewable and non-renewable) resource exploitation, and global environmental problems such as climate change. The more recent discipline of ecological economics was launched as a new paradigm with closer ties to the natural sciences. Whereas environmental economics focuses on value dimensions (i.e., utility and welfare in theory, and costs and benefits in practice), ecological economics – as a heterodox, non-coherent school of economics – is inclined to add ecological criteria to these dimensions, to cover aspects such as productivity, stability and resilience of ecosystems. Since a proper pricing system for many ecosystem services simply does not exist, various non-market valuation techniques have been developed to elicit the value of these services. Monetary valuation of ecosystem services remains problematic however, for one thing because of the hidden value of the ecosystem structure that supports the different ecosystem services (the ‘glue value’). Finally, the issue of policy analysis and design is addressed. The rationale for regulation with regard to nature and ecosystem services is that adverse risks, such as overexploitation, are not adequately priced in markets. Welfare economics tools for evaluating policies and projects include cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. From an ecological economics standpoint, multicriteria analysis, the precautionary principle and the method of safe minimum standards are topical issues. The latter two policy tools suggest that we should err on the side of caution in the face of ecological uncertainty. The advancement of knowledge in this field requires further interdisciplinary cooperation between the natural and social sciences. Key words: ecosystem services, history of economic thought, welfare theory, market failures, policy failures, economic valuation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, multicriteria analysis, precautionary principle, safe minimum standards
Groene groei en natuurlijk kapitaal in de Nederlandse economie; Een uitwerking naar de agrifood- en recreatiesector
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smits, M.J.W. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - 38
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economische ontwikkeling - ecosysteemdiensten - hulpbronnengebruik - biobased economy - voedselproductie - consumentengedrag - energiegebruik - watergebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natural resource economics - economic development - ecosystem services - resource utilization - food production - consumer behaviour - energy consumption - water use - sustainability
Dit rapport gaat voor enkele sectoren in de Nederlandse economie na hoe de relaties met natuurlijk kapitaal verlopen en of de beschikbaarheid van natuurlijk kapitaal voor deze sectoren op termijn een beperkende factor kan worden.
Understanding learning in natural resource management : experiences with a contextualised responsive evaluation approach
Kouévi, T.A. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Barbara van Mierlo; S.D. Vodouhê. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735164 - 209
evaluatie - methodologie - reacties - sociaal onderzoek - leerervaringen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontwikkelingseconomie - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - evaluation - methodology - responses - social research - learning experiences - natural resources - resource management - development economics - natural resource economics

This dissertation may be located in the wide debate on the effectiveness of policy interventions in developing countries, in the field of natural resource management (NRM). It is especially concerned with contributing to the understanding of the limited effectiveness of fishery management interventions in the municipality of Grand-Popo in Benin, where fishing people face fishery resource depletion and livelihood degradation. It looks at this topic from a learning perspective, and explores a way of stimulating learning and effectiveness with an action research approach. Building on Argyris and Schön (1976), the study contributes to discussions on learning in NRM by regarding learning as changes in action theories operationalized as the integration of specific micro-theories or micro-assumptions underlying stakeholders’ actions. Also novel is the experimentation with and evaluation of a responsive evaluation (RE) as an action research approach in the fishery context of Grand-Popo.
To account for the research process and findings, this dissertation is structured around six chapters. Chapter 1 is the general introduction which discusses the background information justifying the research choices, the research objectives and questions, and the methodology that was used to answer the research questions. It explores possible reasons for the limited effectiveness of interventions in natural resource management (NRM). The conclusion is that NRM interventions are affected negatively by various limitations in the sphere of perspectives and understanding. Limited understandings of NRM complexity, limitations in interactions for exchange among stakeholders, differences in management action theories and practices, multiplicity and lack of coordination of interventions explain among others the ineffectiveness of NRM interventions. Therefore the study proposed to explore whether the limited effectiveness of generations of interventions in Grand-Popo is indeed related to limited learning. As there appeared to be scope to enhance learning, the study continued with the design, experimentation with and evaluation of a RE process.
To deepen the understanding of the learning related to the problems faced by the fishing people and interventionists in the case study, the process of learning in generations of interventions was investigated and discussed in chapter 2. To redress fishery resources’ depletion and improve the fragile livelihoods of fishing people, successive interventions since the 1950s continued to propose solutions such as income generating activities’ diversification and the establishment of fishing rules. This chapter reveals that fishery interventions were repeatedly ineffective, because of limited learning which was interpreted as repetitive discrepancy between espoused and in-use action theories of the interventionists. Therefore, we suggested to facilitate learning interaction among the stakeholders towards more effectiveness of the fishery management interventions.
To develop a good action research approach to stimulate learning, in chapter 3, the study was extended to the unfolding of the action theories of the interventions’ beneficiaries, for the sake of comparing them with those of the interventionists. It shows ambiguity in the fishery problems solving action theories of the interventionists and the fishing people; power differences among the stakeholders; and, the absence of learning interactions among the stakeholders. RE was chosen, since this is an evaluation approach that addresses such conditions. However, this approach needed to be adapted to the study context. The main adaptations compared to ‘regular’ RE related to the operationalization of learning in terms of changes in action theories, the investigation of action theories in-use in addition to those espoused, and the inclusion of an analysis of the history and the intervention system to deal with routine and complexity of NRM, and to stimulate high level learning. These adaptations led to what is called the contextualised RE approach in this chapter.
In order to assess the relevance and performance of the proposed RE approach, we experimented with it in the fishery case study of Grand-Popo. Chapter 4 reports on how and the extent to which it contributed to learning by and among the interventionists and fishing people involved. This chapter reveals the occurrence of single-loop, double-loop, and social learning, but also a remaining gap between changes in espoused theories and theories in use. The single-loop learning concerned changes in action strategies like the extent of the fishing people’s demands, and the intervention resource raising strategy of the interventionists. The double-loop learning addressed the underlying reasons for action such as the redefinition of the roles played in intervention processes. The fishing people redefined their own roles as more active to show concern for solving their problems, to diversify their intervention partners, and to lobby for solutions. The interventionists suggested that they needed to empower the fishing people to lobby with politicians and financial partners in collaboration with interventionists about their problems. The social learning concerned emergent congruence in the action theories of the two stakeholder categories with regard to the need for mutual commitment to the effective solving of the fishery problems. The gaps between espoused and in-use action theories related to the complexity of NRM in this case and survival threats. We concluded that it may be difficult for RE to stimulate learning in NRM and provided some suggestions to improve its use.
Chapter 5 goes into depth about exploring the reasons for the limitations in the learning notwithstanding the RE process. It discusses which issues were sensitive for the interventionists and the fishing people, and how they presented them in different interaction settings of the adapted RE approach (interviews, meetings). It discusses which discursive strategies the stakeholders employed to put their issues on the agenda in the meetings with the other stakeholder groups. It shows that some sensitive issues that were mentioned during the interviews, were not discussed at all, while others were discussed with indirect discursive strategies. The sensitive issues were: expectations of the fishing people unfulfilled by the interventionists; prevalence of material interests of the interventionists and the fishing people over concerns of effective interventions; compliance of the interventionists with the electoral concerns of politicians; corruption practices of the interventionists; and physical and occult aggressiveness of the fishing people. The discursive strategies used by the interventionists and the fishing people were silence and indirect discursive strategies. This chapter suggests the necessity of paying attention to discursive strategies and sensitive issues that may hinder learning in natural resource management (NRM) facilitation settings.
Chapter 6 recalls the research questions, summarizes and discusses the major findings, and concludes the dissertation with lessons and implications for policy and practice in NRM and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people were explored on the basis of relevant literature. They related to the opportunities to learn offered by the environment, the motivation and the capacity to learn of the interventionists and the fishing people, and to the level of complexity of the NRM context. Based on the analyses of the reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people, this chapter suggests a two track approach. The first track relates to working towards a more conducive learning environment, and the second to further improving the design of RE. It suggests to create and institutionalize incentives and mechanisms to train and raise awareness about the importance of, and to support feedback generating, exchanging, capturing and learning by stakeholders. This chapter suggests also to create incentive structure for implementers of policies and projects that rewards effectiveness and sanctions a lack of performance. In the second track, flexible learning strategies are seen to help improving the performance of the design of further RE in NRM context. To these ends, inclusive monitoring and evaluation, audio-visual learning stimulation strategies, action oriented learning strategy, and the training of evaluators on strategies to get sensitive issues on discussion and learning agendas are suggested.
In all, the thesis demonstrates that limitations in learning are prevalent in Grand-Popo, and likely undermine the effectiveness of (series of) NRM interventions. It makes clear that we should not have naïve expectations about the potential of systematic approaches and methodologies to foster learning, and that creating more conducive conditions for learning should be a first priority.

Biobased economy: de potentie van eiwitten voor technische toepassingen
Mulder, W.J. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Bruins, M.E. ; Scott, E.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1311) - 52
eiwitten - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - eiwitbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - plantaardig eiwit - sojaeiwit - melkeiwit - proteins - biobased chemistry - protein sources - resource utilization - natural resource economics - natural resources - plant protein - soya protein - milk protein
Eiwitten zijn, behalve essentiële bouwstoffen voor mens en dier, tevens bruikbaar voor toepassingen in bijvoorbeeld shampoos, bioplastics, coatings of lijmen. In deze studie is een inventarisatie gemaakt van zowel de huidige beschikbare eiwitbronnen als de bronnen waar in de toekomst veel van verwacht wordt. Mits er voldoende efficiënt met grondstoffen wordt omgesprongen, kunnen voor zowel food als non-food toepassingen wereldwijd voldoende eiwitten worden geproduceerd. Het is wel belangrijk dat de eiwitten die door bioraffinage uit grondstoffen worden gehaald, hun unieke eigenschappen behouden.
Terugwinnen en hergebruik van grondstoffen in de biobased economy (bbe): water, mineralen, koolstof
Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2012
S.n. - 7
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - kringlopen - reststromen - biomassa - biomassa cascadering - terugwinning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waterbeschikbaarheid - biobased economy - natural resource economics - cycling - residual streams - biomass - biomass cascading - recovery - sustainability - water availability
Dit werkpakket gaat over terugwinnen van grondstoffen uit zij- en eindstromen van de Biobased Economy en het veilig en duurzaam hergebruik daarvan bij de productie of verwerking van biomassa, of bij herstellen van de natuurlijke balans van bodem- en watersystemen. De focus van dit werkpakket ligt op water, mineralen en koolstof, en de effecten op biodiversiteit.
Instruments for competing claims on natural resources : preliminary assessment of KB 2011 projects
Silvis, H.J. ; Bodegom, A.J. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 44
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hulpbronnengebruik - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - analytische methoden - biobased economy - natural resources - resource management - resource utilization - natural resource economics - sustainability - sustainable development - analytical methods
This report results from the project ‘Competing Claims on Natural Resources (overkoepelend instrumentarium)’ in the KB programme of 2011. In short the terms of reference of this report are as follows: Give an overview of instruments developed in other KB projects relevant for the analysis of Competing Claims on Natural Resources. Questions include: What are feasible instruments? What are their advantages and disadvantages? What can or should be applied in specific cases? Is there a need to validate instruments and how? Can the instruments help to make trade-offs clearer on a global, national and local level? What are the white areas (not covered)? What should be developed?
Wat is de rationale voor Regionale Biomassaketens?
Elbersen, Wolter - \ 2011
biomass - renewable resources - natural resource economics - bioenergy - netherlands
Groene groei: Investeren in biodiversiteit en natuurlijke hulpbronnen
Alders, J.G.M. ; Boxtel, R.H.J.M. van; Dekker, W. ; Groot, J.E.C. de; Hirsch, D.H. ; Hoes, O. ; Leemans, R. ; Maat, A.J. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Roozen, N. ; Vos, M.B. ; Wams, T.J. ; Zuidam, J. ; Hermans, L.M.L.H.A. ; Karimi, F. ; Monteiro, M.M. ; Eijs, A.W.M. ; Zadelhoff, F.J. van - \ 2011
Den Haag : Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen - 49
economische ontwikkeling - biobased economy - ecologie - landgebruik - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economic development - ecology - land use - natural resources - natural resource economics - resource utilization - sustainability
Dit is het eindrapport van de Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen. Onder de titel Groene Groei, investeren in biodiversiteit en natuurlijke hulpbronnen pleit de Taskforce voor een omslag naar een economie die gebaseerd is op de draagkracht van de aarde. Daarvoor moet in 2020 biodiversiteitverlies tot staan gebracht zijn en in 2030 onze ecologische voetafdruk zijn gehalveerd. Uiteindelijk doel voor de Taskforce Biodiversiteit en Natuurlijke hulpbronnen is een wereld met veerkrachtige ecosystemen waarin voldoende voedsel, water, energie en bescherming is voor iedereen.
Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors
Punt, M.J. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; J.H. Stel, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730268 - 168
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - oceanen - marien milieu - ruimtelijke ordening - zeereservaten - windmolens - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource management - oceans - marine environment - physical planning - marine protected areas - windmills

Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

Three essential elements characterize the management of marine resources. First we are dealing with multiple uses. These uses can be conflicting, neutral or complimentary and therefore when we manage one use we should also address the effects on other uses. Second these uses are inherently spatial. Conflicts can at least partly be avoided and complementarities can be improved with careful spatial planning. Therefore we should address the spatial effects of the multiple uses when managing these activities. Third we are dealing with multiple actors. Depending on the spatial scale we look at these actors can be representatives of the several user groups that have conflicting interests, or they can be countries trying to reach agreements over the use of shared resources.

In this thesis I investigate how Marine Spatial Planning and one of its tools, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), can assist us with the management of ocean space. These instruments and their associated incentives are highly influenced by the regulatory framework, and this framework in turn depends on the spatial scale. I investigate three scale levels: the local level, defined as the Exclusive Economic Zone of a single country, the regional level, defined as a regional sea that is fully claimed by a number of countries, and the global level defined as the High Seas where all countries have access within the limits of the UN Law of the Sea.

On the local level I investigate the spatial planning of offshore wind farms with an optimization model that allocates offshore wind farms under ecological constraints. The model results show that space is an essential element to derive an optimal management plan of the EEZ, because the allocation of offshore wind farms is highly dependent on both spatial economic factors such as location costs and ecological restrictions. The results show that Marine Spatial Planning is necessary, because only in this way can possible synergies between e.g. offshore wind farms and environmental protection be identified and eventually realized. The model can assist with the first steps in Marine Spatial Planning of offshore wind farms; its results can be used as a basis for conversation and consultation with stakeholders.

On the regional scale I investigate how the multiple use nature of MPAs affects the incentives of countries to assign these MPAs. To this end, I develop a game theoretic model in which two specific uses, fisheries and nature conservation, by multiple countries are considered in a strategic framework. The results of the paper suggest that EU marine policy may help to secure the highest possible benefits from these MPAs, but only if policies force countries to cooperate and consider all possible benefits of MPAs. In fact cooperation on a single issue may give a worse outcome than the non-cooperative equilibrium. The results also indicate that cooperation may be hard to achieve because of defector incentives, and therefore policy measures should be strict in enforcing cooperation on all possible uses of MPAs.

At the same scale level I study how species distributions and different ways of accounting for the contributions of others affects MPA assignment as a tool for biodiversity conservation. With a spatial game theoretic model I investigate three different conservation regimes: full cooperation, strategic non-cooperation, and conservation autarky. Under strategic non-cooperation countries anticipate protection by the other, under conservation autarky they ignore these contributions. The main results show that unique species occurring in a single ecosystem are relatively well protected, even when countries are free-riding. Species that occur in multiple ecosystems on both sides of the border in contrast are under non-cooperation under-protected, compared to full cooperation. This is in part caused by location leakage, i.e. protecting a number of species less because they are protected by others. On the one hand conservation autarky eliminates location leakage and generates larger MPAs at the border. On the other hand these MPA sizes are often too high from a global perspective. From this we can conclude that international conservation efforts should mainly focus on transboundary occurring species. Also, although conservation autarky is not a first-best solution, if it occurs, e.g. through social norms, it is certainly better than strategic non-cooperation.

At the third level I study the effect of the assignment of internationally recognized MPAs in the High Seas on the formation of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO) with a game theoretic model. MPAs are assigned through a weakest-link game: because everyone has to agree on an MPA before it actually can be protected, it can only be as large as the strongest opposing player wants it to be. I find that if countries have equal costs and benefits MPAs of optimal size are implemented but these have no effect on stability of RFMOs; the only stable coalition is the coalition where everyone acts alone. In the case where countries face different fishing costs, MPAs stabilize a number of extra coalitions such that more and larger coalitions are stable when an MPA is present compared to the no MPA case. Full cooperation, however, is not necessarily reached. A general conclusion is therefore that the assignment of MPAs in the High Seas can not only improve the fisheries through direct effects such as insurance and possible increases in catches, but also indirect by contributing in a positive way to the formation of RFMOs.

Three important conclusions can be drawn from this thesis as a whole. First Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Areas can contribute in a positive way to the management of human activities in ocean space. Second, neither of them is a silver bullet. Both need careful implementation, where all uses are accounted for, and especially the public good aspects of MPAs needs to be addressed. Third the success of MPAs (and as such of Marine Spatial Planning) is not only highly dependent on the incentives and social norms but also on the implementation scale.

Management plan for the natural resources of the EEZ of the Dutch Caribbean
Meesters, H.W.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Graaf, M. de; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2010
Texel : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR nr. C100/10) - 79
natuurbescherming - biodiversiteit - nederlandse antillen - mariene gebieden - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - natuurbeleid - nature conservation - biodiversity - netherlands antilles - marine areas - natural resource economics - renewable resources - nature conservation policy
On the 10th of October 2010 the governmental entity known as the Netherlands Antilles is scheduled to cease to exist. Each island will aquire a new status within the kingdom. Following the declaration of an Exclusive Fishery Zone (EFZ) in 1993, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) has been declared in the Dutch Caribbean on the tenth of June 2010. The EEZ area concerned, is a large expanse of sea which harbours exceptional biodiversity, and represents an important natural renewable resource potential. The Netherlands Antilles, Aruba and The Netherlands have, therefore, opted to draft a management plan for the EEZ. This initiative began in the year 2005 when the first conference regarding the management of the biodiversity in the EEZ was held. The consensus was that despite a fragmented Dutch Caribbean, the EEZ should always be integrally managed. In 2009 the participants of the second conference confirmed the need for common management and developed common goals, principles and a framework for the management of the Dutch Caribbean waters. Resulting from this conference a management plan was drafted, circulated to all stakeholders and discussed on the 1st of June 2010. Based on the input and feedback received, as well as subsequent correspondence, this final management plan was jointly developed.
The impact of a potential sales ban for eel on stock and sector
Smit, J. ; Dekker, W. ; Oostenbrugge, H. van - \ 2010
The Hague : LEI (Report / LEI : Research area Natural resources ) - 65
palingen - herstel - visserij - visserijbeleid - visserijbeheer - visbestand - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - ecologisch herstel - herstelbeheer - visserij-ecologie - eels - rehabilitation - fisheries - fishery policy - fishery management - fishery resources - natural resource economics - ecological restoration - restoration management - fisheries ecology
Er zijn momenteel een aantal initiatieven om het herstel van de aalstand te bevorderen. In dit rapport is een analyse gedaan in welke mate een verkoopstop voor aal in Nederland zou kunnen bijdragen aan het herstel van het Europese bestand. Vier scenario's zijn geanalyseerd waarin onderscheid is gemaakt tussen gedeeltelijke of volledige sluiting van visserij en acquacultuur. Zowel de economische consequenties voor de sector als de visserijdruk op het bestand is in kaart gebracht.
A framework for the economic valuation of land use change
Hein, L.G. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2007
In: Ecological Economics Research Trends / Pertsova,, C.C., New York : Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781600219412 - p. 25 - 37.
landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - land use - sustainability - natural resource economics
There is a broad recognition that sustainable land management (SLM) is crucial for ensuring an adequate, long-term supply of food, raw materials and other services provided by the natural environment to the human society. This paper presents a methodological framework for analyzing the benefits of sustainable land management
Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China
Sun, Qiu - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins; N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048336 - 263
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hulpbronnengebruik - overheidseigendom - plattelandsontwikkeling - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - china - guizhou - nationaal vermogen - bewonersparticipatie - natural resources - natural resource economics - resource management - resource utilization - public ownership - rural development - community development - community involvement - national wealth - community participation
Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty are often addressed separately or in terms of a zero sum equation: either the choice is protecting the environment through limiting access of rural people to the natural resources, or improving people’s livelihood and promoting economic growth by over exploitation of natural resources. It seems an unresolvable dilemma in developing countries. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform, transforming a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one. As a result, the so-called Household Contract Responsibility System (HCRS) replaced the commune system in rural China. The rationale behind the HCRS is to promote farmers’ incentives in agricultural production through privatising the use right of the collectively owned lands to individual farm households. Empirical evidence shows that, since the introduction of this new system, the rural economy in general has improved in many places, but forests, grasslands and water resources have rapidly been degraded. The underlying cause of this has been the shift to open resource access. A contemporary debate rooted in the new institutional thinking argues that neither state control nor market instruments are able to solely solve environmental problems. In order to achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to look for alternative approaches or “the third way.” The new institutional scholars assume that common property regimes could be a solution, with a set of carefully designed institutions that can control people’s self-interest and encourage group interests in natural resource use and management for pursuing their livelihoods. Other theoretical perspectives, with a focus on participatory development and social learning share a common interest in collective action. Communication, trust, the anticipation of future interactions, and ability to make binding agreements among group resource users can promote collective action in natural resource management for sustainable livelihood. These theoretical bodies have led to the emergence of an approach known as Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). CBNRM integrates concerns of sustainable resource management and people’s livelihood improvement, advocates (the revival of) common property regimes, emphasizes community-based institutions for collective actions, promotes participation of local resource users in decision-making, and enhances people’s capacities. Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was introduced in China by international donors in the 1990s as a promising solution to addressing natural resource degradation and livelihood improvement of rural people. With support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, a research team from the Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS) has carried out CBNRM action research in rural Guizhou, a poor province in South-western China, since 1995. This PhD study takes the GAAS-led CBNRM initiative in Kaizuo township, Changhsun county as its research “object” to analyse whether and how a CBNRM approach contributes to sustainable natural resource management and livelihood improvement of the rural poor. The issues pursued in this thesis are: How does CBNRM work and why? What are the outcomes and why? What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of CBNRM in a country such as China with its rapid economic development and socio-political transformation? What are the policy implications in relation to China’s increasing resource degradation and environmental management problems? Chapter 1 introduces the context of problems related to natural resource management in China and the Chinese government’s efforts to address these problems. The rapid economic transformation and new resource property regime clearly have an impact on sustainable natural resource management. The impact brought about an attempt of rebuilding common property management to address environmental issues. Chapter 2 offers a historic review of China’s land reform over the last 50 years, and reveals how the shifts in resource property regime affect the way local people manage natural resources. It argues that property right arrangements determine people’s behaviour and practice in natural resource use and management. It concludes that the HCRS fails to promote sustainable management of forest, grassland and water resources. Chapter 3 outlines the analytical framework based on the theoretical debates. The analytical framework discusses how community-based institution can contribute to sustainable, equitable and effective management of common-pool resources and livelihood improvement of rural poor people. It then further discusses how the effects of the community-based institutions can be affected by both internal and external factors. This chapter also argues the roles and value of a change agency in facilitation for collective action in natural resource management. Chapter 4 presents the methodology used in this research, including research strategies and the methods used for data generation and analysis. This study applied a methodology made up of a combination of anthropological and sociological methods, and some tools from ecology, applying a long-term perspective, and relying on a long-term, direct and personal involvement. Chapter 5 uses a stakeholder analysis approach to explore the interests of the different stakeholders and analyses the dynamic of their relationships as they pursue their stake-holding in natural resources. It demonstrates that the process of economic transformation and development has increased the severity of struggles for access to and control over natural resources. It argues that uncontrolled competing claims by different stakeholders with diverse interests cause social conflicts and damages to the natural resources, and suggests that concerted actions among stakeholders are needed to address the resource dilemma. Chapter 6 presents an in-depth case study in one village called Dabuyang. The case study explores how CBNRM was understood and practised in a rural community of China, with the focus on the process and outcomes of the GAAS team facilitation efforts in farmer organization, village-based institution development, and capacity building as means to promote collective action in natural resource management. The case study reveals that village-based institutions have played a central role in achieving sustainable, equitable and effective natural resource management. However, the Dabuyang case also shows that the performance of these local institutions is affected by internal factors, such as village leadership and farmers’ capacity to cope with changes, and challenged by external factors, such as market forces and some development initiatives. Chapter 7 examines the impacts of the GAAS team-led CBNRM action research on natural resource management and livelihood improvement of farmers through a set of comparative studies and an ecological survey. This study compares between: (1) villages with successful and less successful CBNRM intervention in Kaizuo township regarding changes in the five capital assets (natural, social, human, financial and physical) from 1995 to 2006; (2) between villages in Kaizuo township and another township called Malu regarding resource management institutions for forest, water systems, and grassland; (3) the year of 1995 and 2006 regarding changes in vegetation status two villages Dabuyang and Xiaozhai, which have been involved in CBNRM research since 1995. The comparative studies made plausible that CBNRM action research has positive impact on livelihood improvement of the rural farmers, development of local resource management institutions and improvement of forests and grasslands. Chapter 8 explores the GAAS team’s horizontal and vertical scaling-up strategies and processes to expand the impact of the CBNRM action research by working with the Kaizuo township government and four line ministries of Changshun county. The case of cooperation with the Forestry Bureau shows that integrating CBNRM principles into government programmes is possible, as long as there is a need or desire to work with farmers. The case of the Animal Bank argues that CBNRM innovation can not be replicated or transplanted in a different local context without adaptation. Local leadership, village politics and the social structure and culture of community all shape CBNRM outcomes. This case also reveals that the township government plays a crucial role in CBNRM scaling up. However, this role is strongly influenced by financial pressure (generating income) and by criteria of government performance evaluation (which stress upward accountability). The examples of cooperation with the Agricultural Office, Bureau of Water Resource Management and Bureau of Animal Husbandry illustrate the difficulties that GAAS team faced in terms of decision-making processes, current bureaucratic and administrative structures, and the lack of downward accountability mechanisms. Chapter 9 presents the major findings and conclusions of the study. Evidence examined in this thesis has shown that the CBNRM approach has effectively contributed to sustainable management of natural resources and livelihood improvement of the rural people in Guizhou. The strengthened or newly developed community institutions play a crucial role in effective and equable management of collectively owned forests, grasslands and water resources. However, the performance of these community institutions is affected by both internal and external factors. Although the design principles developed by New Institution scholars are valuable, they have proven to be too simplistic to apply wholeheartedly in different contexts, due to a narrow focus on the internal factors and ignorance of the external forces. Ignorance of the external factors and the local social-cultural settings and macro institutional, economic and political context in which they are embedded, leads to failure in community institutional development. CBNRM is not a panacea to deal with all environmental issues. The complexity and uncertainty of natural resource management is ever increasing, and this implies a real challenge for community institutions. A CBNRM approach has an eye for this challenge, but has a limited capacity to address (larger) cross-scale environmental issues that involve multiple stakeholders with diverse interests in natural resources. The GAAS team’s facilitation efforts have been critical in the success of CBNRM practice and CBNRM scaling up. However, the empirical materials of this study also reveal that their facilitation does not always produce positive outcomes, and the effects of facilitation are limited by unbalanced power relations among stakeholders.
Multi-Scale Sustainability Evaluation. A framework for the derivation and quantification of indicators for natural resource management systems
López Ridaura, S. - \ 2005
University. Promotor(en): Herman van Keulen, co-promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Peter Leffelaar. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9085042690 - 202
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - lineair programmeren - indicatoren - optimalisatie - systeemanalyse - mexico - mali - natural resources - natural resource economics - resource management - land use - sustainability - linear programming - indicators - optimization - systems analysis
An LP-model to analyse economic and ecological sustainability in Dutch dairy farming
Calker, Klaas Jan van - \ 2003
sustainability - dairy farming - agricultural economics - social consciousness - natural resource economics
Risk and uncertainty in environmental and research economics, Wageningen 5-7 June 2002; Proceedings of the International conference
Ierland, E.C. van; Weikard, H.P. ; Wesseler, J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Unknown Publisher - 450
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - risico - onzekerheid - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - biotechnologie - modellen - natural resource economics - environment - risk - uncertainty - climatic change - biodiversity - biotechnology - models
Internationale gevolgen van geïntegreerd bosbeheer in Nederland; verwaarloost Nederland de rol van bos als natuurlijke hulpbron?
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Goede, D. de - \ 2001
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 73 (2001)5. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 29 - 32.
bosbeheer - bosbouw - bossen - bosbestanden - opstandsstructuur - leeftijd - leeftijdsstructuur - leeftijdssamenstelling - boomleeftijd - houthandel - import - export - internationale handel - vraag - aanbod - opstandskenmerken - opstandsontwikkeling - europa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosopstanden - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - houtproductie - natuurlijke hulpbron - Nederland - forest administration - forestry - forests - forest resources - stand structure - age - age structure - age composition - age of trees - timber trade - imports - exports - international trade - demand - supply - stand characteristics - stand development - europe - natural resources - resource management - natural resource economics - forest stands - integrated forest management
De lange-termijneffecten van een meer natuurlijk bosbeheer in Europa wat betreft de leeftijdsklassenverdeling van het Europese bos en de verwachte veranderingen in de import- en exportstromen van naald- en loofhout binnen Europa (Scandinavië, Oost-Europa, Centraal-Europa, Middellandse-Zeegebied). Ondanks de noodkreten van de verwerkende industrie zal er op korte en middellange termijn geen houttekort ontstaan, maar vanaf 2050 zal de voorziene stijging van de houtconsumptie niet meer gedekt worden door het Europese bos
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