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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Agricultural intensification in Nepal, with particular reference to systems of rice intensification
Uprety, Rajendra - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper, co-promotor(en): Harro Maat. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579651 - 190
rice - oryza sativa - nepal - asia - south asia - intensification - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - farming systems - farming - crop management - fertilizers - nutrients - irrigation - varieties - rijst - azië - zuid-azië - intensivering - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - bedrijfssystemen - landbouw bedrijven - gewasteelt - kunstmeststoffen - voedingsstoffen - irrigatie - rassen (planten)

This thesis deals with agricultural intensification in Nepal. The initial focus of the study was the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), as introduced in Nepal from 2001. The multiple factors affecting SRI adoption, modification and dissemination together with the option to apply SRI in different combinations of its components result in a variety of SRI applications. For the same reason the effect of SRI on overall agricultural and livelihood development of Nepalese farmers has to be evaluated within the variety of farming systems in which it is applied.

Despite government policies to promote rice cultivation, national rice production is declining. Farmer livelihood strategies, as reflected in rice farming systems, and field management strategies were influenced by several agro-ecological and socio-economic factors. Livelihood and field management strategies of rice farmers are interconnected. In the study presented here four livelihood strategies and three kinds of field management strategies are distinguished. Two livelihood strategies can be characterized as more intensive and more productive; the other two are less intensive and less productive. Livelihood strategies are more family resource-based strategies, while farmers’ field management strategies are more context-dependent. Field management strategies were characterized by forms of nutrient management. Intensive management strategies had most similarities with SRI. But rice intensification is not achievable as a general strategy.

Government policies (fertiliser subsidies) encourage increased fertiliser use. Study results didn't show any significant effect of volume of fertilisers on rice yield but the combined use of organic manure and mineral fertilisers resulted in the highest average rice yields. Irrigation management is another important factor for rice production. Field management is influenced by the reliability of water which was better in farmers' managed irrigation system. Choice of rice varieties influenced the overall rice farming system and cropping intensity and preference of varieties for rice cultivation by scientists and by farmers were different in eastern Nepal. Most popular varieties were those not recommended by science and policy and were disseminated farmer to farmer.

The introduction of SRI in Morang district resulted in several changes in rice farming, but only part of the farmers have adopted such technologies, and adoption has been only in part of their fields. Other farmers have incorporated some SRI practices in their conventional practices. After the introduction of SRI, farmers further tested, re-packaged or hybridized SRI methods to make SRI ideas suitable for their agro-ecological and socio-economic environments. In order to reform Nepalese rice farming, we need to recognize that different farmers, with different livelihood strategies, and with access to different kinds of fields, need different forms for agricultural intensification. High-intensive farmers prefer to use modified SRI methods where there is good irrigation and drainage facilities. There are many possibilities for improvement of the existing nutrient management practices of rice farmers in Nepal. Nutrient management will be useful to increase rice production because the majority of farmers currently use fertilisers non-judiciously. The SRI-recommended practices (younger seedlings, early weeding, use of organic manure, and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation) will be useful to improve the nutrient use efficiency of rice farmers. Cost-reduction strategies and less labour-intensive cultivation practices will be appropriate options to improve existing rice farming system of Nepal. Participatory cultivar selection and dissemination will be better strategies to introduce new, promising rice cultivars among rice farmers.

Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty

Short Summary

Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

Gendered participation in water management in Nepal : discourses, policies and practices in the irrigation and drinking water sectors
Bhushan Udas, P. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571655 - 281
waterbeheer - geslacht (gender) - participatie - irrigatie - drinkwater - nepal - water management - gender - participation - irrigation - drinking water


This thesis is about gendered policy processes in the irrigation and drinking water sectors in Nepal. Globally, increased women’s participation in formal decision making bodies such as water users’ associations is extensively advocated as a means to reduce existing gender gaps in water access, control and management and ultimately achieve gender equality. In Nepal, this has resulted in water policies since the 1990s that aim to increase female users’ participation in water users’ committees, yet its effectiveness was not known in-depth. This study examined the gendered policy process at the levels of policy discourses, implementation and outcomes in the irrigation and drinking water sectors in Nepal. It found a gap in policy discourses to link efforts to increase women’s participation within the wider goals of the water sector. At implementer level, lack of formal incentives, and contradictions in policy goals with professional culture and the identities of implementers, have had negative effects on implementation. What has been achieved in term of women’s visibility in the committee is an outcome of an implementer’s individual conviction and attitude on working with gender issues. At farm level, leaders of water users associations were more interested to access external resources for system rehabilitation than in internal issues of equity and water distribution. Ability to pay and to negotiate with others determined women’s access to water rather than formal participation means. The outcomes of efforts by water users’ associations to impose rules on water distribution differed between surface irrigation systems and closed pipe water supply systems, which influenced access to water and users’ involvement in the association. The study concludes that efforts to improve participation of women in users’ committees in terms of numbers alone has only indirect impacts on equitable access to water, and uncertain outcomes in improved water delivery to women and other vulnerable users.

Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal
Liebrand, J. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen; Margreet van der Burg. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462571419 - 505
irrigatie - ingenieurs - geslacht (gender) - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - nepal - irrigation - engineers - gender - professional education


This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the masculine subject. In this thesis, it is hypothesized that there is something intrinsically masculine about the irrigation and water management profession, both in the West and in Nepal. This hypothesis is based on personal experience, being a male researcher myself and being trained as an irrigation professional in the Netherlands, and having travelled to India and Nepal to meet irrigation engineers and water professionals in an intercultural context. The hypothesis is also based on academic questioning of masculinities in irrigation. The aim of the thesis is to scrutinize a taken-for-granted association of men with organisational power, authority and expertise in irrigation. To facilitate investigations, two domains in the world of irrigation are conceptualized: the domain of the irrigation professional and the domain of irrigation expert knowledge. For each of these domains, a set of research questions has been formulated. First, how does one become an irrigation engineer in Nepal, employed in the Department of Irrigation, and what masculinities might be involved in becoming one; and second, how might masculinities be implicated in irrigation knowledge and water expert thinking. To answer the first question, this thesis analyses the institutions of engineering education, professional associations and regulatory bodies, and the Department of Irrigation. To answer the second question, this thesis analyses the use and presentation of irrigation data in policy making and it examines histories of irrigation expert thinking in Nepal.

The conceptual backbone of the thesis is to see professional performance in irrigation as cultural performance, drawing inspiration from the work of Victor Turner in particular. In Chapter 1, I explain that he metaphor of performance can be read as technical performance and cultural performance, and is conceived in this thesis as two sides of the same coin, mutually constituting professional performance. In the process of research, I have come to see the concept of cultural performance as particularly apt for this thesis. It has enabled me to conceptualize linkages between the gender of engineers, professional cultures in irrigation and technical representations in irrigation knowledge, without having to exclude myself from the writing process. The latter is important in research on masculinities because identifications of masculinities and femininities are unavoidably interpretative, situated and partial.

Chapter 2 presents historical contexts of irrigation development in Nepal, highlighting the main state interventions in the sector and some of the changes in professional practice in irrigation. It also presents a background on the education system and the civil service in Nepal from the 1950s onwards, highlighting gendered aspects of these institutions and revealing that they have functioned as closed institutions of the high-class, upper-caste elite in Nepal. It also documents a history of women professionals in rural development in Nepal from the 1950s onwards, in an attempt to understand why there are so few female irrigation engineers in the Department of Irrigation. In this account, I briefly re-visit the introduction of ‘social organisers’ in irrigation in the early 1990s in an attempt to figure out why social organiser positions were not taken up by women professionals as community specialists. The analysis reveals that the position of women professionals, from the 1950s onwards, has been defined in terms of their ‘feminine capacity’ to deal with ‘women’s issues’, marked by their non-involvement in broader issues of development.

Chapter 3 presents feminist histories of the main institutions that constitute the roadway for becoming an irrigation engineer in Nepal. The first institution is engineering education, focussing on Nepal but also mentioning the places abroad (mainly in India) where Nepalese men (and some women) have gone for engineering education. The focus is mainly on diploma (overseer) and bachelor (engineer) level education in the disciplines of civil – and agricultural engineering. For these disciplines, I have collected gender and caste segregated enrolment data of students at engineering colleges in Nepal (going back to the 1980s). A second set of institutions are the regulatory organisations for the engineering profession in Nepal and the professional associations that exist in relation to the field of engineering, water, agriculture and irrigation. It presents an analysis of about 40 professional associations and also discusses some of the incipient networks of women professionals in natural resources management. The third institution is the Department of Irrigation, describing its history from 1952 onwards (year of establishment) and presenting an analysis on who is employed in the organisation. The analysis of the institutions reveals that they mainly have been the world of men.

Chapter 4 focusses on the informal milieu in the Department of Irrigation to understand how one becomes a ‘real’ irrigation engineer. The analysis is based on the assumption that getting an engineering degree, and becoming a member of an engineering association and securing employment in the civil service of the Department of Irrigation, does not automatically make a person a ‘real’ irrigation engineer. It is hypothesized that junior engineers need to participate in the informal milieu of the institutions, develop agency and acquire the desire, skills and perceptions that ‘fit’ a normative and gender authentic performance of a ‘real’ irrigation engineer. The development of agency and desire is conceptualized to occur through two distinct yet interrelated processes, which I call ‘self-normalization’ and ‘transitional performance’. The analysis reveals that the informal milieu of the Department of Irrigation is infiltrated with social stereotypes and cultural norms that prevail in (elite) society in Nepal, causing barriers, particularly for women, to perform as ‘real’ irrigation engineers. The analysis also identifies two periods in the lives of engineers that can be conceived as rites of passage for becoming an irrigation engineer: ‘the college’ and ‘the field’. It is suggested that participation in these rites of passage is a pre-requisite to become a ‘real’ irrigation engineer.

Chapter 5 discusses the performance of women engineers and ‘other men’ in the Department of Irrigation. Other men are conceptualized as a broad category of men, from professionals with a disciplinary background other than engineering to men of ‘low caste’ and men with a particular ethnic background. The analysis focusses, however, mainly on the performance of ‘lady engineers’ as women engineers in the Department are known. Their marginalized position in the organisation is highly visible whereas subordinated positions of men in the Department are more difficult to detect. Apart from the presence of (male) Madhesi officers, class, caste and ethnic issues among men are difficult to understand ‘within’ the Department, because staff with a Dalit background, for instance, constitute only 2% of staff in lower management positions in the organisation. The taboo for women to perform in the field is discussed in relation to the performance of the lady engineer. Also an overview is presented of the disadvantages that lady engineers tend to accumulate in the pursuit of a career in the Department. The analysis reveals that most women engineers come to face a career plateau in their life, causing them to accept office work that is considered of secondary importance, switch jobs or quit service altogether.

Chapter 6 analyses the performativity of irrigation data and their use in policy making in Nepal. In the recognition that technical representations of reality help to enact professional credibility and claims of truths of irrigation engineers and water professionals, the focus is on understanding how irrigation data might support (and help to enact) professional performance in irrigation. It is analysed how irrigation data breathe life into particular representations of reality, reflecting and structuring a particular experience in irrigation expert thinking. It is suggested that the ‘show’ of irrigation data can also be considered a ‘cultural expression’ of authority, professional identities and masculinities in irrigation. This is not to say that women professionals in irrigation would use and construct irrigation data in a different way, but to point out that authority ‘sticks’ more easily to male engineers when they use irrigation data, than to female engineers when they use irrigation data.

Chapter 7 presents a self-portrait of ‘our knowledges’ in irrigation. Speaking about ‘our knowledges’ in irrigation – something that is deeply contentious from a feminist perspective – is done as a way to acknowledge my subjectivation as an irrigation professional and to invite fellow members of knowledge and policy elites in development to participate in an exercise of self-discovery. I reconstruct a history of irrigation expert thinking in Nepal based on 60 years of state irrigation interventions in Chitwan District (1950-2010). It is an explorative study, rich in empirical material, also presenting a fresh look at irrigation practices in Chitwan before the 1950s and re-constructing an account of how images of the Tennessee Valley Authority in America served to conceptualize multipurpose watershed management and new irrigation projects in Nepal. Through the use of photos, I also show how engineers have acted as negotiators of knowledge and masculinities in the act of building irrigation systems in Chitwan District. The investigation is based on the assumption that it is worthwhile to scrutinize our expert knowledges in irrigation because our performances and identities of ‘ourselves’ – as male and female engineers and professionals – are somehow implicated in it. Treating the historical account as a self-referential experience or self-portrait of professional performances in irrigation, I explore how masculinities have been associated with our expert knowledges. The analysis is also an account of professional performance and practices of masculinities that I have negotiated (and performed) myself, in the act of doing research in irrigation on masculinities.

In the last chapter (general discussion and conclusions), I conclude that masculinities are deeply embedded in professional cultures in irrigation – not just in interactions between irrigation engineers and water professionals but also in our knowledges in irrigation. Professional performances and expert knowledges in irrigation are an enactment of ‘projectness’ – a particular experience of reality (in projects) which reflects and structures ‘our’ understandings of the world in a gendered way, and in which ‘we’ hardly have been able to date to accommodate feminist perspectives on irrigation and water management. I also point out that qualifying behaviour or practices of people as (partially) masculine or as an effect of masculinities is controversial among irrigation engineers and water professionals. Irrigation and water management historically is a field of applied engineering, and the argument that masculinities are implicated in professional identities and in irrigation expert knowledge, is disputed. Irrigation engineers and water professionals generally have internalized a conviction that science and engineering is rational and universal, and they propagate the view that engineering itself is disconnected from meanings of masculinity and femininity.

Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi infections in ill-returned travellers: the impact on clinical outcome and future treatment options
Hassing, R.J. ; Goessens, W.H. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Pelt, W. van; Mouton, J.W. ; Verbon, A. ; Genderen, P.J. - \ 2013
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 32 (2013)10. - ISSN 0934-9723 - p. 1295 - 1301.
enterica serotype typhi - beta-lactamase - fever - pharmacokinetics - pharmacodynamics - reevaluation - multicenter - breakpoints - resistant - nepal
The emergence of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A, B or C limits treatment options. We studied the impact of DCS isolates on the fate of travellers returning with enteric fever and possible alternative treatment options. We evaluated the clinical features, susceptibility data and efficacy of empirical treatment in patients with positive blood cultures of a DCS isolate compared to patients infected with a ciprofloxacin-susceptible (CS) isolate in the period from January 2002 to August 2008. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin were determined to assess if increasing the dose would result in adequate unbound fraction of the drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC) ratio. Patients with DCS more often returned from the Indian subcontinent and had a longer fever clearance time and length of hospital stay compared to patients in whom the initial empirical therapy was adequate. The mean ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC was 41.3¿±¿18.8 in the patients with DCS and 585.4¿±¿219 in patients with a CS isolate. For DCS isolates, the mean ƒAUC0-24/MIC for levofloxacin was 60.5¿±¿28.7 and for gatifloxacin, it was 97.9¿±¿28.0. Increasing the dose to an adequate ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC ratio will lead to conceivably toxic drug levels in 50% of the patients treated with ciprofloxacin. Emerging DCS isolates has led to the failure of empirical treatment in ill-returned travellers. We demonstrated that, in some cases, an adequate ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC ratio could be achieved by increasing the dose of ciprofloxacin or by the use of alternative fluoroquinolones.
Controlling the Water. Matching Technology and Institutions in Irrigation Management in India and Nepal.
Roth, D. ; Vincent, L.F. - \ 2013
New Delhi, India : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780198082927 - 406
irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - waterbeheer - technologie - nepal - india - irrigation - irrigation systems - water management - technology
Irrigation has a long history and important developmental role in India and Nepal. Even then it is faced with critical challenges as new scarcities and environmental stresses emerge, for which understanding technology and institutional choices is vital. Through case studies conducted in these two countries, this book explores the means of controlling water used in irrigation management, looking at the sources and technologies in practice, and the institutions evolving around them. This book shows the range of irrigation technologies developed in different agro-ecological zones-large-scale public canal systems; small-scale farmer-managed canal systems; ponds and tank irrigation systems; and groundwater-based and conjunctive use settings, including micro-hydel systems developed alongside irrigation.
Household Determinants of Tree Planting on Farms in Rural Rwanda
Ndayambaje, J.D. ; Heijman, W.J.M. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2012
Small-scale Forestry 11 (2012)4. - ISSN 1873-7617 - p. 477 - 508.
discriminant-analysis - agroforestry practices - logistic-regression - adoption - management - systems - gender - nepal - technology - prediction
In Rwanda, trees on farms are widely recognized for increasing and diversifying farm productivity while releasing pressure on existing forests. However, the motivation of rural households to plant trees on farms is often unclear. This study evaluates rural households demographic and socio-economic characteristics, as well as their attitudes, that influence the presence of trees on farms. Data used in this study were collected from a survey of 480 households across three altitude regions of Rwanda. Binary logistic regression analysis using PASW Statistics was applied to determine relevant predictor variables for the presence of trees on farms. The results show regional variation in explaining the presence of trees on farms. When data from the three regions were analysed together, significant predictor variables comprise the gender of head of the household, the number of salaried members of the households, the amount of farm fuelwood, the number of meals per day, the geographical location of the households and the selling of tree products. The presence of different tree species on farms was driven by economic factors, of which availability of food, firewood, and poles, and total income were most common. The results of the study imply that policy measures that target food security and income diversification in rural areas may, at the same time, enhance tree planting. Moreover, it is concluded that rural development and extension in agriculture should be site specific, to account for biophysical conditions and specific rural household motivations to plant trees on farms.
The contribution of farmer field schools to rural development in Nepal
Westendorp, A.M.B. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461733948 - 279
agrarisch onderwijs - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - nepal - minst ontwikkelde landen - zuid-azië - agricultural education - rural development - development - least developed countries - south asia
The other side of migration in rural Nepal: sociocultural transformation and the women left behind
Gartaula, H.N. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Leontine Visser. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730329 - 177
sociale kwesties - arbeidsmobiliteit - beroepsmobiliteit - plattelandsgemeenschappen - nepal - migratie - vrouwenemancipatie - landgebruik - voedselzekerheid - landbouwhuishoudens - huishoudens - middelen van bestaan - plattelandsvrouwen - vrouwen - azië - social issues - labour mobility - occupational mobility - rural communities - migration - emancipation of women - land use - food security - agricultural households - households - livelihoods - rural women - women - asia

This study examines the relationship between male labour out-migration and the process of sociocultural transformation in the places of origin. Taking an example from Nepal, it shows that male labour out-migration has increased women’s partici­pation in agriculture, more significantly so in those cases where the left-behind women are de-facto household heads than in cases where they live with in-laws. Similarly, in the case of ­­de-facto female heads of households, women’s role in agricultural decision-making has increased. Women, who in the absence of their husbands live with their in-laws, continue to remain under patriarchal control, not by their husbands but by their father-in-law and elder brothers-in-law. Women who are de-facto heads of the households can exercise more autonomy in decision-making and have more control over their own mobility. Hence, the effects of male out-migration on women’s participation in agricultural work and decision-making are also conti­ngent upon the domestic arrangement in which they find themselves.

Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal
Paudel, K. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): E. Schultz, co-promotor(en): N.M. Shakya. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858515 - 271
irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - irrigatiekanalen - waterbouwkunde - ontwerp - bedrijfsvoering - sediment - waterstroming - nepal - irrigation - irrigation systems - irrigation channels - hydraulic engineering - design - management - water flow
Situation Analysis of Women Water Professionals in Nepal
Udas, P.B. - \ 2008
Andra Pradesh : SaciWaters - 55
waterbeheer - water - watervoorziening - vrouwen - ingenieurs - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - nepal - geslacht (gender) - water management - water supply - women - engineers - non-governmental organizations - gender
Women's agency in relation to population and environment in rural Nepal
Tiwari Pandey, N. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046967 - 214
plattelandsvrouwen - vrouwen - positie van de vrouw - bevolking - vrouwelijke vruchtbaarheid - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - vrouwelijke werknemers - landbouw - voedselzekerheid - platteland - nepal - vrouw en samenleving - geslacht (gender) - rural women - women - woman's status - human population - female fertility - environment - sustainability - women workers - agriculture - food security - rural areas - woman and society - gender
This research investigated the complex relationship between population and environ­ment with a focus on women’s role in fertility and the food resource environment. The research was carried out in a Gurung community in Lamjung district, in mid-hill Nepal. The household was taken as the unit of analysis. The study is embedded in demographic theory about population growth and in gender theory. The concept of women’s agency was used to link marriage and fertility patterns with household food provision and management of natural resources. Women’s role in population and the environment is placed in a changing socio-cultural and environmental context. An extensive review of the literature relating to population, environment, gender, household, livelihood and food security was done, after which a field study was carried out. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in empirical data collection. The research problem addressed concerned the impact on the relationship between population and environment of women’s reproductive and productive roles at the household level. The methods used for generating empirical data were: participatory rural appraisal, household food and fertility survey, participant observation, key informants interviews, focus group discussions, and life histories. The household survey was conducted among 350 households, the fertility survey among 343 women aged 15-49. Among forty households food surveys were conducted. A 24-hours food intake recall was done in 31 households. In addition, two PRAs (Participatory Rural Appraisal), ten key informants’ interviews (six males and four females), six case studies and six focus groups discussions, including male and female mixed groups and separate female groups, were conducted. Chi-square tests and regression analysis were applied to elicit significant relationships among the variables. The analysis of the qualitative data was done manually. Agricultural production is the basis for the livelihoods in the area under study. Rice, maize and millet are the main crops produced. Most people are able to survive on their own agricultural production and the resources in their natural surroundings. Jobs in the services sector provide an important source of income, but mainly for men. Most households, however, do not produce enough food to feed them for the whole year. For the majority of the households the agricultural land available for food production is little and fragmented. There is food deficiency in most households prior to harvesting time. People try to safeguard their food security in various ways. They acquire food by growing food crops in the fields, cultivating vegetables in kitchen gardens, buying food, gleaning, collecting food from the forest, and food exchange, in which rice plays the role of ‘currency’. In these activities women play a crucial role. The majority of the people in the area are hard-pressed to meet their food and livelihood needs. Most of the children do not have an adequate calorie intake. Women are the main food producers in the Gurung villages. Gurung women play an important role in agricultural production and other farm activities, forestry, and livestock production and management. When they need additional income to buy food, they may engage in liquor making, running teahouses or other income-generating activities. The heavy workload of Gurung women involves food procurement, production, storage, processing and preparation. Women in the village often lack the social and economic power they need for improving their household’s economic condition. Property rights of women are still a major issue, also at the national level. Women who receive parental property (pewa) are relatively more comfortable compared to those who do not. It can make a difference in their daily life, especially when they have to support their children by themselves because the husband does not fulfil his household duties or has left the first wife with children to marry another wife. The case studies show that women are facing many challenges, especially because of their limited access to land. If the husband is working in the army and receives good pay his wife may feel more secure, because if he dies she is entitled to a pension. If the household income is not enough women engage in income-generating activities to supplement it. When the husband has left her to marry another wife a woman focuses her activities on the future of her children. Divorced and widowed women were found reluctant to remarry for fear of losing their children or jeopardizing their children’s future. The Mid-Marsyangdi Hydro-electric Power Project has had mixed impacts on the local people, causing increasing population pressure and environmental degradation but also enlarging economic opportunities and bringing development in the area. The changes in the area opened up new opportunities for women. In social life women are more respected and through women’s organizations their voice has increased. They can also make use of economic opportunities to improve their livelihood and control their fertility by family planning. The farming environment has changed and improved. Currently, both environmentally and economically sustainable farming systems are being adopted that may not only increase household income but also enrich the diet of the people. At the same time, the development project is creating social, cultural and ecological problems. A lot of new settlements at the road side and other constructions are built on former agricultural land. The level of environmental pollution is rising, as is the incidence of prostitution and public health problems. Migrants from other areas, who were attracted by the project, add to the population pressure. Because of increased population pressure, the limited natural forest resources have declined and degraded. These days, people are more concerned about how to make money than about farming. The cash economy is growing. Rising age at marriage, long spells of separation from the husband in the repro­ductive period, and increasing use of family planning methods result in fertility levels among the Gurung women in the sample that are lower than the national averages. Child marriage no longer occurs these days and age at marriage among the Gurung women is on the rise. The use of contraception is increasing. Induced abortion has always taken place but is a decreasing trend now. Education proved to be strongly significantly negatively related to fertility. Household income also proved to be significantly related to fertility, though less strongly and positively. Age at first marriage and use of family planning proved to be both significantly negatively related to number of children ever born. A remarkable feature of Gurung culture is the equal value attached to having sons and daughters, particularly given the prevailing preference for sons in Nepal. The mothers groups (Amasamuha) in the villages have started to raise a collective voice against the exploitation of women. They point out that women should not be used only for men’s benefit but be treated as responsible citizens and be respected by the husband’s family for giving birth to children who can inherit the property. Programs and projects that are meant to empower women should be implemented effectively and efficiently. So far, many policies and plans formulated for women’s empowerment by the government exist only on paper. Women’s ownership of land remains a problematic issue, as is the case with women’s access to legal and safe abortion. In this study, women’s agency has been identified as an important factor in controlling population growth, safeguarding household livelihood and food security, and managing natural resources. Women’s agency is the significant link between fertility choices, the food resource environment, and household livelihood and food security. Gurung women’s agency plays a direct role in the timing of marriage, fertility choices, raising children, household formation and management, as well as in alleviating family food shortages. Apart from carrying out their productive and reproductive roles, women also participate in community activities and in efforts to protect the ecological environment. Women’s agency helps to balance population growth and food resources. However, in exercising their agency Gurung women face many practical problems and constraints. They are dependent on the availability of resources and economic conditions and often lack the necessary entitlements and empowerment. Though Gurung women can be shown to be “the pillar” of their household and family, and are active in economic production and social repro­duction, their skills and contributions to family and community welfare are still poorly recognized.
Fine-resolution remote-sensing and modelling of Himalayan catchment sustainability
Quincey, D.J. ; Luckman, A. ; Hessel, R. ; Davies, R. ; Sankhayan, P.L. ; Balla, M.K. - \ 2007
Remote Sensing of Environment 107 (2007)3. - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 430 - 439.
landscape change pattern - mid elevation zone - land-use dynamics - soil-erosion - nepal - india - management - district - impact - cover
A number of studies have reported on environmental degradation in the Nepal Himalaya as a result of large-scale deforestation and the associated agricultural extension. In contrast to many previous regional scale studies, we consider land cover and its environmental impact on an individual catchment-scale, using fine-resolution Quickbird data and a soil erosion model. First, using a detailed land cover map generated from Quickbird imagery, we establish basic relationships between land cover, dwelling density and topographic variability, which exist in a typical mid-elevation Nepalese catchment, the Pokhare Khola. These data suggest a strongly subsistence type of household economy based predominantly on terraced arable farming. We demonstrate using multitemporal vegetation indices that this farmland has existed in the region since the late 1980s, and that widespread deforestation has not taken place since then, possibly as a result of specific forest conservation policies of the government coupled with efforts by local communities. Further, through the use of soil erosion modelling we demonstrate the role that the terraced farming practices can play in reducing runoff and hence soil nutrient loss, thereby enabling restoration of vegetation in the previously deforested land terrains. Finally, by combining this information with regional land cover data, we show that the findings of this research can be scaled up to draw conclusions about environmental degradation across the Nepal Himalayan region.
Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)
Bagchi, S. ; Mishra, C. - \ 2006
Journal of Zoology 268 (2006)3. - ISSN 0952-8369 - p. 217 - 224.
annapurna conservation area - tigers panthera-tigris - indian trans-himalaya - prey selection - national-park - western india - conflict - nepal - perceptions - depredation
Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard Uncia uncia is involved in conflict with people across its mountainous range in South and Central Asia, where pastoralism is the predominant land use, and is widely persecuted in retaliation. We examined human-snow leopard conflict at two sites in the Spiti region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, where livestock outnumber wild ungulates, and the conflict is acute. We quantified the snow leopard's dependence on livestock by assessing its diet in two sites that differed in the relative abundance of livestock and wild ungulates. We also surveyed the indigenous Buddhist community's attitudes towards the snow leopard in these two sites. Our results show a relatively high dependence of snow leopards on livestock. A higher proportion of the snow leopard's diet (58%) was livestock in the area with higher livestock (29.7 animals km¿2) and lower wild ungulate abundance (2.1¿3.1 bharal Pseudois nayaur km¿2), compared with 40% of diet in the area with relatively lower livestock (13.9 km¿2) and higher wild ungulate abundance (4.5¿7.8 ibex Capra ibex km¿2). We found that the community experiencing greater levels of livestock losses was comparatively more tolerant towards the snow leopard. This discrepancy is explained by the presence of a conservation-incentive program at the site, and by differences in economic roles of livestock between these two communities. The former is more dependent on cash crops as a source of income while the latter is more dependent on livestock, and thereby less tolerant of the snow leopard. These data have implications for conflict management strategies. They indicate that the relative densities of livestock and wild prey may be reasonable predictors of the extent of predation by the snow leopard. However, this by itself is not an adequate measure of the intensity of conflict even in apparently similar cultural settings.
Mapping cryptic invaders and invisability of tropical forest ecosystems: Chromolaena odorata in Nepal
Joshi, C. - \ 2006
University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; J. van Andel, co-promotor(en): J. de Leeuw; I.C. van Duren. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044707 - 197
tropische bossen - invasies - chromolaena odorata - ecosystemen - bosecologie - cartografie - microklimaat - remote sensing - geografische informatiesystemen - modellen - nepal - tropical forests - invasions - ecosystems - forest ecology - mapping - microclimate - geographical information systems - models
Incorporating Groundwater irrigation : Technology dynamics and conjunctive water management in the Nepal Terai
Gautam, S.R. - \ 2006
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Dik Roth. - [S.L.] : s.n. - ISBN 9085043360 - 245
waterbeheer - irrigatie - grondwaterwinning - regenwateropvang - watervoorraden - putten - nepal - grondwateraanvulling - water management - irrigation - groundwater extraction - water harvesting - water resources - wells - groundwater recharge
Incorporating Groundwater Irrigation : Technology Dynamics and Conjunctive Water Management in the Nepal Terai
Gautam, S.R. - \ 2006
Hyderabad, India : Orient Longman (Wageningen University water resources series 8) - ISBN 8125029923 - 232
irrigation - groundwater - freshwater structures - tube wells - management - nepal - irrigatie - grondwater - zoetwaterconstructies - welpijpen - bedrijfsvoering
Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China
Dong, J. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Dai, T. ; Boer, W. de; Qi, J. ; Cao, W. - \ 2006
Pedosphere 16 (2006)1. - ISSN 1002-0160 - p. 25 - 32.
cropping systems - organic-matter - management - nepal
Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping with different soil fertility management schemes, and 3) identify reasons for yield trends observed in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, over a 20-year period. There were eight treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: a control treatment (C); three inorganic fertilizers, that is, nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); and addition of farmyard manure (FYM) to these four treatments, that is, M, MN, MNP, and MNPK. At the end of the experiment the MN, MNP, and MNPK treatments had the highest yields, about 7t wheat ha^(-1) and 7.5 t maize ha^(-1), with each about 1t ha^(-1) more than the NPK treatments. Over 20 years with FYM soil organic matter increased by 80% compared to only 10% with NPK, which explained yield increases. However, from an environmental and agronomic perspective, manure application was not a superior strategy to NPK fertilizers. If manure was to be applied, though, it would be best applied to the wheat crop, which showed a better response than maize
Prescribing Gender Equity? The Case of the Tukucha Nala Irrigation System, Central Nepal
Udas, P.B. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2005
In: Liquid Relations. Contested Water Rights and Legal Complexity / Roth, D., Boelens, R.A., Zwarteveen, M.Z., New Brunswick, New Jersey and London : Rutgers University Press - ISBN 0813536758 - p. 21 - 43.
irrigatie - waterbeheer - participatie - boerenorganisaties - plattelandsvrouwen - nepal - irrigation - water management - participation - farmers' associations - rural women
Indexing constitutional accountability in local governance: the search for the water-power interface
Regmi, A. - \ 2004
Resources, Energy, and Development 1 (2004)1 en 2. - ISSN 0973-0516 - p. 91 - 94.
irrigatiewater - waterverdeling - kracht - internationale samenwerking - nepal - irrigation water - water distribution - power - international cooperation
This paper cites an example from a case study of the first small 2.4 MW anauti hydropower system in Nepal. Designed and implemented by Russian technical assistence in 1965, this power plant has impacted on several local irrigation systems and has become a site of contestation for local people, both for water and power
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