Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Soil fertility management in organic greenhouses in Europe
Tittatelli, Fabio ; Bath, Brigitta ; Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni ; Garcia, M.C. ; Moller, K. ; Reents, H.J. ; Vedie, Helene ; Voogt, W. - \ 2016
[Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575363 - 46 p.
greenhouse horticulture - soil fertility - organic farming - europe - rotation - fertilizer application - nutrient management - cropping systems - glastuinbouw - bodemvruchtbaarheid - biologische landbouw - europa - rotatie - bemesting - nutrientenbeheer - teeltsystemen
The management of soil fertility in organic greenhouse systems differs quite widely across Europe. The challenge is to identify and implement strategies which comply with the organic principles set out in (EC) Reg. 834/2007 and (EC) Reg. 889/2008 as well as supporting environmentally, socially and economically sustainable cropping systems. In this paper, written by a group of scientists of different geographical origin and with different background, the state of the art of the sector and the main characteristics of the European organic greenhouse cropping systems are described. The main bottlenecks and constraints are discussed with a particular reference to the regulatory framework in force. The most relevant issues that may influence the enforcement and future development of the sector have been identified as specific knowledge gaps. For each of them, the appropriate research needs were elaborated in a multidisciplinary perspective as forthcoming challenges for the whole sector. Although not exhaustive, given the wide heterogeneity of the implemented systems, this paper is able, for the first time, to give a structured outlook on soil fertility management in protected organic conditions on a European scale.
NW European Policy-Science Working Group on Reducing Nutrient Emissions : mitigation options: Evaluating the impact of implementing nutrient management strategies on reducing nutrient emissions from agriculture in NW Europe
Boekel, E.M.P.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2670) - 113
water quality - water management - water policy - nutrients - nutrient management - emission - agriculture - mitigation - northwestern europe - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - voedingsstoffen - nutrientenbeheer - emissie - landbouw - mitigatie - noordwest-europa
In the northwestern part of Europe, many surface waters suffer from eutrophication through diffuse losses of nutrients from agriculture to surface water and relatively high nitrate concentrations in groundwater in nitrate vulnerable zones. A lot of research and policy has been devised to decrease these losses. The northwestern European countries (Denmark, NW Germany, Belgium (Flanders), United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands) are working together in an active policy-science working group to improve water quality by evaluating the impact of implemented nutrient management strategies. More insight into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different mitigation options under specific circumstances is needed. Therefore, each country has prepared factsheets with specific information for the top six mitigation options. Based on this information, general factsheets were made to compare the effects and cost-effectiveness of mitigation options between the NW European countries. The results are presented in this report.
Bodem Resetten: stap naar praktijktoepassing nieuwe methode van anaerobe grondontsmetting
Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Visser, J.H.M. ; Regeer, H. ; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport / PPO-AGV 648) - 45
akkerbouw - nematoda - meloidogyne chitwoodi - ditylenchus dipsaci - globodera pallida - waardplanten - gewasbescherming - bodeminvertebraten - nederland - inventarisaties - anaërobe behandeling - biologische grondontsmetting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - onkruiden - nutrientenbeheer - arable farming - host plants - plant protection - soil invertebrates - netherlands - inventories - anaerobic treatment - biological soil sterilization - sustainability - weeds - nutrient management
Door de toenemende problemen met schadelijke aaltjes in diverse teelten wordt naarstig gezocht naar alternatieve mogelijkheden om de grond te ontsmetten. Uitgangspunt van Wageningen UR en Agrifirm Plant is daarvoor een “groene” manier van grondbehandeling, die past in het algemene beleid van een duurzame gewasbescherming. Bodem Resetten is een nieuwe en unieke manier van anaerobe grondontsmetting en kan mogelijk een milieuvriendelijk en voor omwonenden veilig alternatief bieden. Er zijn voor het Bodem Resetten (BR) twee producten getest op effectiviteit: vaste Herbie® 72 en vloeibare Herbie® 87. Tevens is op zeer kleine schaal ook een plantaardige coating, als alternatief voor folie, onderzocht op gasdichtheid.
Houtoogst en bodemvruchtbaarheid : een modelstudie naar duurzaamheid van houtoogst op Nederlandse bosgroeiplaatsen
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Jong, J.J. de; Spijker, J.H. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2618)
bosecologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bepaling van groeiplaatshoedanigheden - opbrengstregeling - nutrientenbeheer - bodemchemie - forest ecology - soil fertility - site class assessment - yield regulation - nutrient management - soil chemistry
Dit rapport brengt met een modelstudie de duurzaamheid van houtoogstscenario’s in beeld ten aanzien van nutriëntenbalansen op verschillende Nederlandse bosgroeiplaatsen. Tegelijkertijd geeft de studie aan waar (nog aanzienlijke) onzekerheden liggen bij de vertaling naar een adviessysteem voor houtoogst. De voor houtoogst relevante groeiplaatsen zijn gekarakteriseerd met 11 typen. Voor elk van deze groeiplaatstypen is met een model nagegaan in welke mate combinaties van boomsoort, groeiklasse (groeiverwachting) en oogstscenario leiden tot een negatieve nutriëntenbalans voor calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), kalium (K) en fosfor (P). Ook is nagegaan hoe snel de bosbodem wordt uitgeput.
Stochastic uncertainty and sensitivities of nitrogen flows on diary farms in The Netherlands
Oenema, J. ; Burgers, S. ; Keulen, H. van; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 137 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 126 - 138.
manure management-practices - nutrient management - use efficiency - systems - balances - budgets - losses - europe
Nutrient management decisions and environmental policy making must be based on sound data and proper analysis. Annual data collection and monitoring of farm and nutrient performance are wrought with uncertainties. Such uncertainties need to be addressed as it may lead to ambiguities and wrong conclusions. We developed an input-output N balance model to describe and quantify N flows in dairy farming systems. Input for this model was based on monitored data for one year (2005) from one experimental (detailed monitoring) and 14 pilot commercial dairy farms (less detailed monitoring). A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify effects of uncertainty of input data on annual farm N surplus, soil surface N surplus and N intake during grazing, followed by a sensitivity analysis to apportion the different sources of uncertainty. Uncertainties in data input were described with probability density functions. Farm N surplus of the 14 pilot farms ranged between 81 and 294¿kg¿ha-1, soil surface N surplus between 35 and 256¿kg¿ha-1, and N intake during grazing between 27 and 108¿kg¿ha-1. The uncertainties of N flows – both relative and absolute – increased from farm N surplus (CV¿=¿8%; SD¿=¿15¿kg¿N¿ha-1) to soil surface N surplus (CV¿=¿12%; SD¿=¿16¿kg¿N¿ha-1) to N intake during grazing (CV¿=¿49%; SD¿=¿28¿kg¿N¿ha-1). Variation in uncertainty among farms in farm and soil surface N surplus and N intake during grazing was substantial and was related to the farm structure and farm characteristics such as production intensity, N fixation by clover and annual changes in stocks of roughage and manure. We found that a monitoring program based on more measurements instead of estimates and/or fixed rate values from literature will not always result in a better quantification of farm and soil surface N surplus on clover-based dairy farms. However, on farms with no N fixation, an intensive monitoring program reduced the uncertainty in farm and soil surface N surplus by 23% and the uncertainty of N intake during grazing was reduced by more than 30%. Knowledge about uncertainties of N flows is necessary to correctly interpret the N performance on dairy farms and its evolution through time. A first step is to get insights into the most uncertain N flows on a dairy farm. The next step, where possible, is to improve the estimation of the most uncertain N flows. Based on the insights from this study, these steps will underpin the validation of trends in N performance and justify decisions in environmental policy making and/or decisions for making on-farm improvements.
Groenbemester noodzakelijk voor topopbrengst : stappenplan maïsteelt deel 2
Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2015
Grondig : vakblad voor de cumelasector, specialisten in groen, grond en infra (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-3260 - p. 54 - 56.
akkerbouw - maïs - bemesting - groenbemesters - nutrientenbeheer - precisielandbouw - geografische informatiesystemen - onkruidbestrijding - arable farming - maize - fertilizer application - green manures - nutrient management - precision agriculture - geographical information systems - weed control
Nu voor de maïsteelt steeds minder mest en kunstmest beschikbaar zijn, is het noodzakelijk om zoveel mogelijk uit de natuur te halen. Het is een manier om toch in de buurt van de maximale opbrengst te komen. Een goede groenbemester speelt daarin een essentiële rol. In deel 2 van het stappenplan maïsteelt alles over het telen van een goede groenbemester.
Ziektebeheersing substraatloze teeltsystemen : naar een robuust systeem tegen ziekten en plagen
Stijger, C.C.M.M. ; Janse, J. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2014
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1335) - 45
bladgroenten - slasoorten - teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - vloeibare kunstmeststoffen - ziektebestrijding - nutrientenbeheer - risicofactoren - monitoring - reductie - plagenbestrijding - leafy vegetables - lettuces - cropping systems - hydroponics - liquid fertilizers - disease control - nutrient management - risk factors - reduction - pest control
De belangrijkste kennislacune rond substraatloze teeltsystemen is het beheersen van de kwaliteit van het voedingswater. Hoge kwaliteit vergt, naast een goede balans van nutriënten, vooral het voorkomen van ziekte- en plaagontwikkeling. Het voorkomen of beheersen van de verspreiding speelt daarbij een grote rol. De bedrijfszekerheid van nieuwe teeltsystemen staat of valt bij de beheersbaarheid van ziekten en plagen. De ziekte- en plaagbeheersing in substraatloze systemen volgen andere principes dan de reguliere (steenwol of grondgebonden) teelt. De gebruikte watervolumes zijn enorm, fysieke barrières ontbreken maar ook een buffer/balans ontbreekt waarmee een direct effect is te benoemen op het risico op ziekte( en plaagverspreiding. De ziekte- en plaagrisico’s bepalen het gebruik van (chemische) gewasbeschermingsmiddelen, spui, maar bovenal het succes van een substraatloze teelt. Het verlagen van het risico op ziekten en plagen en het voorkomen, monitoren en vertragen van een snelle verspreiding daarvan is onderwerp van dit project. Het onderzoek waarin in dit verslag wordt gerapporteerd heeft zich gericht op de kennisvragen rond ziektebeheersing en de ontwikkeling van indicatoren en teeltstrategieën ter voorkoming van ziekten in een robuust substraatloos (water) systeem. Behalve dat een chemische aanpak vanwege het gebruik van grote volumes water in deze nieuwe teeltsystemen vaak geen economisch haalbare oplossing is, is een chemische aanpak voor ziekte- en plaagproblematiek bovendien geen toekomstgerichte oplossing. Daarom heeft het onderzoek zich gericht, naast het voorkomen van aantastingen, vooral op mogelijke natuurlijke en fysische bestrijdingsmaatregelen. In het onderzoek dat heeft gelopen van juni 2013 tot en met mei 2014 zijn in totaal vier achtereenvolgende slateelten uitgevoerd.
Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from food production in China
Ma, L. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Kroeze, C. ; Ju, X. ; Hu, C. ; Oenema, O. ; Zhang, F. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 9-10 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 82 - 89.
greenhouse-gas emissions - reactive nitrogen - environmental-quality - nutrient management - climate-change - n2o emissions - croplands - chain - phosphorus - security
We evaluate nitrogen (N) management options to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from food production in China. First, we review approaches to quantify N2O emissions. We argue that long-term monitoring of N2O measurements at different sites is needed to improve emission estimates. Next, past trends in N2O emissions from food production are evaluated showing that N2O emissions more than doubled in China between 1980 and 2005. In the future, N2O emissions may continue to increase. However, combinations of diet changes, balanced fertilization and integrated nutrient management options can reduce N2O emission by almost two-thirds, relative to a business-as-usual scenario. We argue that further research and policy instruments for N2O reductions are needed on managing N in the food chain in order to ensure N2O emission reduction.
Nutrient use efficiency in the food chain of China
Ma, L. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Gerard Velthof; F. Zhang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738448 - 193
stikstofmeststoffen - fosformeststoffen - voedselketens - voedselzekerheid - kosten voor voedsel - milieueffect - nutrientenbeheer - kringlopen - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - china - nitrogen fertilizers - phosphorus fertilizers - food chains - food security - food costs - environmental impact - nutrient management - cycling - nutrient use efficiency

Key words: Nitrogen, phosphorus, food chain, food pyramid, food system, food security, food cost, environmental impacts, nutrient cycling, nutrient management

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications have greatly contributed to the increased global food production during the last decades, but have also contributed to decreasing N and P use efficiencies (NUE and PUE) in the food production - consumption chain, and to increased N and P losses to air and water, with major ecological implications.

The aim of this thesis is to increase the quantitative understanding of N and P flows and losses in the food production - consumption chain in China at regional level in the past 30 years and to develop strategies to increase NUE and PUE in the food chain. A novel ‘food chain’ approach and the NUFER model were developed to analyse N and P flows in crop production, animal production, food processing and retail, and households. Data were derived from statistical sources, literature and field surveys.

Between 1980 and 2005, NUE and PUE decreased in crop production, increased in the animal production and decreased in the whole food chain. Total N losses to water and atmosphere almost tripled between 1980 (14.3 Tg) and 2005 (42.8 Tg), and P losses to water systems increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Tg. There were significant regional differences in NUE, PUE, and N and P losses; regions with high N and P losses were in Beijing and Tianjin metropolitans, Pearl River Delta, and Yangzi River Delta. Urban expansion is a major driving force for change; total N losses increased 2.9 folds, and P losses increased even 37 folds during the development of Beijing metropolitan, between 1978 and 2008. Scenario analyses indicated that implementation of a package of integrated nutrient management measures, combined with diet changes and increased imports of animal food and feed, are the most effective management options for increasing NUE and PUE, and for decreasing N and P losses.

Application of the food chain approach and the NUFER model can help policy makers in China to plan food production - consumption chains, and thereby manage N and P flows in this chain at regional level.

Nitrogen use and food production in European regions from a global perspective
Grinsven, H.J.M. van; Spiertz, J.H.J. ; Westhoek, H.J. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Erisman, J.W. - \ 2014
The Journal of Agricultural Science 152 (2014)S1. - ISSN 0021-8596 - p. 9 - 19.
greenhouse-gas emissions - use efficiency - management-practices - nutrient management - climate-change - wheat yield - dairy farms - land-use - agriculture - systems
Current production systems for crops, meat, dairy and bioenergy in the European Union (EU) rely strongly on the external input of nitrogen (N). These systems show a high productivity per unit of land. However, the drawback is a complex web of N pollution problems contributing in a major way to degradation of ecosystems. European Union Directives and national policies have improved nutrient management and reduced fertilizer N use in most European countries, which has curbed the N pollution trends particularly in regions with high stocking rates of animals. However, improvement is slowing down and environmental targets for N are not within reach. Building on the 2011 European Nitrogen Assessment, the current paper reviews key features of the complex relationships between N use and food production in Europe in order to develop novel options for a more N-efficient, less N-polluting and secure European food system. One option is to relocate feed and livestock production from Northwestern to Central and Eastern Europe. This would allow a reduction of N rates and N pollution in cereal production in Northwest Europe by 30% (50 kg N/ha), while increasing total cereal production in Europe. Another option is a change towards legume-based cropping systems to produce animal feed, in order to decrease dependence on N fertilizer and feed imports. The greatest challenge for Europe is to decrease the demand for feed commodities, and thus for land and N, by a shift to more balanced (and healthier) diets with less animal protein. These drastic changes can be stimulated by targeted public–private research funding, while the actual implementation can be enhanced by smart payment schemes using, for example money from the Common Agricultural Policy, certification and agreements between stakeholders and players in the food and energy chain. Involving networks of consumers, producers and non-governmental organizations is critical. An effective strategy starts with convincing consumers with aWestern diet to eat less meat and dairy by communicating the associated health benefits and smaller ecological footprints. Internalizing the cost of N pollution leading to increased prices for N-intensive food products may also enhance involvement of consumers and provide financial resources to compensate farmers for loss of income and extra costs for stricter N measures.
Feed-milk-manure nitrogen relationships in global dairy production systems
Powell, J.M. ; Macleod, M. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Opio, C. ; Falcucci, A. ; Tempio, G. ; Steinfeld, H. ; Gerber, P. - \ 2013
Livestock Science 152 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 261 - 272.
dietary-protein - nutrient management - use efficiency - urea nitrogen - farms - cows - excretion - cycle - performance - emissions
Nitrogen (N) inputs from fertilizer, biologically-fixed N, feed, and animal manure sustain productive agriculture. Agricultural systems are limited however in their ability to incorporate N into products, and environmental N losses may become local, regional and global concerns. The anticipated increases in global demand for food, especially for animal products, necessitate an urgent search for practices that enhance N use efficiency (NUE) and reduce environmental N loss. The objectives of this study were to determine feed-milk-manure N relationships for the global dairy herd, and to evaluate how well regional and production system determinations of these relationships correspond to measurements made under experimental conditions and on commercial dairy farms. Data on dairy cattle populations, feed and milk production from 142 countries were used in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model to determine dry matter intake (DMI), N intake (NI), the percentage of NI secreted as milk N (NUE-milk), the percent of NI used by the whole-herd (NUE-herd), and manure N excretion (Nex). On a global basis, an average lactating cow weighs approximately 420 kg; per animal unit (AU = 1000 kg live weight) daily DMI and NI are 21.0 kg and 477 g, respectively; annual milk production is 5000 kg/AU; and NUE-milk and NUE-herd are 16.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Approximately 37% of global lactating cows have NUE-milk of <10% and these low efficient cows account for 10% of the milk production and 33% of Nex globally. Approximately 30% of global lactating cows have NUE-milk between 21% and 25% and these cows account for 53% of the milk production and 35% of Nex globally. Estimates of NUE-milk and Nex corresponded well to measurements under experimental and commercial farm conditions. Study determinations of Nex were however 3-50% lower than IPCC Tier 1 values of Nex for Africa, Middle East, Latin America and Asia. The apparent accuracy of LCA model calculations of Nex should enhance regional, production system and global determinations of dairy Nex loss during collection, storage, and land application, and the amounts of Nex actually recycled through crops and pastures. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Herkenningskaart nutriëntenbeschikbaarheid.
Hanegraaf, M. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2013
akkerbouw - bemesting - nutrientenbeheer - stikstof - gebreksziekten - monitoring - arable farming - fertilizer application - nutrient management - nitrogen - deficiency diseases
De beschikbaarheid van voedingsstoffen in de bodem voor planten wordt voor een groot deel bepaald door de interacties van het bodemleven met de aanwezige organische stof in de bodem. Door grondmonsters te nemen en deze te laten onderzoeken, krijgt u een uitvoerig overzicht van de (in potentie) aanwezige voedingsstoffen voor uw gewassen. Maar niet altijd zijn die potentieel aanwezige stoffen opneembaar voor de plant. Bijvoorbeeld door een onvoldoende of te late vertering van meststoffen, of een te lage pH, door slechte doorworteling of door stagnerend water en zuurstofgebrek
Options for closing the phosphorus cycle in agriculture : assessment of options for Northwest Europe and the Netherlands
Lesschen, J.P. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Dijk, K.C. van; Willemse, J. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 353) - 47
veehouderij - dierhouderij - veevoeder - dierlijke meststoffen - fosfor - nutrientenbeheer - kringlopen - mestoverschotten - gesloten systemen - landbouwbeleid - regionaal landbouwbeleid - noordwest-europa - livestock farming - animal husbandry - fodder - animal manures - phosphorus - nutrient management - cycling - manure surpluses - closed systems - agricultural policy - regional agricultural policy - northwestern europe
This study assessed which options are available for closing the feed-manure phosphorus cycle in agriculture and their contribution to the reduction of the P surplus and P use efficiency. This was assessed at a national scale for the Netherlands as well as a regional scale for Northwest Europe. No export of animal products, with as a consequence the reduction in livestock numbers, is most effective in reducing external P inputs. An effective option that is easier to implement is the reduction in P excretion through changes in the feed intake. For Nortwest Europe the combination of all five options can lead to a reduction of external P inputs of about 50%. For the Netherlands the combination of the options result in a reduction in external P inputs of 35% and a reduction of the manure export of 26%. The effectiveness of large scale manure treatment in the Netherlands is limited
Limits of effective nutrient management in dairy farming: analyses of experimental farm De Marke
Verloop, K. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Herman van Keulen, co-promotor(en): L.B. Šebek. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737199 - 192
melkveehouderij - nutrientenbeheer - organische stof - bodemvruchtbaarheid - stikstof - fosfor - intensieve veehouderij - proefboerderijen - dairy farming - nutrient management - organic matter - soil fertility - nitrogen - phosphorus - intensive livestock farming - experimental farms

Key words: nutrient management, dairy, prototyping, organic matter, soil fertility, nitrogen, phosphor.

Intensive dairy production in the Netherlands is associated with high farm nutrient (N and P) inputs and high losses to the environment. The Dutch government and the dairy sector stimulate farmers to reduce losses through more efficient use of N and P inputs on their farms. This study explores for a dairy farm on dry sandy soil with average Dutch production intensity (12,000 kg milk per ha) the possibilities to meet strict environmental standards related to N and P by maximizing N and P use efficiency at the level of the farm and of the soil. Moreover, the study addresses the effects of efficient nutrient management on soil fertility.

The research was conducted on experimental dairy farm De Marke, that is designed to meet strict environmental standards, implemented in practice in 1989 and modified continuously to meet its targets by prototyping, i.e. a cyclic procedure of designing, implementing, testing and evaluating measures. The thesis evaluates system development since 2000, while results from 1993-1999 were used to analyse long-term developments.

After implementation of the farming system in 1989, the nitrate concentration in groundwater ‘stabilized’ at a level exceeding the environmental standard: 55 mg l-1. Causes of excessive nitrate leaching were examined by relating measured nitrate concentrations to management. Grazing was associated with higher leaching in spite of careful management with rotational grazing. Leaching under permanent grassland was similar to the overall leaching in crop rotations in which grass was alternated with maize and grains. Spatial and temporal patterns of soil N mineralization were explored to improve the synchronization of N application and crop N requirements. This study indicated that fertilizing a 1st year maize crop, following grassland, is not necessary.

Measures implemented since 2000 to improve nutrient efficiency, included reduced grazing, adoption of anaerobic digestion, application of manure in the rows of maize, growing spring barley as the last crop in the arable phase, and, since 2004, the abolishment of fertilizer N. These measures contributed to an increase in the manure-N utilization and to an increase in the farm-N use efficiency up to 2008 to values exceeding the value of 33% that was realized in the period 1993-1999. Farm-N use efficiency was 35% in 2000-2003, 43% in 2004-2008 and 37% in 2009-2010. Farm-P use efficiency also increased as compared to the 87% that was realized in 1993-1999, i.e., it was 103% in 2000-2003 and 91% in 2004-2008. In 2009-2010, however, the farm-P use efficiency decreased to 69%, lower than the value realized in 1993-1999. The lower N and P use efficiency in 2009-2010 can be attributed to the lower N and P yields in grassland as a delayed effect of N limitation resulting from the abolishment of fertilizer N in grassland since 2004. Hence, despite the increase in manure-N utilization, mineral-N use is not yet completely redundant.

P-equilibrium fertilization seems to be compatible with highly efficient crop production, in the short and in the long term. Soil organic matter (SOM) percentage in the upper topsoil decreased by 0.03 yr-1 (average across all land uses) at a constant rate over the last 20 years. The possibilities to stop this decline by higher organic matter inputs to the soil seem conflicting with efficient nutrient use. Hence, the long term dynamics of SOM may become critical for future farm performance. It was concluded that N and P use efficiency can be enhanced substantially by on-farm nutrient management, but that efficient nutrient management may conflict with maintenance of SOM.

Transitions in nutrient management on commercial pilot farms in the Netherlands
Oenema, J. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Herman van Keulen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737250 - 199
melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nutrientenbeheer - voedingsstoffenbalans - stikstofverliezen - graslandbeheer - milieubeheer - experimenteel veldonderzoek - nederland - dairy farming - farm management - nutrient management - nutrient balance - nitrogen losses - grassland management - environmental management - field experimentation - netherlands
De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het evalueren van de transitie van die melkveebedrijven, die voldeden aan wet- en regelgeving wat betreft het milieu en daarvoor intensief werden begeleid door onderzoekers en voorlichters. In het bijzonder gaat het om de volgende onderzoeksvragen: • Kan een project met voorloperbedrijven in een participatieve benadering er voor zorgen dat de kloof in mineralenbeheer tussen een experimenteel bedrijf als ‘De Marke’ en de brede praktijk kleiner wordt door aanpassingen door te voeren in de bedrijfsvoering van voorloperbedrijven? • Welke maatregelen nemen melkveebedrijven om mineralenverliezen te beperken? • Wat zijn de belangrijkste factoren die de graslandopbrengst beïnvloeden en hoe is het beheer van grasland te verbeteren? • Kan regelgeving op basis van middelvoorschriften, als alternatief voor doelvoorschriften, voldoen aan de doelstelling van de kwaliteitsnorm van 50 mg nitraat in het grondwater? • Wat zijn de onzekerheidsmarges van gemonitorde stikstofstromen op melkveebedrijven en welke bedrijfsgegevens dragen het meest bij aan die onzekerheid? Dit onderzoek betreft een evaluatie van het project ‘Koeien & Kansen’, waarbij 16 prototypes zijn uitgewerkt. Dit als alternatief voor enkel pilots op proefbedrijf 'De Marke'.
Our nutrient world. The challenge to produce more food & energy with less pollution
Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Howard, C.M. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Abrol, Y.P. ; Bekunda, M. ; Datta, A. ; Davidson, E. ; Vries, W. de; Oenema, O. ; Zhang, F.S. - \ 2013
Edinburgh : Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Key messages for Rio+20 ) - 114
nutrientenbeheer - kringlopen - stikstofkringloop - fosfor - voedselzekerheid - milieubeleid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nutrient management - cycling - nitrogen cycle - phosphorus - food security - environmental policy - sustainability
The message of this overview is that everyone stands to benefit from nutrients and that everyone can make a contribution to promote sustainable production and use of nutrients. Whether we live in a part of the world with too much or too little nutrients, our daily decisions can make a difference. Without swift and collective action, the next generation will inherit a world where many millions may suffer from food insecurity caused by too few nutrients, where the nutrient pollution threats from too much will become more extreme, and where unsustainable use of nutrients will contribute even more to biodiversity loss and accelerating climate change. Conversely with more sustainable management of nutrients, economies can play a role in a transition to a Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. The Global Overview develops these essential themes, to prepare societies to take the next steps.
Wijzer met mineralen
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2013 2013 (2013)17 jan.
akkerbouw - bemesting - mineralen - mineralenboekhouding - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - nutrientenbeheer - projecten - arable farming - fertilizer application - minerals - nutrient accounting system - nutrient use efficiency - nutrient management - projects
Doelstelling van dit kennisoverdrachtsproject is om akkerbouwers en intermediairs maximaal gebruik te laten maken van de kennis over optimaal en efficiënt gebruik van mineralen. Zowel van de bestaande als de nieuwe kennis die de komende jaren uit onderzoek (mede vanuit het Masterplan Mineralenmanagement) beschikbaar komt. Doelgroepen in dit project zijn alle individuele akkerbouwers, akkerbouwstudiegroepen, adviseurs die zich bezig houden met mineralenmanagement, intermediairs, bestuurders/beleid en het landbouwonderwijs.
Kennis moet stromen webtool
Anonymous, - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR
landbouw - kennisoverdracht - waterkwaliteit - pesticiden - monitoring - teeltsystemen - wateraanvoer - nutrientenbeheer - innovaties - kaderrichtlijn water - agriculture - knowledge transfer - water quality - pesticides - cropping systems - water advance - nutrient management - innovations - water framework directive
De KMS webtool geeft zowel agrarische ondernemers als waterbeheerders inzicht in mogelijkheden om de waterkwaliteit maar ook de waterkwantiteit te verbeteren. In twee stappen is inzicht te krijgen in de voor de gebruiker meest relevante maatregelen. De webtool is ontwikkeld door LEI Wageningen UR in opdracht van de projectgroep Kennis Moet Stromen (KMS).
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Sustainable Vegetable Production in South East Asia
Neve, S. De; Böhme, M. ; Everaarts, A.P. ; Neeteson, J.J. - \ 2012
Leuven : ISHS (Acta horticulturae 958) - ISBN 9789066055353 - 217
groenten - groenteteelt - gewasproductie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - teeltsystemen - nutrientenbeheer - plantenveredeling - gewasbescherming - zuidoost-azië - vegetables - vegetable growing - crop production - sustainability - farming systems - cropping systems - nutrient management - plant breeding - plant protection - south east asia
Improving nitrogen management on grassland on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands
Oenema, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Keulen, H. van - \ 2012
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 162 (2012)nov. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 116 - 126.
use efficiency - nutrient management - system - agriculture - carbon - regulations - phosphorus - balances - project - impact
Nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), the ratio of N output and N input, is rather low on dairy farms with high stocking densities and high N input on grassland resulting in high N losses to the environment. This study describes and analyses the development and variation in N management on grassland on 16 commercial pilot dairy farms in the project ‘Cows & Opportunities’ (C&O) over a 12-year period (1998–2009, with the aim that applying this knowledge to other farmers may provide insight in the (im)possibilities to improve management. Farm milk production ranged from 11 to 23 Mg ha-1 and grassland occupied ca. 80% of the total land area (between 63 and 97%). Mean N application rate (kg total N ha-1 year-1) on grassland (in manure, chemical fertilizer, excreta during grazing, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) on the pilot farms decreased from 540 in 1998 to 450 in 2001, while in the remainder of the period the inter-annual variation was low (between 400 and 450). Mean dry matter yields on grassland (11 Mg ha-1) varied among years and farms (between 7.7 and 16 Mg ha-1), without any significant temporal trend. We observed no trend of diminishing returns of dry matter yields at farm scale up to an N application rate on grassland of ca. 600 kg ha-1 because farms with a high production intensity (Mg milk ha-1) need more dry matter than farms with a lower intensity and were able to increase nitrogen management on grassland with high N input levels. Management options that result in improved NUE include reduced grazing time which results in increased dry matter yields and NUE as a consequence of better utilization of organic manure.
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