Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice
Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism

Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.

Nutrimetabolomics: An Integrative Action for Metabolomic Analyses in Human Nutritional Studies
Ulaszewska, Marynka M. ; Weinert, Christoph H. ; Trimigno, Alessia ; Portmann, Reto ; Andres Lacueva, Cristina ; Badertscher, René ; Brennan, Lorraine ; Brunius, Carl ; Bub, Achim ; Capozzi, Francesco ; Cialiè Rosso, Marta ; Cordero, Chiara E. ; Daniel, Hannelore ; Durand, Stéphanie ; Egert, Bjoern ; Ferrario, Paola G. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Franceschi, Pietro ; Garcia-Aloy, Mar ; Giacomoni, Franck ; Giesbertz, Pieter ; González-Domínguez, Raúl ; Hanhineva, Kati ; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y. ; Kopka, Joachim ; Kulling, Sabine E. ; Llorach, Rafael ; Manach, Claudine ; Mattivi, Fulvio ; Migné, Carole ; Münger, Linda H. ; Ott, Beate ; Picone, Gianfranco ; Pimentel, Grégory ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Riccadonna, Samantha ; Rist, Manuela J. ; Rombouts, Caroline ; Rubert, Josep ; Skurk, Thomas ; Sri Harsha, Pedapati S.C. ; Meulebroek, Lieven Van; Vanhaecke, Lynn ; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa ; Wishart, David ; Vergères, Guy - \ 2018
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2018). - ISSN 1613-4125
GC–MS - LC–MS - metabolomics - NMR - nutrition
The life sciences are currently being transformed by an unprecedented wave of developments in molecular analysis, which include important advances in instrumental analysis as well as biocomputing. In light of the central role played by metabolism in nutrition, metabolomics is rapidly being established as a key analytical tool in human nutritional studies. Consequently, an increasing number of nutritionists integrate metabolomics into their study designs. Within this dynamic landscape, the potential of nutritional metabolomics (nutrimetabolomics) to be translated into a science, which can impact on health policies, still needs to be realized. A key element to reach this goal is the ability of the research community to join, to collectively make the best use of the potential offered by nutritional metabolomics. This article, therefore, provides a methodological description of nutritional metabolomics that reflects on the state-of-the-art techniques used in the laboratories of the Food Biomarker Alliance (funded by the European Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (JPI HDHL)) as well as points of reflections to harmonize this field. It is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to present a pragmatic guidance on metabolomic methodologies, providing readers with useful “tips and tricks” along the analytical workflow.
Food systems for healthier diets in Ethiopia : toward a research agenda
Gebru, Mestawet ; Remans, Roseline ; Brouwer, Inge ; Baye, Kaleab ; Melesse, M.B. ; Covic, Namukolo ; Habtamu, Fekadu ; Abay, Alem Hadera ; Hailu, Tesfaye ; Hirvonen, Kalle ; Kassaye, Tarik ; Kennedy, Gina ; Lachat, Carl ; Lemma, Ferew ; McDermott, John ; Minten, Bart ; Moges, Tibebu ; Reta, Fidaku ; Tadesse, Eneye ; Taye, Tamene ; Truebswasser, Ursula ; Berg, Marrit van den - \ 2018
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (IFPRI Discussion Paper 01720) - 51 p.
Ethiopia - food systems - dietary diversity - nutrition
While dietary energy supply has improved, diets in Ethiopia remain low in diversity and provide insufficient amounts of protein, vitamin A, and zinc. Poor dietary quality contributes to the multiple burden of malnutrition in the country, with 38% stunting among children under five years and 24% anemia and 8% overweight among adult women.
Recent Ethiopian government policies and programs call for sustainable food systems approaches aimed at achieving better nutrition for all. Such food systems approaches imply actions that include but also go beyond agriculture to consider the many processes and actors involved in food production, processing, storage, transportation, trade, transformation, retailing, and consumption.
In this paper, we identify research streams to support the operationalizing of such food systems approaches in Ethiopia. To this end, we engaged with stakeholders, reviewed the literature, and applied a food systems framework to research priorities in the Ethiopian context. We develop an initial food systems profile of Ethiopia and identify 25 priority research questions, categorized into three main areas. A first area focuses on diagnosis and foresight research, for example, to further characterize dietary gaps and transitions in the context of the variety of Ethiopian settings, and to understand and anticipate which food system dynamics contribute positively or negatively to those trends. A second area includes implementation research and focuses on building a base of evidence on the dietary impact of combined demand-, market-, and supply-side interventions/innovations that focus on nonstaples; potential trade-offs in terms of economic, social, and environmental outcomes; and interactions between food system actors. A third area focuses on institutional and policy processes and explores enabling factors and private or public anchors that can take food systems approaches for healthier diets to a regional or national scale.
The paper contextualizes the case of Ethiopia within global food systems thinking and thereby aims to stimulate in- and cross-country learning.
Toine Timmermans: ‘Ik pleit voor grootschalige inzet reststromen’
Timmermans, Toine - \ 2018
residual streams - biomass - nutrition - agricultural wastes - animal health - animal welfare - animal production
Exploring barriers and enablers for scaling up a community-based grain bank intervention for improved infant and young child feeding in Ethiopia : A qualitative process evaluation
Sako, Binta ; Leerlooijer, Joanne N. ; Lelisa, Azeb ; Hailemariam, Abebe ; Brouwer, Inge D. ; Tucker Brown, Amal ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. - \ 2018
Maternal and Child Nutrition 14 (2018)2. - ISSN 1740-8695
complementary feeding - Ethiopia - infant and child - nutrition - nutritional interventions - process evaluation - scaling-up
Child malnutrition remains high in Ethiopia, and inadequate complementary feeding is a contributing factor. In this context, a community-based intervention was designed to provide locally made complementary food for children 6–23 months, using a bartering system, in four Ethiopian regions. After a pilot phase, the intervention was scaled up from 8 to 180 localities. We conducted a process evaluation to determine enablers and barriers for the scaling up of this intervention. Eight study sites were selected to perform 52 key informant interviews and 31 focus group discussions with purposely selected informants. For analysis, we used a framework describing six elements of successful scaling up: socio-political context, attributes of the intervention, attributes of the implementers, appropriate delivery strategy, the adopting community, and use of research to inform the scale-up process. A strong political will, alignment of the intervention with national priorities, and integration with the health care system were instrumental in the scaling up. The participatory approach in decision-making reinforced ownership at community level, and training about complementary feeding motivated mothers and women's groups to participate. However, the management of the complex intervention, limited human resources, and lack of incentives for female volunteers proved challenging. In the bartering model, the barter rate was accepted, but the bartering was hindered by unavailability of cereals and limited financial and material resources to contribute, threatening the project's sustainability. Scaling up strategies for nutrition interventions require sufficient time, thorough planning, and assessment of the community's capacity to contribute human, financial, and material resources.
Oral Nutrition as a Form of Pre-Operative Enhancement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer : A Systematic Review
Bruns, Emma R.J. ; Argillander, Tanja E. ; Heuvel, Baukje Van Den; Buskens, Christianne J. ; Duijvendijk, Peter Van; Winkels, Renate M. ; Kalf, Annette ; Zaag, Edwin S. Van Der; Wassenaar, Eelco B. ; Bemelman, Willem A. ; Munster, Barbara C. Van - \ 2018
Surgical Infections 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1096-2964 - p. 1 - 10.
colorectal cancer - nutrition - prehabilitation - surgery
Background: Nutritional status has major impacts on the outcome of surgery, in particular in patients with cancer. The aim of this review was to assess the merit of oral pre-operative nutritional support as a part of prehabilitation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations in order to review all trials investigating the effect of oral pre-operative nutritional support in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. The primary outcome was overall complication rate. Secondary outcomes were incision infection rate, anastomotic leakage rate, and length of hospital stay. Results: Five randomized controlled trials and one controlled trial were included. The studies contained a total of 583 patients with an average age of 63 y (range 23-88 y), of whom 87% had colorectal cancer. Malnourishment rates ranged from 8%-68%. All investigators provided an oral protein supplement. Overall patient compliance rates ranged from 72%-100%. There was no significant reduction in the overall complication rate in the interventional groups (odds ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.52 - 1.25). Conclusion: Current studies are too heterogeneous to conclude that pre-operative oral nutritional support could enhance the condition of patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Patients at risk have a relatively lean body mass deficit (sarcopenia) rather than an absolute malnourished status. Compliance is an important element of prehabilitation. Targeting patients at risk, combining protein supplements with strength training, and defining standardized patient-related outcomes will be essential to obtain satisfactory results.
Sustainable protein technology : An outlook for further research
Voudouris, Panagiotis ; Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina ; Sanders, Johan P.M. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Bruins, Marieke E. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 6 p.
nutrition - biobased economy - protein
Dossier Veranderend eetpatroon
Mols, H. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Warnaar, M. ; Methorst, B. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Dagevos, H. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Genderen, R.A. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
nutrition - feeding habits - consumers - consumption - proteins - health
De trends in voedselland volgen elkaar in snel tempo op. Gezond, duurzaam, natuurlijk, gemak, out of home, fairtrade zijn trenditems die we in kranten, vakbladen en actualiteitenrubrieken, vlogs en blogs dagelijks kunnen ervaren.
Maar leidt het ook tot gewenste veranderingen in de voedselkeuze van de consument naar een gezonder en duurzamer eetpatroon.
Food Transition
Mols, H. ; Warnaar, M. ; Methorst, B. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Dagevos, H. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Genderen, R.A. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food pattern has positive effects on public health and health care costs. A sustainable food pattern has positive effects on the environment and the (city) landscape. This wiki is made especially for educational purposes, for teachers in Dutch mbo and hbo.
The role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy : a case-control study
Visser, Nora A. ; Notermans, Nicolette C. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. de; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Vrancken, Alexander F.J.E. - \ 2017
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1085-9489 - p. 455 - 459.
alcohol - case–control study - nutrition - polyneuropathy
The aim of this case–control study is to investigate the role of nutrition as risk factor for polyneuropathy. Three hundred eighteen patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy and 636 matched controls completed a validated food frequency questionnaire that covered nutrient intake and alcohol consumption. As risk estimates, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for the intake of energy and nutrients. Energy and nutrient intake did not differ between patients and controls, regardless of moderate alcohol consumption. Nutrition is not a risk factor for chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy.
Fermentatie is hot: nieuwe toepassingen van een oeroude techniek
Smid, Eddy ; Hugenholtz, Jeroen - \ 2017
biofuels - biobased economy - bioenergy - chemical industry - nutrition - fermentation - cellulose - bacteria - biomass
Molecular assessment of muscle health and function : The effect of age, nutrition and physical activity on the human muscle transcriptome and metabolom
Hangelbroek, Roland W.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Sander Kersten; Lisette de Groot, co-promotor(en): Mark Boekschoten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437103 - 205
muscles - age - nutrition - physical activity - transcriptomes - metabolomes - elderly - creatine - phosphocreatine - vitamin d - atrophy - spieren - leeftijd - voeding - lichamelijke activiteit - transcriptomen - metabolomen - ouderen - fosfocreatine - vitamine d - atrofie

Prolonged lifespan and decreased fertility will lead to an increased proportion of older adults in the world population (population aging). An important strategy to deal with population aging has been to promote healthy aging; not only to prevent mounting health care costs, but also to maintain independence and quality of life of older populations for as long as possible. Close to the opposite of the healthy aging is frailty. A major component of (physical) frailty is sarcopenia: age-related loss of muscle mass. Decreased muscle size and strength has been associated with a wide variety of negative health outcomes, including increased risk of hospitalization, physical disability and even death. Therefore, maintaining muscle size and strength is very important for healthy aging. Nutrition and physical activity are possible strategies to maintain or even improve muscle function with age.

The effect of nutrition, age, frailty and physical activity on the function of skeletal muscle is complex. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved can provide new insights in potential strategies to maintain muscle function over the life course. This thesis aims to investigate these mechanisms and processes that underlie the effects of age, frailty and physical activity by leveraging the sensitivity and comprehensiveness of transcriptomics and metabolomics.

Chapter 2 and 3 describe the effects of age, frailty and resistance-type exercise training on the skeletal muscle transcriptome and metabolome. Both the transcriptome and metabolome show significant differences between frail and healthy older adults. These differences are similar to the differneces between healthy young men and healthy older adults, suggesting that frailty presents itself as a more pronounced form of aging, somewhat independent of chronological age. These age and frailty related differences in the transcriptome are partially reversed by resistance-type exercise training, in accordance with the observed improvement in muscle strength. Regression analysis revealed that the protocadherin gamma gene cluster may be important to skeletal muscle function. Protocadherin gamma is involved in axon guidance and may be upregulated due to the denervation-reinnervation cycles observed in skeletal muscle of older individuals. The metabolome suggested that resistance-type exercise training led to a decrease in branched-chain amino acid oxidation, as shown by a decrease in amino acid derived carnitines. Lastly, the blood metabolome showed little agreement with the metabolome in skeletal muscle, indicating that blood is a poor read-out of muscle metabolism.

We assessed the effect of knee immobilization with creatine supplementation or placebo on the skeletal muscle transcriptome and metabolome in chapter 4. Knee immobilization caused muscle mass loss and strength loss in all participants, with no differences between creatine and placebo groups. Knee immobilization appeared to induce the HDAC4-myogenin axis, which is primarily associated with denervation and motor neuron diseases. The metabolome showed changes consistent with the decreased expression of energy metabolism genes. While acyl-carnitine levels tended to decrease with knee immobilization, one branched-chain amino acid-derived acyl carnitine was increased after knee immobilization, suggesting increased amino acid oxidation.

Vitamin D deficiency is common among older adults and has been linked to muscle weakness. Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a strategy to improve muscle function among older populations. In chapter 5, supplementation with vitamin D (calcifediol, 25(OH)D) is investigated as nutritional strategy to improve muscle function among frail older adults. However, we observed no effect of vitamin D on the muscle transcriptome. These findings indicate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal muscle may be either absent, weak, or limited to a small subset of muscle cells.

Transcriptomic changes due to different forms of muscle disuse are compared in chapter 6 (primarily knee immobilization and bed rest). The goal was to determine the similarities and differences among various causes of muscle atrophy in humans (primarily muscle disuse). Both knee immobilization and bed rest led to significant changes in the muscle transcriptome. However, the overlap in significantly changed genes was relatively small. Knee immobilization was characterized by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and induction of the HDAC4/Myogenin axis, whereas bed rest revealed increased expression of genes of the immune system and increased expression of lysosomal genes. Knee immobilization showed the highest similarity with age and frailty-related transcriptomic changes. This finding suggests that knee immobilization may be the most suitable form of disuse atrophy to assess the effectiveness of strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss in humans.

The transcriptome and metabolome are incredibly useful tools in describing the wide array of biological systems within skeletal muscle. These systems can be modulated using physical activity (or lack thereof) as well as nutrition. This thesis describes some of these processes and highlights several unexplored genes and metabolites that may be important for maintaining or even optimizing muscle function. In the future, it may be possible to optimize both exercise and nutrition for each individual using these techniques; or even better, cheaper and less invasive alternatives.

The optimal approach to nutrition and cystic fibrosis : Latest evidence and recommendations
Hollander, Francis M. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Heijerman, Harry G.M. - \ 2017
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 23 (2017)6. - ISSN 1070-5287 - p. 556 - 561.
cystic fibrosis - cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator - evidence-based guidelines - nutrition - pulmonary function

Purpose of review Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive genetic disease that affects multiple organ systems. Therapy is directed to maintain and optimize nutritional status and pulmonary function, as these are key factors in survival. In this review, the most recent findings regarding nutritional management associated with pulmonary function and outcome will be explored. Recent findings Evidence-based and expert-based guidelines emphasize the need for adequate nutritional intake to improve nutritional status. For infants and young children, the aim is to achieve the 50th percentile of weight and length for a healthy same-age population up to age 2 years. For older children and adolescents 2-18 years, the target is a BMI of at or above the 50th percentile for healthy children. For CF adults of at least 18 years, the target is a BMI of at or above 22kg/m2 for women and at or above 23kg/m2 for men. Recently, new drugs are developed with the aim to treat the malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. This potentiator/corrector therapy improves lung function and nutritional status and decreases the number of infective exacerbations. As survival is improving and the CF population is aging, it is important to focus on micronutrient and macronutrient intake of CF patients in different age and disease stages. Summary Recent evidence-based nutritional guidelines and improved medical treatment support the nutritional monitoring and interventions in CF patients. Nutritional care should be personalized and provided by a specialized CF dietitian because patients' care needs may change dramatically during their disease progress.

More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Voedselallergie - hoe kom je er vanaf? : WURcademy
Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2017
Ede : Wageningen University & Research
Allergic reactions often occur already in babies, but also more and more in children and teenagers. Sometimes they can overcome them, sometimes the allergy remains their entire life. Treatments of allergic patients often solely exists of avoiding the allergen or medical treatment of the allergic symptoms. Therefor these people have to adjust their lifestyle to their allergy. Are there already measures developed that could cure people with a food allergy?
Gluten - Vriend of vijand? : WURcademy
Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2017
Ede : Wageningen University & Research
Coeliac disease or gluten intolerance is a food related immune disease, caused by an hypersensitive reaction to gluten. Gluten are certain proteins that occur in grains of wheat, rye and barley. They are used more and more frequently in a wide range of food products because of their special properties. About 1-3% of the population has coeliac disease. The only solutions thus far remains a lifelong gluten free diet. Furthermore, there are also more people reported that are hypersensitive to wheat products and gluten, while they don’t have symptoms of coeliac disease. The cause of this ‘wheat-sensitivity’ remains still unknown. Are gluten and wheat ‘bad’ for all consumers or only for coeliac patients?
Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes : Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study
Wardenaar, Floris C. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): Marco Mensink; Jeanne de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430326 - 189
food intake - food supplements - athletes - nutrition - sport - dietary guidelines - netherlands - voedselopname - voedselsupplementen - atleten - voeding - dieetrichtlijnen - nederland

Background: Well-trained elite athletes differ from the general population in being considerably more physically active and by other lifestyle characteristics including intensive training routines and periodisation of their training programs. Hence, adequate intake of energy and nutrients is of great importance to this population to ensure optimal performance and recovery during training or competition and also to minimize health risks. A consistent dietary intake pattern, in line with the sport-specific recommendations can be difficult to achieve for this group. The specific recommendations are formulated for nutritional intake during and after training or within competition. However, a large variation is seen in dietary intake by athletes. Therefore, the question arises as to what extent athletes meet recommendations and use nutritional supplements in an optimal manner.

Aims: First, to investigate dietary intake and nutritional supplement use by well-trained Dutch athletes and compare these intakes with recommendations both for the general population and sport nutrition recommendations, which are based on expert consensus. Second, to provide an up-to-date overview of nutrient intake levels in a diverse and relatively large group of Dutch elite and sub-elite athletes practicing sports at the highest competitive level.

Methods: As part of this thesis 24-hour recalls and questionnaires were used to gain insight into dietary intake and nutritional supplement use (n=553). To validate our methods, 24-hour nitrogen urine excretions were obtained in a subsample of our athletic population (n=47). A questionnaire was used to 1) investigate the prevalence of nutritional supplement use in a large sample of the athletic population (n=778) and 2) investigate the prevalence of nutritional supplement use in a large sample of the Dutch general population (n=1544). Finally, food intake during an ultramarathon was monitored (n=4) and questioned using a food frequency questionnaire (n=41).

Results: Our validation study showed that 24-hour recalls and accompanying questionnaires underestimated protein intake in young elite athletes to the same extent as reported for non- athlete populations. Notwithstanding this, the method was considered suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. It was found that most athletes were able to meet the estimated average requirement (EAR) for carbohydrate and protein. Regarding sport nutrition recommendations, most of the athletes met protein (1.2 g/kg) but not carbohydrate recommendations (5 g/kg). No major differences in carbohydrate and protein intake were seen between sports categories (i.e. endurance, team and strength athletes). Athletes were at risk of too low intake levels of several micronutrients, especially when they did not use dietary supplements (i.e. vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and B2 in men and women, and iron in women), whereas users of supplements showed a slightly elevated risk of intake levels exceeding the upper intake level (UL). This was in particular the case for vitamin B3. Our investigations in ultramarathon runners showed that these athletes did not reach sports nutrition recommendations from their habitual diet. In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation in nutrient and fluid intake was seen. This may be related to a high incidence of GI distress (82% of the runners reported GI complaints, but severe GI distress was low). Use of dietary supplements and sport nutrition products in the general population was reported by two-thirds of all respondents. Thirty-three percent reported the use of sport nutrition products. One could question whether the use of these energy containing sport nutrition products fits all respondents’ physical activity needs. Furthermore, it was shown that almost all athletes (97%) have used nutritional supplements some time during their athletic careers. Additionally, receiving dietary counselling seems to result in better choices with respect to nutritional supplement use.

Conclusion: On a population level and with respect to the existing sport nutrition recommendations, nutritional intake in well-trained Dutch competitive athletes was low to moderate for carbohydrate intake and sufficient for protein intake. Suboptimal consumption of micronutrients was reported based on comparison with the estimated average requirement (EAR) for several micronutrients, especially for vitamin D. The use of dietary supplements adds to dietary intake. However, not all athletes consume these types of products, and day to day compliance in supplement users is low. Athletes are advised to focus on the selection of whole food carbohydrate-rich products with a high nutrient density and to consume a large variety of products containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. When athletes experience difficulties in following these recommendations, the advice could be to use a low dose multivitamin (50-100% RDA).

Fruit & Veggie Challenge
Lambalgen, Jorien van; Willemsen-Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
nutrition - fruit - vegetables - children
6 leerzame challenges over fruit & groente met 10 quizvragen, 1 stelling en 1 uitdaging
Smaakmissie vlees, vis en vervangers : Handleiding groep 5-6
Vernooij, Annelou ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
Steunpunt Smaaklessen
nutrition - children - health - feeding habits - diets - teaching materials
Mitchel is een danser en hij organiseert een dansbootcamp voor kinderen. Nou krijgt hij ineens allerlei vragen van ouders over het eten tijdens de bootcamp. Vooral over vlees, vis, vega.. de eiwitten dus. Mitchel is erg druk met het bedenken van zijn moves en heeft dus helemaal geen tijd om dit uit te zoeken. Kunnen de leerlingen hem helpen om de juiste keuzes te maken en zorgen dat er informerende bordjes bij het buffet komen te staan? Ga op Smaakmissie! In deze Smaakmissie ontdekken leerlingen van alles over vlees, vis, peulvruchten ei en noten door zelf op onderzoek uit te gaan, zowel binnen als buiten de klas. De Smaakmissie bestaat uit 6 interactieve lessen met aanvullend een digibordmodule. Lees hier hoe de Smaakmissie werkt en ga aan de slag!
Smaakmissie olie en vet : Handleiding groep 7-8
Vernooij, Annelou ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
Steunpunt Smaaklessen
De onderzoekster heeft hulp nodig! Ze is erg druk met het doen van onderzoek naar olie en vetten. Via de helpdesk kunnen mensen ook allerlei vragen stellen over olie en vetten maar de helpdeskmedewerker is ziek! De onderzoekster is zelf te druk maar ze kan de vragen van de klanten toch niet onbeantwoord laten? Kunnen de leerlingen hierbij helpen? Ga op Smaakmissie! In deze Smaakmissie ontdekken leerlingen van alles over olie en vet door zelf op onderzoek uit te gaan, zowel binnen als buiten de klas. De Smaakmissie bestaat uit 6 interactieve lessen met aanvullend een digibordmodule. Lees hier hoe de Smaakmissie werkt en ga aan de slag!
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