Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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CVB Veevoedertabel 2016 : chemische samenstellingen en nutritionele waarden van voedermiddelen
Blok, M.C. ; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
Netherlands : CVB - 629
voedertabellen - voer - chemische samenstelling - voedingswaarde - diervoedering - diervoeding - feed composition tables - feeds - chemical composition - nutritive value - animal feeding - animal nutrition
Energie en eiwitwaardeschatting gras-klaverkuilen
Schooten, H.A. van; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 994) - 33
grasklaver - eiwitten - energie - voedingswaarde - biochemie - diervoedering - grass-clover swards - proteins - energy - nutritive value - biochemistry - animal feeding
Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food
Broekhoven, S. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; Joop van Loon; Tiny van Boekel. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 178
insecten als voedsel - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - voedselveiligheid - tenebrio molitor - alphitobius diaperinus - insects as food - food quality - nutritive value - food safety
Maillard reaction products in pet foods
Rooijen, C. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Guido Bosch; Peter Wierenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575523 - 182
gezelschapsdieren - huisdierenvoer - maillard-reactie - voedselverwerking - voedingswaarde - diergezondheid - lysine - stoom - omhullen - verteerbaarheid - voedselchemie - voedertechnologie - pets - pet foods - maillard reaction - food processing - nutritive value - animal health - steam - pelleting - digestibility - food chemistry - feed technology

Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a reducing sugar binds to a free reactive amino group of an amino acid. In intact proteins, the ε-amino group of lysine is the most abundant free amino group. The reaction reduces the bioavailability of lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products. The aim of this thesis was to determine the occurrence and progression of the Maillard reaction during the manufacturing of pet foods, the subsequent impact on nutritive value of the food, and the bioavailability of Maillard reaction products in cats.

In Chapter 2, the scientific literature was reviewed to investigate the current state of knowledge on the Maillard reaction and its potential effect on the nutritive value of pet foods and on pet health. Determination of the difference between total and reactive lysine by chemical methods provides an indication of the Maillard reaction in pet foods. Studies reported that the proportion of reactive lysine is on average 73% (range 39 – 100%) of total lysine, and that foods for growing dogs may be at risk of supplying less lysine than the animals require. The endogenous analogues of Maillard reaction products, advanced glycation end-products, have been associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as diabetes and impaired renal function. In dogs, data indicate higher advanced glycation end-product contents in plasma from dogs suffering from canine diabetes mellitus compared with healthy control animals. In addition, elevated levels of advanced glycation end-products in tissue proteins in dogs were observed for a number of diseases. To date it was unknown to what extent Maillard reaction products were present in pet foods, and whether dietary Maillard reaction products can be associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes and impaired renal function in pet animals. As the Maillard reaction is induced by processing, changing processing conditions should have an influence on the severity of the reaction. However, effects of processing conditions on the difference in total and reactive lysine contents in pet foods were inconsistent and did not always correspond to model systems. Processing temperature was reported to be the most important factor followed by moisture level. In addition, differences between total and reactive lysine were observed in several ingredients commonly used in pet foods. Reviewing the literature indicates that it is unknown to which extent the Maillard reaction occurs and whether Maillard reaction products are present in pet foods. There might be a risk for certain foods not meeting minimal lysine requirements. It is also unknown what the exact effect of processing on the Maillard reaction is in pet foods.

The experiment described in Chapter 3 was designed to evaluate whether commercial pet foods meet minimal lysine requirements. Sixty-seven extruded, canned and pelleted commercially available dog and cat foods formulated for growth and maintenance were analysed using conventional amino acid analysis and O-methylisourea as reagent for reactive lysine. Sixty out of the 67 foods in this study, regardless of the type of processing technology used, contained a lower reactive lysine than total lysine content. On average, pelleted and extruded foods contain lower reactive to total lysine ratios compared to canned foods (0.85, 0.89, and 0.93, respectively). All cat foods and foods for adult dogs met minimal lysine requirements. However, eight dry foods for growing dogs contained reactive lysine contents between 96 and 138% of the minimal lysine requirement, indicating that reactive lysine has to be between 62 and 104% digestible to meet minimal requirement. Considering the variability in reactive lysine digestibility, these foods could be at risk of not meeting minimal lysine requirements for growing dogs.

In Chapter 4, the foods from Chapter 3 were used to quantitate the Maillard reaction products fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and the cross-linked amino acid lysinoalanine (LAL) using UPLC-MS. In all foods, Maillard reaction products and LAL were found but in highly variable amounts. Type of processing seems to be a key factor for the concentration of FL, CML and HMF, with on average higher amounts in canned foods than pelleted and extruded foods (on a dry matter basis). The contents of CML and HMF found in commercial pet foods are, on average, within the range reported in processed human food products. Average daily intake (mg/kg body weight0.75) of HMF was 122 times higher for dogs and 38 times higher for cats than the calculated average intake for adult humans. Average daily intake of CML was comparable to the intake of adult humans.

As Chapters 3 and 4 indicated that pelleted foods contain more Maillard reaction products than extruded foods, despite the less severe production process, an experiment was designed to gain insight in the effect of steam pelleting on the Maillard reaction in a dog food (Chapter 5). The aim was to examine the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90°C) and die hole length (ø 5 × 45, 65, and 80 mm) during pelleting processing of a standard dry dog food on selected indicators of the Maillard reaction (total lysine, reactive lysine, FL, CML, HMF, LAL), browning development and CIE-Lab colour. Steam pelleting did not cause a significant loss of reactive lysine and change of absorbance values. This indicates that the effect of steam pelleting on the nutritive value of the foods is low. However, steam pelleting did increase the content of Maillard reaction products. The formation of the Maillard reaction products was associated with an increase in temperature and die hole length during the steam pelleting process. The unprocessed ingredient mix already contained a larger difference between reactive and total lysine, and contents of Maillard reaction products than was induced during steam pelleting. Therefore, the choice of the ingredients used in this study mainly determines reactive lysine content and Maillard reaction products in the pet food formulation.

As it is unknown to which extent extrusion processing influences the Maillard reaction in pet foods, the effect of extrusion processing on selected indicators of the Maillard reaction was determined (Chapter 6). The extrusion parameters temperature (140 and 165°C), moisture content (200 and 300 g/kg) and screw speed (100 and 200 rpm) were applied to two dry dog foods formulated using either intact or hydrolysed proteins. Extrusion processing in general results in a decrease in total and reactive lysine and an increase in FL, CML, HMF and LAL content. However, this effect appeared more pronounced in the diet containing hydrolysed protein. Decreasing temperature and moisture content led to higher total and reactive lysine contents, and less Maillard reaction products in the dog foods. Increasing screw speed had a positive influence on total and reactive lysine, but a negative influence on Maillard reaction products. As was found in Chapter 5, the unprocessed ingredient mixtures in this experiment contained already more Maillard reaction products than was induced during extrusion processing.

Whether the Maillard reaction products reported in pet foods are physiologically relevant in pet animals depends on the bioavailability of these components. Therefore, urinary excretion was studied in adult cats fed commercial moist and dry foods containing varying amounts of FL, CML and the amino acid LAL (Chapter 7). A pilot study was first conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of the Maillard reaction products when changing diets with contrasting contents of Maillard reaction products. An adaptation time of 1 d was deemed sufficient in adult cats. The short adaptation time indicates an effective urinary excretion of Maillard reaction products. In the main study, six commercially processed dry and six moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in two parallel randomized, 36-day, balanced Latin square designs. Urine was collected quantitatively and FL, CML and LAL were analysed in foods and collected urine using HPLC-MS. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry and moist foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary Maillard reaction products are absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. Minimum apparent absorption based on urinary excretion (assuming 100% of the excreted component originates from the diet) of FL, CML and LAL was found to range between 8 to 23%, 25 to 73% and 6 to 19%, respectively. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML and LAL in the dry foods and for CML and LAL in the moist foods. The observed decrease in urinary recovery with increasing intake suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism or urinary excretion.

The studies reported in this thesis are one of the first to determine Maillard reaction products in pet foods and the bioavailability of FL, CML and LAL in cats. In addition, the results highlight the importance of reactive lysine measurement in foods for growing dogs used as weaning diets. Contribution of the absorption of dietary Maillard reaction products to the pathogenesis of various health conditions requires further study, as well as the potential role of restriction of dietary Maillard reaction products in prevention and treatment of long-term health implications. Extrusion and pelleting processing do increase the Maillard reaction, however, choice of ingredients appears to have a larger effect on the content of Maillard reaction products and can, therefore, be a useful strategy for pet food manufacturers that want to decrease the content of Maillard reaction products in their pet foods.

Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality
Koreissi, Y. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; Diego Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574557 - 177
digitaria exilis - digitaria - voedingsstoffenverbetering - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - ijzer - zink - west-afrika - nutrient improvement - food quality - nutritive value - iron - zinc - west africa

Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: Towards improving nutrient quality


Hidden hunger affects a far greater percentage of the world’s population with iron and zinc deficiencies being the most common, particularly affecting women of reproductive age. The primary cause of the mineral and vitamin deficiencies in developing countries is inadequate intakes of multiple and bioavailable micronutrients in common cereal-based diets, emphasizing the need for increased quality of diets. Plant genetic diversity, and also indigenous foods and/ or traditional grains as fonio may play a critical role in reduction of the problem for resource poor populations. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most ancient West African cereal representing a key crop in food supply during crop shortfall periods. However, less is known about its potential to contribute improving nutrition and health. In this context, the thesis investigated whether we could improve the nutrient quality of fonio, especially iron, to potentially contribute to the daily intake of population.

Investigations in this thesis comprised: i) the consumption pattern of fonio and its contribution to nutrient intakes (108 women aged 15‐49 year-old selected from 3‐stage cluster sampling procedure in Bamako, Mali for the purpose of the fonio project); ii) the validation of the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing population level intakes of energy and nutrients (36 women out of 108 previously selected); iii) the genetic diversity, nutrient content especially bioavailable iron and zinc content and the effect of processing on fonio landraces (12 fonio landraces collected from farmers in Mali); iv) the sensory variability among fonio landraces (20 fonio landraces collected from farmers in Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso); v) improved food processing combining dephytinisation with native phytase and fortification of fonio diet with iron to increase iron absorption (16 women aged 18-30 year-old from simple random sampling in Cotonou, Benin).

The results indicated that i) fonio is consumed one to three times/ month by 68% of our study population. The average daily portion size is 152g when consumed. Only 5% of the study population consumed fonio dishes contributing to 16% of the daily energy intake for the consumed portion size, reflecting the low consumption of fonio related to significant barriers such as availability of cooked fonio in urban markets, lack of consistent supply throughout the year, difficult post- harvest processing, high-quality product demand, hard texture coupled with time consuming cooking process, and high cost of fonio products.

The use of the adjusted TACAM is acceptable for estimating average intake at population level for macronutrients, calcium and zinc in a low intake population, but not for carbohydrate and iron intakes which was underestimated and vitamin A which was overestimated, nor for probability of adequate intakes and nutrient densities. At individual level, significant differences were observed between estimated and analyzed intakes for all the nutrients increasing with higher intakes.

The nutrient content of fonio landraces in Mali and the effect of processing of the nutrient values revealed i) a limited genetic variation of studied landraces, polymorphism level (3.5%) compared to 63% reported for 118 fonio accessions collected in West Africa, three different clusters only for Malians landraces compared to two clusters for Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea and Benin together; ii) no statistically significant differences between fonio landraces for their iron and zinc content, iii) a high iron and phytate concentration in paddy fonio (35 and 514 mg/100 g dry weight) which reduces considerably with traditional processing, the most important losses occurring during processing from paddy to mid wet fonio (approximately 2 and 129 mg/100 g), 96% reduction for iron and 75% for phytate.

Fonio landraces in West Africa were different for their visual (colour and presence/absence of impurities) and their textural (consistency of cooked grain) charactersitics.

Exploring processing to increase iron biavailability from fonio meals confirm that whole wheat flour could be used as a source of natural phytase to produce low phytic acid containing fonio porridge. It showed also that dephytinisation using intrinsic wheat phytase reduced phytate-to-iron molar ratio from 23.7:1 to 2.7:1 after only 1 hour of incubation at 50ºC with pH of 5.0, and iron fortification decreased the molar ratio to 0.3:1. Dephytinisation with wheat phytase and fortification significantly increased iron absorption ratio from 2.6% to 8.2% in fonio porridges.

From these results, we can conclude that the current contribution of fonio to daily bioavailable iron intake is low due to small portion sizes being consumed in low frequency, to considerable losses during processing to mid-wet fonio, and to a high phytate-iron molar ratio. Fonio landraces from Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso are variable in visual and textural characteristics (colour, presence of impurity and consistency of the cooked grain, respectively), determining the preference of consumers. Selecting landraces for preferred sensory properties may offer an entry point for processors who intend to promote the consumption of fonio and increase its role in diet. In absence of meaningful genetic diversity and variation in iron content in fonio landraces in Mali, there is little benefit in selecting landraces for natural high iron content. Dephytinisation using intrinsic wheat phytase could be a promising processing practice to improve iron bioavailability and fortification is required to increase the amount of absorbed iron from fonio meals.

De samenstelling van discards in de demersale visserij voor valorisatie doeleinden
Kals, J. ; Poelman, M. ; Goudswaard, P.C. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C099/15) - 27
demersale visserij - discards - bijvangst - bijproducten - vercommercialisering - vangstsamenstelling - visvangsten - eu regelingen - voedingswaarde - visproducten - demersal fisheries - bycatch - byproducts - commercialization - catch composition - fish catches - eu regulations - nutritive value - fish products
Vanaf januari 2016 wordt de discard regelgeving vanuit de EU aangepast. Dit betekent dat de sector zich moet committeren aan deze regelgeving. Hierdoor zullen de niet gewenste vangsten die op dit moment nog overboord gaan, aangeland moeten worden. Er is een traject ingezet om de kansen tot valorisatie van de discards te ontwikkelen. In een separaat traject is bepaald welke hoeveelheden van soorten er vanaf 1 januari 2016 vanuit de demersale visserij zullen worden aangeland. In voorliggend technisch rapport wordt deze analyse verder vormgegeven door een beschrijving te geven van de nutritionele waarde van de discards.
Onderzoek naar betere schatting van de dichtheid van gras- en maiskuilen
Zom, R.L.G. ; Abbink, G.W. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 872) - 46
graskuilvoer - kuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - dichtheid - voorraden - veevoeder - voedingswaarde - kuilvoerkwaliteit - lineaire modellen - regressieanalyse - grass silage - silage - maize silage - density - stocks - fodder - nutritive value - silage quality - linear models - regression analysis
This report describes the results of a study on the possibilities to estimate the density of grass en maize silages for calculation of the fodder stock more accurately than the current table values. During ensiling the amount of crop of 104 grass silage clamps, 42 maize silage clamps and 108 big bales (54 round and 54 square) were weighted and after ensiling the dimensions were measured and the chemical composition was analysed. For round and square bales a new regression formula was derived, which estimates the density more accurate than the current table values. It is recommended to calculate the density of round en square bales with the following formula: Density (kg/m3) = 994.81 - 0.5335 x dry matter content (g/kg) - 1.196 x crude fibre content (g/kg ds). For grass en maize silage in clamps and bunker silo’s no new model could be derived which estimated the density more accurately than the current table values.
Opportunities of algae as ingedrient for animal feed
Weide, Rommie van der - \ 2015
livestock feeding - algae - feed formulation - nutritive value - biobased economy - composition
Veggipedia-app scoort met objectiviteit en veelzijdigheid
Wijk-Jansen, E.E.C. van; Bondt, N. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
groenten - fruit - consumenten - computer software - mobiele toepassingen - voedselconsumptie - voedingswaarde - vegetables - consumers - mobile applications - food consumption - nutritive value
“No story, no glory!”, aldus Harrij Schmeitz, directeur van Fresh Informationmanagement Center BV. Consumenten willen weten waar hun eten vandaan komt. Dit biedt de groente- en fruitsector grote commerciële kansen. Op voorwaarde dat we aansprekende verhalen over onze producten vertellen. Om dit te ondersteunen heeft de groente- en fruitsector de Veggipedia-app ontwikkeld. LEI Wageningen UR is gevraagd om te onderzoeken in hoeverre deze app aansluit bij behoeften van consumenten
Pilot inkuilen Grote waternavel ten behoeve van veevoeding
Hoving, I.E. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 853) - 26
veevoeding - varkensvoeding - conservering - varkens - voeropname - voedingswaarde - kuilvoer - hydrocotyle - kuilvoerbereiding - ingekuilde planten - livestock feeding - pig feeding - conservation - pigs - feed intake - nutritive value - silage - silage making - silage plants
This report describes the results of a practical ensiling experiment with Greater water pennywort, in which the processing of the plant material and the effect of drying on the ensiling result and nutrition value has been investigated. The conservation of the ensiled product was very poor (even after drying) due to the high water content, low sugar content and soil contamination. The intake of the wet product by pigs seem to be good. The poor preservation proved no obstacle. Greater water pennywort has potential as fodder for pigs given the nutritional and good intake. What is needed are methods to harvest cleaner and to ferment the product better.
De samenstelling van discards in de pelagische visserij voor valorisatie doeleinden
Kals, J. ; Poelman, M. ; Blanco Garcia, A. ; Goudswaard, P.C. - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C023/15) - 44
pelagische visserij - discards - vangstsamenstelling - eu regelingen - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedingswaarde - waardeketenanalyse - pelagic fishery - catch composition - eu regulations - food marketing - nutritive value - value chain analysis
Vanaf januari 2015 wordt de discard regelgeving vanuit de EU aangepast, dit betekent dat de sector zich moet committeren aan deze regelgeving. Hierdoor zullen de bijvangsten die op dit moment nog overboord gaan, aangeland moeten worden. Er is een traject ingezet om de kansen tot valorisatie van de bijvangsten te ontwikkelen.
Nutritional value of browse species most fed to zoo animals
Huisman, T.J. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2015
dierenwelzijn - dierentuindieren - diervoeding - diergezondheid - planten - voedingswaarde - begraasbare planten of plantendelen - animal welfare - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal health - plants - nutritive value - browse
Poster met voedingswaarde van begraasbare planten voor dierentuindieren.
Algae: promising new ingredient
Wijffels, Rene - \ 2014
algae - nutrition - biomass production - biorefinery - algae culture - photobioreactors - nutritive value - biobased economy - applications
Kansen voor micro-algen als grondstofstroom in diervoeders
Spruijt-Verkerke, J. ; Weide, R.Y. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
Lelystad : WUR/PPO (PPO rapport 619) - 51
voer - veevoeding - algen - voedingswaarde - biobased economy - feeds - livestock feeding - algae - nutritive value
Doelstelling van dit project is het maken van een algenkansenkaart. De kaart brengt voor– en nadelen van micro-algen als grondstofstroom voor veevoer in kaart, de operationele aspecten en de toepassingsmogelijkheden in diervoeders. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument voor de algenkansenkaart.
Peulvruchten: meer potentie dan praktijk en prioriteit
Dagevos, H. ; Dongen, E. van - \ 2014
Voeding Nu 16 (2014)1/2. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 16 - 17.
peulvruchten (groente) - groenten - voedselconsumptie - voeding en gezondheid - voedingswaarde - vleesvervangers - vegetable legumes - vegetables - food consumption - nutrition and health - nutritive value - meat alternates
Witte en bruinen, kidneybonen, kapucijners, linzen en kikkererwten zijn peulvruchten die vergeten groenten blijken te zijn. Om te beginnen in wetenschappelijk onderzoek. De afgelopen tien jaar is er niets over de consumentenvraag naar peulvruchten gepubliceerd. Maar in de dagelijkse praktijk vergeten Nederlanders ze ook te eten. Opmerkelijk, want de potentie van peulvruchten rechtvaardigt een andere positie.
Kansen voor algen in veevoer
Weide, R.Y. van der; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV
diervoeding - voer - algen - samenstelling - plantensamenstelling - voersamenstelling - voedingswaarde - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - haalbaarheidsstudies - animal nutrition - feeds - algae - composition - plant composition - feed formulation - nutritive value - sustainability - feasibility studies
Deze brochure geeft meer informatie over de kansen voor toepassing van algen in veevoer, maar ook de uitdagingen om dit te realiseren.
Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint
Boer, H.C. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Blonk, H. ; Tyszler, M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 819) - 46
eiwitbronnen - voedingswaarde - koolstof - emissie - voer - varkens - eiwitleverende planten - sojabonen - protein sources - nutritive value - carbon - emission - feeds - pigs - protein plants - soyabeans
The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these protein sources is determined. These protein sources are used in feed optimizations of a starter diet for pigs, thereby maintaining the nutritional value of the diet. Subsequently, the CFP of the grower diet is calculated. The results and conclusions will be discussed in this report.
Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer
Cillen, L. ; Timmer, R.D. - \ 2014
Stiel : maandelijks magazine voor leden van de Groene Kring 2014 (2014)november. - p. 16 - 18.
akkerbouw - veldgewassen - chenopodium quinoa - pseudogranen - teeltsystemen - contractlandbouw - nederland - belgië - voedingswaarde - humane voeding - arable farming - field crops - pseudocereals - cropping systems - contract farming - netherlands - belgium - nutritive value - human feeding
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen, om ons hier iets meer over te vertellen.
Le valeurs nutritionnelles des invertebrés : un aperçu du contenu nutritionnel, sur une base matière sèche, des espèces d’invertébrés utilisés comme nourriture
Huisman, T.R. ; Hokwerda, J. - \ 2014
VHL Animal Management, Animal Welfare Web (DWW)
dierentuindieren - diervoeding - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - voedingswaarde - ongewervelde dieren - zoo animals - animal nutrition - animal welfare - animal health - nutritive value - invertebrates
Poster met een overzicht van de voedingswaarde van invertebraten.
De in vitro verteerbaarheid van gedroogde algen
Krimpen, M.M. van; Wikselaar, P.G. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 812) - 13
voer - diervoeding - algen - drogen - voedingswaarde - in vitro verteerbaarheid - chemische samenstelling - bioraffinage - biobased economy - feeds - animal nutrition - algae - drying - nutritive value - in vitro digestibility - chemical composition - biorefinery
In deze studie is de chemische samenstelling en de in vitro organische stof- en stikstofverteerbaarheid van gedroogde algen bepaald. Het betrof een drietal algenproducten, namelijk algen gedroogd bij 700C, algen samen met een hulpstof gedroogd met een innovatieve techniek en algen samen met rijst gedroogd bij 700C. Als referentiegrondstoffen zijn in deze studie een eiwitrijke (sojaschroot) en een vezelrijke grondstof (kuilgras) meegenomen. Op basis van de in vitro resultaten is tevens nagegaan wat de voederwaardeprijs is van de algenproducten.
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