Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

A new Global Agro-Environmental Stratification (GAES)
Mücher, Sander ; Simone, Lorenzo De; Kramer, Henk ; Wit, Allard de; Roupioz, Laure ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Schuiling, Rini ; Fritz, Steffen ; Latham, John ; Cormont, Anouk - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2761) - 69
stratification - agriculture - environment - monitoring - agricultural production - sustainable agriculture - observation - stratificatie (zaden) - landbouw - milieu - landbouwproductie - duurzame landbouw - observatie
The GAES database (Version 01a) is a newly developed Global Agro-Environmental Stratification within the EU SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) project. GAES will serve as a new agro-environmental stratification for better global monitoring of the agricultural production on the basis of Earth Observation data and crop growth models. It is anticipated that GAES will be exploited for a wider range of applications, some within SIGMA, towards data gap analysis that identifies agro-environmental strata with limited capacity and monitoring data on agricultural production. GAES was produced by applying segmentation techniques to newly available global agroenvironmental data with a high spatial resolution re-sampled to 1 km spatial resolution. The datasets were able to stratify the agricultural production zones according to the region’s agro-environmental characteristics, including climatic regimes, soil, terrain, elevation conditions, water availability and land cover proprieties. The GAES strata obtained by segmentation at four different spatial levels (with Level 4 as the most detailed) have been further characterised and described in terms of phenology (e.g. start and peak of the growing season), agricultural (water) management practices, field size, biotic constraints, national and sub-national crop production statistics, GDP, transport infrastructure conditions or market accessibility. The GAES database has four hierarchical layers, with 92 attributes. GAES Level 1 has 194 agro-environmental (AE) types (818 strata); GAES Level 2 has 300 AE types (1,688 strata); GAES Level 3 has 374 AE types (2,087 strata); GAES Level 4 has 516 AE types (3,208 strata). GAES typology is a combination of temperature, altitude, parent material and land cover characteristics. GAES Version 01 has become freely available.
Veldrapportage vogelwaarnemingen bij drone-opnamen Koehoal-Westhoek
Baptist, M.J. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES ) - 14
vogels - drones - karteringen - inventarisaties - observatie - verstoring - waddenzee - birds - surveys - inventories - observation - disturbance - wadden sea
Op 19 augustus 2015 zijn vogelwaarnemingen verricht tijdens de inzet van een drone boven Natura2000 gebied Waddenzee. De drone werd ingezet voor het maken van orthogonale luchtfoto’s waarmee door middel van fotogrammetrie een digitaal terreinmodel gemaakt kan worden. Uit de in dit rapport gepresenteerde gegevens van drone-opnamen boven Natura2000-gebied Waddenzee is niet gebleken dat er verstoring van vogels is opgetreden. Echter, er kan niet worden uitgesloten dat geen enkele vogel zich verstoord voelde door de aanwezigheid van de drone. In termen van instandhoudingsdoelstellingen voor de Waddenzee kan wel worden uitgesloten dat er significante effecten op de populatie-omvang van beschermde vogels is opgetreden.
Blue whale sightings in Antarctica west of the Greenwich meridian, Januart 2015
Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Feij, B. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Herr, H. ; Janinhoff, N. ; McKay, S.J. ; Muller, S. ; Thomisch, K. ; Verdaat, J.P. ; Viquerat, S. - \ 2015
[s.l.] : International Whaling Commission - 9
whales - surveying - observation - cetacea - antarctica - walvissen - karteren - observatie
During the RV Polarstern PS 89 (ANT-XXX/2) expedition from Cape Town to Atka Bay and back, 20 sightings of 26 individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were recorded in Antarctic waters west of the Greenwich Meridian between 16-20 January 2015. These observations suggest a more westerly extension of a reported hot spot between the Greenwich Meridian and 20°E.
Wat vliegt daar?
Nijland, R. ; Anders, N.S. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 16 - 19.
remote sensing - landbouwluchtvaart - automatische besturing - superlicht vliegtuig - toepassingen - observatie - drones - agricultural aviation - automatic steering - microlight aircraft - applications - observation
Steeds vaker zetten Wageningse onderzoekers eigen drones in om het gewas, de vegetatie of de bodem van bovenaf te monsteren. Het gebruik van deze luchtvloot is aan strenge eisen gebonden.
Al veel meldingen van nesten eikenprocessierups
Hellingman, S. ; Kuppen, H. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Buijs, J. ; Jelsma, R. ; Jans, H. - \ 2014
Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups
quercus - plantenplagen - thaumetopoea processionea - rupsen - brandharen - observatie - verspreiding - gezondheidsgevaren - controle - plant pests - caterpillars - urticating hairs - observation - dispersal - health hazards - control
Van Noord- tot Zuid-Nederland zijn al de eerste nesten van de eikenprocessierups aangetroffen. Nog nooit eerder zijn er in mei al zo veel nesten gezien. Het aantal eikenprocessierupsen lijkt ook hoger te liggen dan in voorgaande jaren.
Individuele attentie aandacht dieren
Hogewerf, Pieter - \ 2013
dairy farming - dairy cows - farm management - sensors - agricultural engineering - observation - monitoring - detection - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal behaviour
Kijk eens wat vaker onder de graszode
Faber, J.H. ; Dijk, M. van; Verbeek, I. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Wosten, J.H.M. - \ 2013
Land en water 2013 (2013)11. - 2
bodembeheer - vochtigheid - beworteling - klimaatverandering - beschadigingen door droogte - waterbeheer - grondwaterstand - graszoden - observatie - soil management - humidity - rooting - climatic change - drought injury - water management - groundwater level - sods - observation
Kan de bodem negatieve gevolgen van klimaatverandering opvangen? Wat is de invloed van duurzaam bodembeheer op de vochthuishouding in de bodem? Hoe kan het functioneren van de bodem worden geoptimaliseerd om te anticiperen op droge of natte periodes? Deze vragen van provincie Utrecht en Waterschap Vallei & Veluwe waren aanleiding voor het SKB-project 'Kijk eens wat vaker onder de graszode'.
Monitoring en observatoria van voedselprijzen; Een verkenning van kosten en effecten
Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Logatcheva, K. ; Galen, M.A. van; Georgiev, E.S. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086156283 - 116
voedselprijzen - monitoring - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedsel - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - prijsvorming - observatie - kosten - food prices - sustainability - food - animal welfare - animal production - price formation - observation - costs
Prijzenobservatoria, zoals ze in Spanje en Frankrijk zijn opgericht, zijn zeer kostbaar. Dit komt vooral door de continue, aanvullende primaire dataverzameling door overheid en bedrijfsleven.
Food price monitoring and observatories: an exploration of costs and effects; Summary and Executive Summary
Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Logatcheva, K. ; Galen, M.A. van; Georgiev, E.S. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-memorandum : Markets & chains ) - 16
voedselprijzen - monitoring - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedsel - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - prijsvorming - observatie - kosten - food prices - sustainability - food - animal welfare - animal production - price formation - observation - costs
The Ministry of Economic Affairs asked what the costs and effects of a food price observatory and more intensive price monitoring would be for the Netherlands. In the first instance, price observatories such as those which exist in Spain and France were considered. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in these countries with individuals involved in the observatories, but also with chain parties, in order to catalogue costs and effects. The Belgian Prices Observatory, the European 'Food Prices Monitoring Tool' and the price monitoring in Germany were examined in more general terms using the literature, the internet and presentations to the 'High Level Forum for a better functioning Food Supply Chain'. In order to be able to compare properly, Dutch price monitoring was also described. In a literature study, it was ascertained on the basis of economic theory what transparency means for pricing and which new approaches - in addition to the more 'standard analyses' - are used to study price transmission.
Analysis of vegetation-activity trends in a global land degradation framework
Jong, R. de - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Schaepman, co-promotor(en): Sytze de Bruin. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733122 - 147
vegetatie - vegetatie-indexen - landdegradatie - cartografie - monitoring - observatie - exploratie - klimaat - seizoenvariatie - satellietbeelden - remote sensing - vegetation - vegetation indices - land degradation - mapping - observation - exploration - climate - seasonal variation - satellite imagery

Land degradation is a global issue on a par with climate change and loss of biodiversity, but its extent and severity are only roughly known and there is little detail on the immediate processes – let alone the drivers. Earth-observation methods enable monitoring of land resources in a consistent, physical way and on global scale by making use of vegetation activity and/or cover as proxies. A well-known spectral proxy is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is available in high temporal resolution time series since the early 1980s. In this work, harmonic analyses and non-parametric trend tests were applied to the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1981–2008) in order to quantify positive changes (or greening) and negative changes (browning). Phenological shifts and variations in length of growing season were accounted for using analysis by vegetation development stage rather than by calendar day. This approach does not rely on temporal aggregation for elimination of seasonal variation. The latter might introduce artificial trends as demonstrated in the chapter on the modifiable temporal unit problem. Still, a major assumption underlying the analysis is that trends were invariant, i.e. linear or monotonic, over time. However, these monotonic trends in vegetation activity may consist of an alternating sequence of greening and/or browning periods. This effect and the contribution of short-term trends to longer-term change was analysed using a procedure for detection of trend breaks. Both abrupt and gradual changes were found in large parts of the world, especially in (semi-arid) shrubland and grassland. Many abrupt changes were found around large-scale natural influences like the Mt Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and the strong 1997/98 El Niño event. This marks the importance of accounting for trend changes in the analysis of long-term NDVI time series. These new change-detection techniques advance our understanding of vegetation variability at a multi-decadal scale, but do not provide links to driving processes. It is very complex to disentangle all natural and human drivers and their interactions. As a first step, the spatial relation between changes in climate parameters and changes in vegetation activity was addressed in this work. It appeared that a substantial proportion (54%) of the spatial variation in NDVI changes could be associated to climatic changes in temperature, precipitation and incident radiation, especially in forest biomes. In other regions, the lack of such associations might be interpreted as human-induced land degradation. With these steps we demonstrated the value of global satellite records for monitoring land resources, although many steps are still to be taken.

Beheersen beukentopgalmug begint met goed waarnemen
Rijkers, D. ; Voort, C. van der; Elberse, I.A.M. - \ 2012
De Boomkwekerij 25 (2012)3. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 14 - 15.
boomteelt - contarinia - dasineura - fagus - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - observatie - arboriculture - plant pests - plant protection - observation
Kwekers hebben mogelijkheden om de beukentopgalmug onder de knie te houden. Dat is de conclusie van Cultus Agro Advies en PPO boomkwekerij die vanaf 2009 hebben onderzocht hoe beukentopgalmug in de teelt van beuk effectief kan worden bestreden. Het onderzoek is inmiddels afgerond.
Rule based system for in situ identification of annex I habitats
Bunce, R.G.H. ; Bogers, M.M.B. ; Evans, D. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2276) - 118
habitats - habitatrichtlijn - observatie - biodiversiteit - methodologie - monitoring - habitats directive - observation - biodiversity - methodology
In the EBONE project the recognition of Annex I habitats in the field has been considered as an important issue. A hierarchical structure is created in this report within which the Annex I habitats can be identified. The current concept of an expert system emerged during an ECOLAND forum meeting in Almeria south-eastern Spain and further developed in close consultation with the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (ETC-BD). The concept uses the General Habitat Categories as described in the EBONE Field Handbook. The rule based system for Annex I habitats will promote consistent identification between Member States. A direct key is not possible because of the way the habitats have been produced over the years as well as the need for application of expert judgement. The system has been tested in the field in Spain, Portugal and Italy.
Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale models
Velde, Y. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee; F.C. van Geer, co-promotor(en): G.H. de Rooij. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858249 - 176
hydrologie - deterministische modellen - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - innovaties - waterkwaliteit - afvoerwater - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - stroomgebieden - waterlopen - observatie - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - achterhoek - hydrology - deterministic models - catchment hydrology - innovations - water quality - effluents - groundwater - surface water - watersheds - streams - observation - surface water quality - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
Weer meer waarnemen
Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2008
Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 64 (2008)7/8. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 6 - 11.
landschap - zintuiglijke waarneming - observatie - landschapsbeleving - landscape - organolepsis - observation - landscape experience
Het waarnemen van landschappen staat weer meer in de belangstelling. In wetenschap, natuureducatie en onderwijs wordt gewerkt aan methoden die mensen helpen het landschap beter waar te nemen en te analyseren. Met als gevolg een rijkere beleving en beter inzicht, dus betere plannen
Monitoring, analysing, forecasting and communicating phenological changes
Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049586 - 177
fenologie - ecologie - seizoenontwikkeling - seizoenvariatie - monitoring - voorspellen - klimaatverandering - flora - fauna - soorten - biologische monitoring - observatie - phenology - ecology - seasonal development - seasonal variation - forecasting - climatic change - species - biomonitoring - observation
The main objectives of this PhD thesis are to assess the climate-induced phenological changes in The Netherlands, to increase the knowledge and understanding of the ecological and socio-economic impacts of these phenological changes, to determine how society can adapt to these phenological changes and to determine the importance of phenological networks in monitoring of, communicating on and adapting to the emerging phenological changes. Over 180,000 plant phenological observations available from various Dutch phenological networks and private observation series since 1868 were analysed
Tripslokstoffen als hulpmiddel voor tripsbeheersing
Tol, R.W.H.M. van; Bruin, A. de; Wiegers, G.L. ; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2007
thysanoptera - plagenbestrijding - lokstoffen - technieken - verbetering - observatie - glastuinbouw - vollegrondsteelt - pest control - attractants - techniques - improvement - observation - greenhouse horticulture - outdoor cropping
Trips is een moeilijk beheersbare plaag in zowel kassen als in de vollegrond. Gewasschade bestaat uit vraatschade en virusoverdracht. Lokstoffen kunnen op verschillende manieren bijdragen aan de beheersing van het probleem door een verbeterde waarnemingstechniek en verbetering van bestrijding. Beide mogelijkheden worden in het project onderzocht
Forum : wordt de wasbeerhond een nieuwe muskusrat?
Broekhuizen, S. - \ 2007
Zoogdier 18 (2007)2. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 15 - 17.
wasbeerhonden - nyctereutes - canidae - nederland - nieuwe soorten - jagen - ziekteoverdracht - verspreiding - beleid - observatie - raccoon dogs - netherlands - new species - hunting - disease transmission - dispersal - policy - observation
Hoewel voortplanting van in het wild levende wasbeerhonden in Nederland nog niet is vastgesteld, lijkt dat nog maar een kwestie van tijd. Definitieve vestiging van de wasbeerhond lijkt een feit, maar hoe willen we met deze nieuweling omgaan?
Bridging scaling gaps for the assessment of biodiversity from space
Schaepman, M.E. ; Malenovsky, Z. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Kooistra, L. ; Thullier, W. - \ 2007
In: The full picture Geneva (Switzerland) : Tudor Rose / GEO - ISBN 9789299004708 - p. 258 - 261.
geologie - aarde - aardwetenschappen - observatie - geology - earth - earth sciences - observation
Arsenic analysis in produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania
Korytar, P. ; Galiën, W. van der - \ 2006
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C058/06) - 5
arsenicum - testen - formatie - water - bemonsteren - observatie - discussie - arsenic - testing - formation - sampling - observation - discussion
Woodside Mauritania has commissioned IMARES to organize testing of produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania for arsenic (As (III) and As (V)). This report provides the results of the testing, observations made during the sampling and discussion of the results.
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