Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Monitoringsonderzoek Gezonde Schoolpleinen : monitor van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen van 70 Icoonscholen, inspiratie voor een gezond schoolplein en landelijke bekendheid van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen
Goossen, Martin ; Pleijte, Marcel ; Langers, Fransje ; Donders, Josine ; Vries, Sjerp de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2814) - 89
basisscholen - kinderen - gebiedsontwikkeling - campus - gezondheid van kinderen - architectuur - ontwerp - sociale gevolgen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - lichamelijke activiteit - gezondheid - elementary schools - children - area development - child health - architecture - design - social impact - cognitive development - physical activity - health
Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines : Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems
Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): E. Schulz, co-promotor(en): Guillermo Q. Tabios; K. Prasad. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138067745 - 416
irrigation systems - crop yield - design - irrigation - water supply - philippines - irrigatiesystemen - gewasopbrengst - ontwerp - irrigatie - watervoorziening - filippijnen

The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to technical, managerial, institutional and policy issues and constraints, and in recent years, to climate change. Irrigation modernisation is recognized as strategic option to improve the irrigation system performance. It is defined as a process of technical, management and institutional transformation to improve irrigation services to farmers.

The main objective of the research study was to formulate a strategy for developing a modernisation plan for national irrigation systems in the Philippines. The research methodology was framed with deliberately selected assessment and characterization procedures, which were adoptively modified and integrated to critically analyse the state of coherence among the three fundamentals of irrigation system water delivery: design, operation and water supply; and to identify solutions for any inconsistency. It included, among others an analysis of the process, nature and impacts of rehabilitation projects; diagnostic assessment of the irrigation systems; revalidation of design assumptions on water balance parameters; characterization of irrigation management, service and demands; and identification of options for improvements.

The developed methodology for examining the different aspects of planning and operations of NIS with an end view of modernising the systems provides a more comprehensive and applicable methodology for drawing up of a more relevant plan for NIS modernisation. The knowledge gained on case study systems provides a sound basis for planning of appropriate modernisation solutions for the case study systems and in cases of ungauged, small-scale NIS. The methodology developed in this study could serve as a blueprint for modernisation program for NIS.

Molecular design, synthesis and evaluation of chemical biology tools
Hoogenboom, Jorin - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Han Zuilhof, co-promotor(en): Tom Wennekes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430388 - 206
chemical biology - biology - tools - synthesis - organic chemistry - molecules - design - chemische biologie - biologie - gereedschappen - synthese - organische scheikunde - moleculen - ontwerp

Chapter 1 provides a perspective of synthetic organic chemistry as a discipline involved in the design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules. The reader is introduced with a brief history of synthetic organic chemistry, all the while dealing with different aspects of synthetic organic chemistry. These aspects include design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules, which are described with representative examples. For instance, chapter 1 described different strategies to design antibiotics like penicillin. Furthermore, efforts at the interface of chemistry and biology has led to the emerging of a new subdisciplines such as chemical biology. Although this discipline is relatively new, the scientific community has witnessed many breakthrough discoveries and some of these discoveries are highlighted in this chapter. After the general introduction presented in chapter 1, the following chapters of this thesis focus on the design, synthesis and evaluation of small molecular probes towards the study of proteins and glycans in plant and mammalian cells. Most of these probes are complex glycomimetic small molecules that in many instances are prepared with a nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition as a key step.

In chapter 2, a novel nitrone is presented for the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition reaction. This reaction is a powerful tool in synthetic organic chemistry for the synthesis of a wide range of complex molecules. The versatile nature of the reaction is illustrated by the synthesis of several classes of natural product such as vitamins and alkaloids – all complex molecules containing multiple neighboring chiral centers – through the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition. However, most nitrones that show good regio- and stereoselectivity are limited in their synthetic versatility, as subsequent synthetic modification of the cycloaddition products are limited. The nitrone described in chapter 2 is a novel masked aldehyde-containing nitrone. This nitrone is prepared by a simple and scalable procedure and can be combined with a diverse set of olefins and other dipolarophiles to afford a broad range of cycloadducts. These cycloadducts can be considered as a masked form of amino-aldehydes, which makes them interesting from a synthetic point of view as illustrated by several postcycloaddition modifications.

The nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition is also utilized in chapter 3 for the synthesis of glycomimetic building blocks. Glycomimetics such as iminosugars and pipecolic acids are found in nature and possess a variety of biological activities. The potential of glycomimetics have led to the development of drugs for the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Gaucher disease and HIV. Chapter 3 describes how glycomimetic building blocks can be obtained through a nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition, providing different bicyclic isoxazolidines. These cycloadducts are synthetically versatile, as we report a set of reactions that allow selective modification at each functional position. Accordingly, these versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines enable the synthesis of different glycomimetic building blocks. For example, we were able to make a library of pipecolic acid derivatives – a popular drug-motif – via a one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction.

The bicyclic isoxazolidines, discussed in chapter 3, are also reported in chapter 4. This chapter describes the development of a synthetic route towards an activity-based probe (ABP) to study the enzymatic activity of neuraminidases. Neuraminidases are a class of enzymes found in a range of organisms including mammals. The importance of neuraminidases is illustrated by the existence of a neuraminidase-related genetic disease, sialidosis. With no cure for this fatal disease being very limited, there is keen interest in the discovery of novel mechanisms to restore neuraminidase activity. The poor enzyme-activity of a different enzyme-related disease, Gaucher disease, could be improved through the identification of a small molecule that stabilizes and/or promotes the folding of the active enzyme. The validation of this small molecule was aided greatly by the development of a sensitive ABP targeting this disease specific enzyme. Accordingly, the development of a neuramidase-ABP would provide a diagnostic tool to study the activity of neuramidases and ultimately help identify small molecules that could increase the activity of mutant-neuraminidase molecules by stabilizing and/or promoting the folding of this enzyme. The synthesis of a carbocyclic neuraminidase ABP was the goal of chapter 4 and was approached by starting with the nitrone-olefin [3+2] cycloaddition as the key-step. This reaction provided a bicyclic cycloadduct that was used for the development of a synthetic route, which led to a high yielding and practical synthesis of an advance intermediate possessing the majority of the stereochemistry of the required carbocyclic neuraminidase ABP.

Chapter 5 describes the synthesis and evaluation of chemical tools to study phoshatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs). This family of proteins is found in a variety of organisms including mammals and plants. This family includes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a signaling protein that acts as a vital flowering hormone in plants. No small molecule inhibitors for FT are known, but an inhibitor called locostatin has been reported to bind in the highly conserved ligand binding site of a structurally related protein. Based on this conservation and overall structurally similarity with FT it was hypothesized that locostatin or derivatives thereof could covalently bind in the ligand binding pocket of FT and hence affect flowering. Chapter 5 reports on the synthesis of novel locostatin-based chemical PEBP probes, followed by evaluation for their ability and selectivity towards FT and a mammalian PEBP.

Chemical tools were also used to study plants in chapter 6, although different aspects of plants were investigated. This chapter describes the direct molecular imaging of carbohydrates (glycans) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Glycans play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The formation of glycans is not genetically encoded, which makes it impossible to image them in vivo using genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycans that are metabolically incorporated in plants via the roots, which may then be visualized with copper-catalyzed click labeling. However, this labelling-technique is toxic to plants and future applications would benefit from bio-orthoganol copper-free labeling techniques. Chapter 6 shows, for the first time in metabolic labeling and imaging of plant glycans, the potential of two copper-free click chemistry methods. These methods are bio-orthogonal and lead to more uniform labeling. Furthermore, this chapter also describes the metabolic incorporation of five novel monosaccharide probes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and their imaging after (copper-free) fluorescent labeling.

Finally, chapter 7 contains a general discussion, critically summarizing the body of this thesis along with additional ideas and recommendations for further research.

Sustainable Design Principles for Refugee Camps
Rooij, L.L. de; Wascher, D.M. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research
refugees - sustainability - design - vluchtelingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontwerp
This report’s main focus is on the phenomenon of refugee camps as one of the most visible and spatially explicit results of refuge and migration movements at the global scale. Given the steadily growing numbers of people on the move and staying in temporary homes and settlements, refugee camps must be considered as a form of highly dynamic and partially ad hoc urbanisation processes. International organizations such as UNHCR, Red Cross, AWH and others are playing a key role in providing strategic, organizational and practical support for the establishment and management of refugee camps. Their experience, dedication, tacit knowledge, technical guidance and cooperation-lines with national governments are of utmost importance for the future of refugees as well as for the situation of host countries and regions where camps and settlement are being set up. While the emphasis is on establishing temporary solutions and to discourage permanent settlements, fact is that many refugee camps last several years or even decades and are – despite international efforts – steadily growing in terms of size and population figures with severe impacts on regional sustainability.
Kennisagenda biomimicry 2015-2018
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Vader, J. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Den Haag : Wageningen Economic Research - 23 p.
biobased economy - ontwerp - innovaties - biomimicry - duurzame ontwikkeling - productontwikkeling - biotechnologie - kennismanagement - gebiedsontwikkeling - organisatieontwikkeling - design - innovations - sustainable development - product development - biotechnology - knowledge management - area development - organizational development
Biomimicry , de ontwerpfilosofie die de natuur als inspiratiebron ziet voor innovaties, kan grote ecologische en economische voordelen opleveren voor onze samenleving wanneer het bre ed wordt ingezet ten behoeve van maatschappelijke en wetenschappelijke vraagstukken. Het biedt ook veel toepassingsmogelijkheden voor een groot aantal sectoren , zoals bouw, industrie en landbouw . Om aan een kennisinfrastructuur voor biomimicry te kunn en werken, is het van belang om te weten welke kennis diverse partijen in ons land in huis hebben, welke ze willen delen en welke kennislacunes er zijn. Deze kennisagenda is met dat doel opgesteld. De kennisagenda agendeert een aantal vraagstukken voor de komende periode waaraan betrokken stakeholders in onderlinge samenwerking gericht kunnen werken om de toepassing van biomimicry in ons land de komende jaren op een hog er plan te brengen. Deze kennisagenda geeft daarmee richting aan biomimicry -innovaties die de komende jaren (wellicht) met voorrang opgepakt worden.
Beyond the visible : prolegomenon to an aesthetics of designed landscapes
Etteger, Rudi van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink; Bart Gremmen, co-promotor(en): R.C.H.M. van Gerwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578586 - 249
landscape architecture - landscape - design - evaluation - aesthetic value - phenomenology - philosophy - landscape experience - landschapsarchitectuur - landschap - ontwerp - evaluatie - esthetische waarde - fenomenologie - filosofie - landschapsbeleving

In this thesis the appropriate aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes is explored. The overarching research question for this thesis is: What is an appropriate appreciation of a designed landscape as a designed landscape?

This overarching research question is split into sub-questions. The first sub-question is: What is the current theoretical basis for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes and does it provide appropriate arguments for aesthetic evaluations? Two important points about the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes were found in the existing literature on environmental aesthetics and in critical evaluations of designed landscapes. Modern environmental aesthetics is focussed on natural environments as it has been shaped in response to early 20th century aesthetics, which was dominated by questions on art. The designed landscape phenomenologically related more to environments, but is ontologically closely related to artworks. Designed landscapes thus fall between two fields. The designed landscape has gone largely unacknowledged by philosophers and geographers. The lack of a specific theory for the appropriate appreciation of designed landscapes has made it easier for landscape architects and critics to miss out on the current insights of environmental aesthetics, leading to the inconsistent belief among landscape architects and landscape architecture critics that landscapes are scenic entities. Actual design criticism as offered in the Landscape Architecture Europe books is shown to be based on the inconsistent belief that aesthetic experiences of works of landscape architecture are mostly visual.

To explore what an appropriate appreciation should be based in, first the ontology and phenomenology of one example, the post-war design for the landscape of Walcheren, is described and discussed. To explore its ontology, a literature research has revealed the design process and decisions. To explore the phenomenology, the descriptions of two walks on the island made by the author were analysed. The descriptions of ontology and phenomenology of Walcheren offer insights into the relevance for the aesthetic evaluation of this landscape of being designed and of the sensorial richness of this designed landscape. In both fields of ontology and phenomenology insights into aesthetic value go beyond the visible.

The second and third part of the research answers the sub-questions about appropriate appreciation regarding respectively ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in general. The literature on topics adjacent to the field of landscape architecture, such as design and architecture aesthetics, was surveyed for aspects that might also be relevant for the aesthetic evaluation of landscape architecture. These aspects were then weighed according to a philosophical method of reasoning from first principles. Starting from a principle of appropriate appreciation, different cues were tested to see whether or not they have to be considered in such an appropriate appreciation. Following descriptions of the True Appreciation Principle (TAP) as provided by Lopes, cues were tested against the Appropriate Appreciation Principle for Designed Landscapes (AAP-DL):

An appreciation of landscape L as a designed landscape is appropriate only as far as it does not depend counterfactually on any belief that is inconsistent with the truth about the nature of designed landscapes.

Examples are provided where cues can influence one’s evaluation, and evaluation thus depends counterfactually on those taking those cues into account. If something might influence one’s evaluation one should consider it. The exploration has provided important cues for the aesthetic evaluation of designed landscapes. The findings are the base of an evaluative framework that takes into account the ontology and phenomenology of designed landscapes in order to evaluate designed landscapes according the AAP-DL. A discussion is provided on the importance of such an appropriate appreciation for different audiences.

Outdoor production of microalgae
Vree, Jeroen H. de - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): Rouke Bosma; Maria Barbosa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578784 - 179
algae - algae culture - design - bioreactors - photobioreactors - modeling - algen - algenteelt - ontwerp - bioreactoren - fotobioreactoren - modelleren

This thesis describes the production of microalgae under outdoor conditions, for this research was done at pilot scale. Microalgae are an interesting alternative to currently used sources for bulk commodities as food, feed and chemicals. Research activities within the field are shattered; different reactor systems are investigated at different locations while the systems are operated with different species. The shattered activities prevent a consensus to be reached within the scientific community on the reactor system that has the best performance. Selecting the best performing reactor system will bring the algae industry to the next level. In this PhD thesis different reactor designs were compared on a single location while using the same species in all systems. For this purpose the microalgal pilot facility AlgaePARC (Production And Research Centre) was designed and is described within this thesis. Followed by a comparison of the different reactor designs while using for each comparison a different operational strategy. Operational strategies investigated were chemostat operation and turbidostat operation. During chemostat operation a fixed daily dilution rate is applied to the reactor system, biomass concentrations vary as a result of the applied dilution rate and light conditions. During turbidostat operation the biomass concentration within a system is fixed and as a result of the set biomass concentration and light conditions the daily dilution rate varies. Findings from laboratory scale to pilot scale experiments are extrapolated to indicate the potential of microalgae production at a commercial scale. For these extrapolations mathematical models should be used, which require microalgae species specific input parameters. In this thesis input parameters for two industrially relevant microalgae species were obtained and reported. Finally a techno-economic evaluation was developed to indicate the potential of microalgae as a bulk commodity and to pinpoint focal points for future research.

Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie

Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

The MSP guide : how to design and facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships
Brouwer, J.H. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Hemmati, M. ; Verhoosel, K.S. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Practical Action Publishing Ltd - ISBN 9781853399657 - 180 p.
multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking - vennootschappen - ontwerp - governance - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociaal leren - innovaties - ontwikkeling - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - partnerships - design - sustainable development - sustainability - social learning - innovations - development
Multi-use platform solutions in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Adriatic Sea : MERMAID
Rockmann, C. ; Stuiver, M. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Zanuttigh, B. ; Zagonari, Fabio ; Airoldi, L. ; Angelelli, E. ; Suffredini, R. ; Franceschi, G. ; Belloti, G. ; Schouten, Jan Joost ; Soderqvist, T. ; Garcao, R. ; Garcia, R.G. ; Martinez, J. ; Petersen, O.S. ; Ahrensberg, N.A. - \ 2015
European Union - 109 p.
oceans - space - offshore - design - stakeholders - environmental policy - oceanen - ruimte - ontwerp - milieubeleid
Productieve functies van het landschapsontwerp : themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
Duineveld, M. ; Cate, B. ten; Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 142 - 149.
participatie - landschapsarchitectuur - landschapsplanning - landschapsbeheer - ontwerp - nuttig gebruik - samenwerking - participation - landscape architecture - landscape planning - landscape management - design - utilization - cooperation
Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
The MSP guide : how to design and facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships
Brouwer, J.H. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Hemmati, M. ; Verhoosel, K.S. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462575424 - 184
multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking - vennootschappen - ontwerp - governance - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociaal leren - innovaties - ontwikkeling - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - partnerships - design - sustainable development - sustainability - social learning - innovations - development
Inventarisatie bodemfauna op projectlocatie Vogelsand
Troost, K. ; Ende, D. van den - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C117/15) - 24
natuurbescherming - benthos - bodemfauna - natuurtechniek - ontwerp - eilanden - waddenzee - inventarisaties - natura 2000 - nature conservation - soil fauna - ecological engineering - design - islands - wadden sea - inventories
Vogelbescherming Nederland heeft het voornemen om, samen met andere partijen, een vogeleiland aan te laten leggen nabij Den Oever in de Waddenzee. Omdat de Waddenzee een beschermd natuurgebied is dat deel uitmaakt van het Europese Natura 2000 netwerk, moet hiervoor een NB-wet vergunning aangevraagd worden. Voordat Vogelbescherming Nederland deze vergunning aan kan vragen moet een Passende Beoordeling worden opgesteld, waarin wordt ingeschat welke effecten er mogelijk zijn op de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen voor de verschillende habitattypen en soorten welke bescherming genieten binnen Natura 2000 kader. Zo zal de aanleg van een eiland met een oppervlak van maximaal 100 hectare direct leiden tot een afname in het areaal van habitattype H1110: permanent overstroomde zandplaten. Om in te kunnen schatten of de aanleg van het vogeleiland ook een effect zal hebben op de kwaliteit van het resterende habitattype H1110 heeft Vogelbescherming Nederland meer inzicht nodig in de aanwezige bodemdier gemeenschap, het macrobenthos. Vogelbescherming Nederland heeft daarom aan IMARES gevraagd om in het plangebied voor het vogeleiland (‘Vogelsand’) de aanwezige bodemfauna te inventariseren, en om te onderzoeken of de aanwezige bodemfauna rijker, minder rijk of even rijk is als het overige gebied binnen H1110.
Biomimicry. De natuur als inspiratiebron voor innovaties
Segeren, A. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 14-129) - 35
innovaties - systeeminnovatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - aanpassing van de productie - ontwerp - biologie - technologie - bedrijven - biomimicry - innovations - system innovation - sustainable development - adjustment of production - design - biology - technology - businesses
LEI Wageningen UR heeft van het ministerie van Economische Zaken de opdracht gekregen om onderzoek te doen naar de stand van zaken en de mogelijkheden voor de verdere toepassing van biomimicry in Nederland. Deze brochure biedt een analyse van drie actuele praktijkvoorbeelden, inzicht in de impact op economie en duurzaamheid en een vertaling hiervan naar indicatoren. Daarnaast geeft het LEI perspectieven voor de toekomst, waarbij vooral is gekeken naar de rol van wetenschap, onderwijs en beleid.
Facility management in Dutch higher education
Kok, H.B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Mark Mobach. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573499 - 133
facilitaire diensten - gebouwen - onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - universiteiten - kwaliteit - ontwerp - voorzieningen - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - facility management - buildings - education - higher education - universities - quality - design - facilities - management - netherlands
This book discusses whether, and if so, how facility management can contribute to educational achievements at Dutch higher education institutions.
Robuuste systemen in de glastuinbouw
Hemming, S. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)april. - p. 8 - 9.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - teeltsystemen - optimalisatiemethoden - efficiëntie - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwerp - innovaties - technische vooruitgang - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - cropping systems - optimization methods - efficiency - sustainable development - design - innovations - technical progress
Het ontwerpen van weerbare kasproductiesystemen is een uitdaging voor de toekomst. Hierbij is het van belang te komen tot aan de ene kant teeltsystemen voor industriële productie van producten en aan de andere kant een zo duurzaam mogelijke productie om aan de hoge eisen van consumenten te voldoen.
Beleving van water in de stad: een literatuurstudie
Hunen, S.E. van; Kruining, M. van; Leenen, I. ; Maessen, M. - \ 2015
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 43 (2015)19. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 35.
waterbeheer - stedelijke bevolking - stedelijke samenleving - watersystemen - ontwerp - participatie - stadsontwikkeling - landschapsbouw - literatuuroverzichten - water management - urban population - urban society - water systems - design - participation - urban development - landscaping - literature reviews
Mensen wonen en werken bij water in de stad en willen ook steeds meer betrokken raken bij het waterbeheer in de stad. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat een leefomgeving, die plezierig overkomt op mensen, leidt tot sterke tevredenheid en geluk. Die positieve beleving van burgers draagt bij tot meer acceptatie, medewerking en begrip bij ingrepen in en aanpassingen van het watersysteem. Het is daarom belangrijk om na te gaan hoe water door de burger wordt beleefd en dit mee te nemen in het ontwerp van watersystemen. Land en water zijn allebei bepalend voor de kwaliteit van het landschap en moeten op elkaar worden afgestemd. Het water moet passen in het beeld dat mensen van de omgeving hebben
Wonen, studeren en werken op het Binnengasthuisterrein: op weg naar een ontwerp op basis van gedeelde belangen
Kruit, J. ; Jonge, F.H. de; Bijlsma, T. ; Kruizinga, C. ; Brouwer, S.M. ; Galli, G. ; Tian, L. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 315) - 63
stadsomgeving - openbaar groen - ontwerp - gebruik van ruimte - tuinen - bewonersparticipatie - welzijn - amsterdam - universiteiten - openluchtrecreatie - landschapsarchitectuur - urban environment - public green areas - design - space utilization - gardens - community participation - well-being - universities - outdoor recreation - landscape architecture
Het Binnengasthuisterrein wordt intensief gebruikt door bewoners, studenten en medewerkers van de UvA, toeleveringsbedrijven, passanten en toeristen. Het ziet er naar uit dat het aantal gebruikers de komende jaren zal toenemen. Tegengestelde belangen en visies tussen bewoners, diverse andere partijen en de UvA hebben in de loop van de tijd tot botsingen geleid. De wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR, is om advies gevraagd hoe zoveel verschillende wensen en belangen samen te brengen in een integraal ontwerp. De doelstelling van de VOL-BG is erop gericht te komen tot een internationaal tot de verbeelding sprekende toekomstige inrichting van het Binnengasthuisterrein, met behoud van het rustige, groene en monumentale karakter van het terrein, waarin wonen, leren, spelen, werken en recreëren door elkaar heen gebeurt door jonge en oude mensen, buurtbewoners, bezoekers, studenten en UvA medewerkers. In dit rapport beschrijft de wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR het onderzoek dat zij heeft uitgevoerd om de Vereniging Openbaar en leefbaar Binnengasthuisterrein (VOL-BG) bij het bereiken van dit doel te ondersteunen.
Molecular design, self-assembly, and material properties of silk-like protein polymers
Beun, L.H. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Martien Cohen Stuart, co-promotor(en): Renko de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572331 - 160
eiwittechnologie - eiwit - zelf-assemblage - ontwerp - polymerisatie - collageen - protein engineering - protein - self assembly - design - polymerization - collagen

Summary

In this thesis we present the design and characterization of bio-inspired hybrid protein polymers. All polymers are composed of two distinct types of building blocks. The first type is a silk-inspired block that is pH-responsive and can fold and self-assemble into highly ordered structures. The basic structure of this building block is an octapeptide (GAGAGAGX), denoted SX. We include multiple repeats n of this octapeptide (SXn) in our protein polymers. The amino acid X is always an acidic or basic one. This way, the pH of the solvent determines the charge of this amino acid; in the charged state the silk-like blocks repel each other and the proteins are molecularly dissolved. When charge neutralized, the silk-like blocks become hydrophobic and can fold and stack. The second building block is very hydrophilic and acts as a random coil under a wide range of aqueous solvent conditions. The basic structure of this block is a 99 amino acids long sequence of mostly hydrophilic amino acids, that we included either as a single block or as multimers, denoted Cn. The combination of these two blocks in one molecule leads to a pH-responsive protein polymer that switches from hydrophilic to amphiphilic due to solvent pH. The amphiphilic nature of the neutralized protein polymer leads to microscopic phase separation.

All protein polymers were designed by genetic engineering and produced by genetically modified Pichia pastoris in a batch fermentation. A simple ammonium sulfate precipitation was sufficient for all types of proteins to acquire highly pure samples.

The types of hybrid protein polymers we produced and characterized differ in three aspects. Firstly, we designed different silk-like blocks in which the amino acid X had three varieties. We included the acidic amino acid glutamic acid (E) with a pKa ~ 4, to obtain a block that is charged at high pH values and neutral under acidic conditions. We also designed this silk-like block with basic amino acids lysine (K) or histidine (H). These blocks are positively charged under acidic conditions, while being neutral at higher pH. Lysine with a pKa ~ 10 remains charged under slightly alkaline conditions, and is only neutralized at rather extreme pH values. The pKa of histidine (~ 6) means this is the only pH-responsive amino acid that’s almost completely neutral under physiological conditions (a pH of 7.4). This makes histidine the most interesting residue from a biomedical point of view.

The second variety in design is the relative sizes of the two blocks. For any amphiphile, the relative sizes of the two blocks determine the structure that is formed upon self-assembly. The size of the silk-like block was chosen to be 8, 16, 24 or 48 repeats of the octapeptide SXN. The random coil block was included as monomer C1, dimer C2 or tetramer C4.

Our third variation in molecular design is the order of the two building blocks. We constructed two diblock structured protein polymers: C1SH48 and C2SH48. All other protein polymers had a triblock structure. We constructed C2SXNC2 protein polymers, where the self-assembling silk-like domain was the central block, and SX24C4SX24 protein polymers, with telechelic end blocks. All types of protein polymers that we studied are presented in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1: Overview of different protein polymers studied in this thesis.

Telechelic

(Ch. 2)

Varying Silk-Like Block

(Ch. 3 & 4)

Varying Random Coil Block

(Ch. 5)

SE24C4SE24

C2SH8C2

C1SH48

SH24C4SH24

C2SH16C2

C2SH48

SK24C4SK24

C2SH24C2

C2SH48C2

C2SH48C2

In chapter 2 we report on the self-assembly behavior of triblock structured telechelic protein polymers SX24C4SX24. We analyzed the pH-dependent self-assembly into fibrillar structures of three different protein polymers. These proteins only differ in the amino acid X in the silk-like block. We found that all proteins self-assemble into fibrils under solvent conditions at which the amino acid X is uncharged. This self-assembly is completely reversible; changing the solvent pH to a value at which the amino acid X is fully charged, leads to immediate disassembly of the fibrils. The secondary structures of the fibrils are comparable, and are a combination of a random coil corona and a crystalline folded and self-assembled core. The self-assembly process is a pseudo-first order one. Initial fast (heterogeneous) nucleation is followed by elongation of existing fibrils, without the formation of new fibrils. These kinetics lead to monodisperse samples of fibrils. Existing fibrils have at least one living end: addition of new proteins in solution leads to further growth of these fibrils.

In chapter 3 we use super resolution fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy to analyze the self-assembly mechanism of the protein polymer C2SH48C2. Surprisingly, we found that self-assembly of these fibrils is an asymmetric process. The fibrils grow in only one direction with one living end, although the protein polymer that is the building block of these fibrils is highly symmetric. We therefore conclude that nucleation is a heterogeneous process. We observed that once a protein molecule is part of a fibril, it is kinetically trapped. In a timeframe of 3 days, we don’t observe exchange of protein molecules inside fibrils, with proteins in solution. The interactions of uncharged folded protein polymers inside a fibril are simply too strong to overcome to be released into solution. We also report that self-assembly of these fibrils is a process that involves continuous nucleation; elongation of existing fibrils is accompanied by the genesis of new ones. This leads to samples that contain fibrils with a wide variety of sizes, quite different from the populations found for the protein polymers with the inverted block sequence that we presented in chapter 2.

In chapter 4 and 5 we present our findings on several protein polymers in which we varied the relative sizes of the silk-like block and of the random coil blocks. In chapter 4 we present the characterization of protein polymers that have differently sized silk-like domains. We studied 4 protein polymers with the general structure C2SHnC2; the series consisted of n = 8, 16, 24 or 48. The two smallest protein polymers form micelles when charge neutralized (pH 8). The two largest protein polymers form fibrils under these conditions. At low pH, when the silk-like block is highly charged, this block behaves as (extended) random coil, according to circular dichroism measurements. This behavior is consistent for all block sizes that we studied. In the self-assembled state, there is a distinct difference in secondary structure of the micelles and the fibrils. The silk-like core of the micelles has a secondary structure that differs only slightly from the structure in the charged state. It merely acts as a collapsed coil. The secondary structures of the fibril forming protein polymers are very different in neutralized state. Their structures are mutually nearly identical, similar to that of a betaroll.

We observed that the size of the silk-like block has a strong effect on the kinetics of self-assembly. The largest protein polymer C2SH48C2 self-assembles into fibrils at a rate that is over a decade faster than the protein polymer with the smaller silk-like block C2SH24C2. Both fibril forming protein polymers can form hydrogels. There is however a great difference in rigidity of the gels at similar concentrations. The gel that consists of fibrils of C2SH48C2 is a decade stiffer than the one consisting of C2SH24C2. This stronger fibril-fibril interaction due to the more exposed silk-like core of C2SH48C2 clearly has a strong effect on macroscopic gel properties. We used partial enzymatic degradation of the random coil block to determine the influence of decreasing the hydrophilic block on self-assembly behavior. Both micelle forming protein polymers are able to form fibrils after up to 80% of the random coil blocks has been cleaved off. This shows the intrinsic capacity of the silk-like block to form fibrils even at a size as small as 64 amino acids. The fibrils of C2SH24C2 show an increase in interaction after partial cleavage of the random coil block. Individual fibrils start to associate laterally. This is a strong indication that fibrils with smaller random coil blocks can form more rigid hydrogels, based on their increased core-core interaction.

Based on these findings, we designed two new protein polymers with smaller random coil blocks: C1SH48 and C2SH48. With these protein polymers we systematically probe the role of a more exposed silk-like core in gel properties, presented in chapter 5. Both proteins self-assemble into fibrils when neutralized. Fibrils of C1SH48 differ from those of C2SH48 and C2SH48C2 as they start to laterally associate. Surprisingly, the rates at which self-assembling fibrils are formed, are identical for these protein polymers, and also equal to the rate of C2SH48C2­. Apparently, for these sizes of the blocks, the size of the silk-like block is what determines the rate of self-assembly. These two protein polymers attain secondary structures that are very similar to that of C2SH48C2. When looking at macroscopic properties of hydrogels formed by these protein polymers, we do observe a very clear difference. Both C2SH48C2 and C2SH48 form fibril based hydrogels that act as gels with very few (weak) crosslinks. These two gels show similar scaling behavior of modulus with concentration (exponents of 1.52 and 1.66). The attractive interaction of fibrils of C1SH48 leads to a different type of gel. The modulus of this hydrogel scales strongly with concentration (exponent of 2.8), typical for a (physically) cross-linked gel. The latter gels can have much greater moduli than gels of C2SH48C2 and C2SH48, but are also slightly more brittle. The porosity of the gels (an important parameter for biomedical applications) increases when decreasing the size of the random coil domain. However, for this series of protein polymers, the porosity is in the order of 10-100 nm, which makes these gels not suitable for using them to grow 3D cell cultures.

Concurrent Engineering in the 21st Century
Stjepandic, Josip ; Wognum, P.M. ; Verhagen, Wim - \ 2015
Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9783319137759
innovaties - economie - engineering - ontwerp - innovations - economics - design
Presenting the gradual evolution of the concept of Concurrent Engineering (CE), and the technical, social methods and tools that have been developed, including the many theoretical and practical challenges that still exist, this book serves to summarize the achievements and current challenges of CE and will give readers a comprehensive picture of CE as researched and practiced in different regions of the world. Featuring in-depth analysis of complex real-life applications and experiences, this book demonstrates that Concurrent Engineering is used widely in many industries and that the same basic engineering principles can also be applied to new, emerging fields like sustainable mobility. Designed to serve as a valuable reference to industry experts, managers, students, researchers, and software developers, this book is intended to serve as both an introduction to development and as an analysis of the novel approaches and techniques of CE, as well as being a compact reference for more experienced readers.
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