Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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De Knoflookpad in Nederland: ondergang of 'slechts' een bottleneck?
Bosman, W. ; Struijk, R.P.J.H. ; Zekhuis, M. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Crombaghs, B. ; Schut, D. ; Hoof, P. van - \ 2015
De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)1. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 2 - 6.
amphibia - padden - fauna - habitats - zoögeografie - oost-nederland - toads - zoogeography - east netherlands
In 2001 werd het landelijk Beschermingsplan Knoflookpad opgesteld. Wat is er sindsdien gedaan om de stand van de Knoflookpad te verbeteren en tot welke resultaten heeft dat geleid? Wat betekent dit voor de toekomst? Waar liggen de kansen voor de Knoflookpad? In een drietal artikelen komen achtereenvolgens aan bod: de historie van de Knoflookpad in Nederland, waarom en hoe in 2010 werd overgegaan tot bijplaatsing en herintroductie en tot slot welke scenario’s er zijn voor de toekomst van de Knoflookpad.
Kweek- en uitzetprogramma van knoflookpaddenlarven
Crombaghs, B. ; Bebber, I. van; Zee, J. van der; Janse, J. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Jansman, H.A.H. - \ 2015
De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)1. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 7 - 14.
amphibia - padden - fauna - herintroductie van soorten - oost-nederland - toads - reintroduction of species - east netherlands
In 2001 werd het landelijk Beschermingsplan Knoflookpad opgesteld. Wat is er sindsdien gedaan om de stand van de Knoflookpad te verbeteren en tot welke resultaten heeft dat geleid? Wat betekent dit voor de toekomst? Waar liggen de kansen voor de Knoflookpad? In een drietal artikelen komen achtereenvolgens aan bod: de historie van de Knoflookpad in Nederland, waarom en hoe in 2010 werd overgegaan tot bijplaatsing en herintroductie en tot slot welke scenario’s er zijn voor de toekomst van de Knoflookpad.
Ontwikkeling van de sojateelt in Zuidoost Nederland
Timmer, R.D. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 15
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - akkerbouw - peulvruchten - sojabonen - nederland - zuid-nederland - oost-nederland - veevoeding - rassen (planten) - proeven op proefstations - opbrengst - sustainability - arable farming - grain legumes - soyabeans - netherlands - south netherlands - east netherlands - livestock feeding - varieties - station tests - outturn
Gedurende het seizoen werden de belangrijkste raseigenschappen, zoals stevigheid en vroegrijpheid, vastgelegd en van alle velden werd de opbrengst en het vochtgehalte bij de oogst bepaald. Aan een monster werd bij BLGG via de Kjeldahl-methode het N-gehalte bepaald waaruit het eiwitgehalte is te berekenen. Eén van de belangrijke eigenschappen van een goed sojaras is dat het tot aan de oogst overeind blijft staan en niet gaat legeren. Op die manier kan het gewas optimaal produceren en kunnen de bonen zonder al teveel verliezen geoogst worden.
Dosssier : Wolven
Jansen, G.J. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Jansman, H.A.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
fauna - zoogdieren - migratie - lupus vulgaris - wildbeheer - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - oost-nederland - wolven - mammals - migration - wildlife management - scientific research - east netherlands - wolves
Overzicht van onderzoek naar de mogelijke komst van de wolf naar Nederland.
Perspectief inlandse teelt eiwithoudende gewassen voor de mengvoederindustrie : teeltervaringen en proefresultaten 2011 en 2012
Mheen, H.J.C.J. van der; Timmer, R.D. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 23
akkerbouw - eiwitleverende planten - oost-nederland - veevoeding - mengvoer - teelthandleidingen - peulgewassen - olieleverende planten - veldgewassen - regionale voedselketens - arable farming - protein plants - east netherlands - livestock feeding - compound feeds - cultivation manuals - legumes - oil plants - field crops - regional food chains
Hierbij is in eerste gekozen voor de belangrijkste ‘graanleguminosen’ (met een productiewijze naar analogie van de graanteelt) erwt, veldboon, sojaboon, blauwe en witte lupine
Effecten van het aanbieden van voedselgewassen op de talrijkheid van overwinterende akkervogels: een eerste analyse
Stip, A. ; Kleijn, D. ; Teunissen, W. - \ 2013
Limosa 86 (2013)3. - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 132 - 139.
bouwland - vogels - fauna - overwintering - foerageren - landgebruik - akkerbouw - proefprojecten - oost-nederland - limburg - arable land - birds - foraging - land use - arable farming - pilot projects - east netherlands
Veel wijst er op dat de problemen van Europese akkervogels tenminste voor een deel worden veroorzaakt door voedselschaarste in de winter, als gevolg van een steeds efficientere landbouwpraktijk waarin onkruiden en oogstresten zeldzame verschijnselen zijn geworden. Als maatregel om deze bottleneck op te heffen valt te denken aan het inzaaien van kleine oppervlakten akkerland met gewassen die voor vogels geschikt wintervoedsel opleveren. In dit artikel worden de eerste, hoopgevende resultaten besproken van een experiment waarin dit in een aantal Nederlandse akkergebieden is gebeurd.
Beheersen van meikeverengerlingen II
Elberse, I.A.M. ; Vlug, H. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2012
Lisse : PPO Bloembollen en Bomen - 37
melolontha melolontha - bomen - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - zandgronden - oost-nederland - trees - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - plant protection - sandy soils - east netherlands
Meikeverengerlingen richten grote schade aan in vele boomkwekerijgewassen. De problemen spelen vooral op zandgrond in het Oosten (De Achterhoek en Twente) en het zuiden van Nederland. In voorgaande projecten is het niet gelukt om een oplossing voor het probleem te vinden. Er waren wel maatregelen die enig effect hadden, maar geen ervan had voldoende effect om een goede teelt mogelijk te maken. Daarom is in dit project geprobeerd om op een perceel een teelt van kerstbomen mogelijk te maken door het stapelen van maatregelen, die elk een klein effect hebben.
Toekomstperspectief van varkensbedrijven in Oost-Nederland - Quick scan
Hoste, R. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Zeewuster, H. ; Veen, H.B. van der; Jager, J.H. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector en ondernemerschap ) - 28
varkenshouderij - dierenwelzijn - milieubeleid - landbouwbeleid - vergelijkend onderzoek - overijssel - gelderland - oost-nederland - zuid-nederland - pig farming - animal welfare - environmental policy - agricultural policy - comparative research - east netherlands - south netherlands
De varkenshouderij heeft de laatste jaren te maken met verschillende overheidsmaatregelen, waaronder de eisen uit het Besluit ammoniakemissie huisvesting veehouderij en de strengere welzijnseisen uit het Varkensbesluit. Daarnaast krijgen varkensbedrijven te maken met de gevolgen van het Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn (kosten mestafzet en mestverwerking). De gevolgen van dit beleid kunnen verschillend uitpakken voor verschillende regio's in Nederland. De Directie Regionale Zaken van het ministerie van EL&I heeft als reactie op een signaal uit de sector het LEI opdracht gegeven de effecten te kwantificeren van het milieu- en welzijnsbeleid voor de varkenssector in Oost-Nederland (Overijssel en Gelderland). Met dit onderzoek wordt inzicht gegeven in de integrale gevolgen in vergelijking met Zuid-Nederland.
Nieuwe inzichten in de N-behoefte van lelie
Kok, B.J. ; Belder, P. ; Smit, M.J. ; Meurs, E.J.J. - \ 2010
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bollen, Bomen & Fruit - 30
lelies - bemesting - stikstof - gewaskwaliteit - oost-nederland - veldproeven - bloembollen - noord-nederland - lilies - fertilizer application - nitrogen - crop quality - east netherlands - field tests - ornamental bulbs - north netherlands
Telers in Noordoost Nederland menen dat zij met het huidige bemestingsadvies te weinig stikstof mogen geven voor kwalitatief goede lelies. In 2006 en 2007 is in proeven gezocht naar de optimale stikstofgift voor lelie. Tot op heden is er geen verschil aangetoond tussen de maximale stikstofgift volgens de norm en hogere stikstofgiften. In dit project wordt de stikstofbehoefte van lelie in Noordoost Nederland opnieuw vastgesteld.
Reliëf in tijd en ruimte : interdisciplinair onderzoek naar bewoning en landschap van Oost-Nederland tussen vroege prehistorie en middeleeuwen
Beek, R. van - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jelle Vervloet; F.C.W.J. Theuws, co-promotor(en): B.J. Groenewoudt. - Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789085854609 - 641
nederzetting - landschap - geschiedenis - archeologie - regio's - historische geografie - salland - twente - achterhoek - oost-nederland - settlement - landscape - history - archaeology - regions - historical geography - east netherlands
In dit proefschrift wordt de landschapsgeschiedenis van Oost-Nederland onderzocht, dat vanwege de sterk gefragmenteerde landschapsstructuur wel als een ‘eilandenrijk’ wordt omschreven, en wel vanuit verschillende wetenschappelijke disciplines. Archeologische bronnen vormen de rode draad. De titel van dit proefschrift refereert aan de doelstelling om de bewonings- en landschapsontwikkeling van Oost-Nederland in onderlinge samenhang te reconstrueren, zowel in diachroon als in ruimtelijk perspectief. De factoren tijd en ruimte verwijzen niet alleen naar het landschapsbiografisch perspectief dat wordt gehanteerd, maar ook naar eventuele regionale en locale verschillen in bewonings- en landschapsontwikkeling die binnen het onderzoeksgebied herkenbaar zijn
Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884): aan de hefboom tot welvaart
Coster, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen [etc.] : Nederlands Agronomisch Historisch Instituut (Historia agriculturae 40) - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
Mr. Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elise baron Sloet tot Oldhuis, kortweg Sloet, was een prominent burger in de 19e eeuw. Van oorsprong was hij Geldersman, maar het grootste gedeelte van zijn leven woonde en werkte hij in Overijssel. Hij was daar burgemeester, rechter en initiator van de ‘Overijsselse Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart' waaruit in 1846 de Landhuishoudkundige Congressen voortkwamen. In de beide decennia rondom 1848 was hij een buitengewoon actief lid van de Tweede Kamer. Hij zette zich in voor de bevordering van de landbouw, de emancipatie van het platteland, de aanleg van wegen te water en te land en de verspreiding van kennis en kunde.
Baron op klompen : mr. B.W.A.E. baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884) aan de hefboom tot welvaart
Coster, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049500 - 416
biografieën - politiek - economie - onderwijs - kennis - communicatie - handel - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - kolonialisme - nederland - geschiedenis - plattelandsontwikkeling - oost-nederland - biographies - politics - economics - education - knowledge - communication - trade - agriculture - rural economy - colonialism - netherlands - history - rural development - east netherlands
During the nineteenth century many changes took place in The Netherlands, which in various ways have determined the structures we are living in today. Not only did the unification of the ‘archipelago of regions and communities’ from the period of The Republic make progress in the field of politics, (social-)economy and demography, but also in the field of language and culture, (town- and country-)planning and the structure of the landscape. Simultaneously the nation state of The Netherlands -which developed after a strongly directive French-Batavian intermezzo- remained a colourful mosaic of fixed or changing structures, materials and nuances. The origin, direction and pace of the various, sometimes co-existing phases in this process were, to a large extent, determined by people who stepped forward with their ideas, ideals and initiatives. These people had to deal with counter forces: from other persons, both individually and collectively, or from the physical environment which confronted them with sometimes unexpected difficulties and possibilities. It was – although opinions differ in this respect – above all a process of the work of man.
One of those who played an important role in the changing process of the nineteenth century was the lawyer Bartholomeus Willem Anne Elisa baron Sloet tot Oldhuis (1807-1884). ‘Sloet’, as he was usually called, was born in the village of Voorst in Gelderland, but most of his life he lived in and worked for the province of Overijssel. He held many offices, including those of mayor, judge, council member, provincial councillor and school inspector. In 1841 he was the originator of the ‘Overijsselsche Vereeniging tot Ontwikkeling van Provinciale Welvaart (‘Overijssel Society for the development of Provincial Prosperity’), in short ‘Welvaart’, and also of the subsequent ‘Landhuishoudkundige Congressen’ (‘Agronomic Congresses’) in 1846. Between 1840 and 1860 he was one of the leading men in the national political arena. In 1840 and again in 1848 he was a member of the Double Chamber for the amendment of the Constitution and he resided in the Second Chamber (Commons) between 1848 and 1860. Sloet was known to be a critical and headstrong liberal, who stood up for the interests of the countryside, especially those of the provinces of Overijssel and Gelderland, without becoming a narrow minded regionalist. He fought with and against Thorbecke, supported Van Hoëvell in debates on the policy regarding the Dutch East Indies and was one of the most ferocious opponents of Groen van Prinsterer. For decades the ‘Tijdschrift voor staathuishoudkunde en statistiek’ (Journal for political economy and statistics), which was founded by him in 1841, was considered to be the essential liberal mouthpiece. Both in word and in action Sloet was a pioneer who devoted himself to the emancipation and development of agriculture and the countryside, the construction of roads and waterways, and to the spreading of knowledge and skills. His views on the relationship with the colonies in the East and the West were sensational. Meanwhile he published widely both as a poet and a folklorist. Many of his initiatives succeeded, others failed, but his goal remained to stand at ‘the lever to prosperity’.
His strongly felt presence, his wilful character, his versatility and his vigour make Sloet a splendid guide through his time. Not only because of what he achieved but also because of his disappointments and failures and the opposition he was confronted with. The fact that he came from the eastern part of the country, together with his regional orientation and the availability of relevant sources makes it possible to select specific regional fragments against the scenery of the nineteenth century.
The present research concerning Sloet tot Oldhuis fits perfectly into the biographical tradition which over the past decade has also found its way into the field of agrarian history. By choosing themes from the life and work of a renowned figure in his time Baron op klompen (‘Baron in clogs’) seeks to show the important role Sloet has played during a large part of the nineteenth century in the political, economical and rural arena, more specifically in agriculture, planning and (political) culture; those aspects which were decisive in the development of the nation state of the Netherlands. The emphasis will be on the period between, roughly, 1840 and 1870.
The title ‘Baron op klompen’ also refers to the fact that Sloet -being a nobleman who did not out of ‘noblesse oblige’ feel obliged to defend the rights of his class- became an advocate for the backward rural regions and the peasantry. A new element in the present research is the fact that the results of the explorations of the ‘curriculum’ of chapter 2 are elaborated in subsequent chapters and in the interaction between them. That is why this new type of biography may be called a ‘concentric biography’.
The essence of this research is to show how a representative from the eastern part of the Netherlands, who may be assumed to have had much influence on the development of the modern nation, manifested himself. Here the term ‘modernization’ is used as ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. These developments are elaborated in four themes representing important aspects in Sloet’s social life: knowledge and skill, infrastructure, the countryside with its agriculture, and the colonies. Again and again the question is raised how his personality and intellectual background affected his actions. Each of these chapters raises a specific research question. A recurring question is what contribution Sloet has made to the development of the political culture by his public actions in the local, regional and national arenas.
In a way this research is a counterpart to the NWO-research of modernization and democratization in the Dutch countryside which is being conducted by the Rural History Group of Wageningen University, under the guidance of dr A.J. Schuurman. It therefore also poses the question which government bodies, organizations, newspapers and periodicals were responsible for stimulating the process of modernization and the development of the countryside. In this case the question is aimed specifically at the role Sloet played in this process. In other words – see the conclusion of chapter 1 - whether figures like him, who did not belong to the ‘titans’ in national politics, could ‘move the lever of prosperity’.
After the introductory chapter 1, ‘Aan de hefboom tot welvaart’ (‘At the lever of prosperity’), chapter 2, ‘Achtergronden’ (‘Backgrounds’) describes Sloet’s personal life. It deals with his curriculum vitae cum annexis, characterises him as a person and shows which tools he was given and which he gained during his life. It inquires after his ambitions and after his economic, social and cultural capital. In line with the concentric method, specific answers to these questions will be given in each of the subsequent chapters. This chapter pays special attention to Sloet as mayor of Hengelo (Overijssel) between 1832 and 1838, because it would prove to be the breeding ground for Sloet’s ambitions and activities afterwards in national politics. What he tried to achieve in Hengelo at a local level he would later attempt at a national level. Finally this chapter pays explicit attention to his literary work, which in the other chapters is mainly used to illustrate.

Chapter 3, ‘Twee maal een onzichtbare hand’ (‘Twice an invisible hand’), elaborates on Sloet’s intellectual baggage. His thoughts appear to have been guided by two invisible hands: that of religion and that of economy, while Classic Antiquity also took up a prominent part of this baggage.
In his religious life Sloet was guided by ‘physico-theology’, a school of thought which originated during the age of Enlightenment and was based on the idea that the forces of nature refer to a Creator. Other physico-theological writers, such as J.F. Martinet (1729-1795) wanted to convince their readers of the existence of God and his lasting care for his Creation on the strength of the available knowledge of natural phenomena. They wanted to point out that Nature is organized in such a systematic and functional way that a Nature without God simply cannot exist. What is more they summoned everybody to get to know and admire the magnitude of the Creator by means of the investigation of Nature. This way of thinking is based on both rational proof of God’s existence and the visible manifestation of God’s power, wisdom and goodness in the cosmic order of things. In accordance with the empirical spirit of the times this last aspect was emphasised most in the eighteenth century. Although a man of the nineteenth century, empiricism fitted Sloet like a glove.
According to Sloet morality was closely connected with religion in defining morals, norms, values and (therefore) citizenship. From morality to political economy was another small step as far as Sloet and many of his contemporaries were concerned. Within this context statistics and rural economy were also important and Sloet was certainly intensively engaged in these matters. The pillars of his world view and thoughts on people’s happiness -in the sense of material and non-material prosperity- were therefore a mixture of classic, Christian and profane materials. Chapter 3 explores the composition of this mixture.
As Hans Boschloo quite rightly states in his work De productiemaatschappij, in 1848 Sloet was ‘just like almost every other ‘laisser faire’ economist probably a Thorbeckian’. However, over the years he found himself more and more estranged from the liberal mainstream. In his eyes liberalism brought too much state interference, which was harmful to regional autonomy and resulted in unnecessary bureaucracy, his two largest frights. Because where could personal interests be served better than in one’s own immediate surroundings? And why should civil servants in The Hague interfere with the life of a farmer in Overijssel? Sloet considered freedom and centralisation to be opposites. This does not mean, that he was against any form of state interference, except where it concerned the care for the poor or the non-productive citizens. In that case he adhered to the principle: ‘he who does not work shall not eat’, although he would not say so outright. For Sloet – who was after all a lawyer – the form of government was less important than the general Christian state family in which everybody knew his place and lived by the same unwritten rules and principles, while fulfilling a task in order to provide for his or her livelihood.
The next four chapters show how Sloet operated, being guided by this way of thinking.

Chapter 4, ‘ ‘Kennis is de ware tooverij’ ’ (‘ ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ ’), pursues the value Sloet attached to organizations which furthered mutual contacts, research, information and education, public governance and well functioning media as necessary links to knowledge and information. Or, to put it in modern terms: networks, education and research, public relations and communication. His contribution to the political culture is also dealt with explicitly, while in the following chapters this contribution is further illustrated with practical examples. The question is what his approach was, who he involved and what the results were of his efforts, even though the answer to this last question will be saved for chapters 5, 6 and 7.
According to folklorist Tjaard de Haan, the fact that Sloet, in his ‘Ode aan de IJssel’ (‘Ode to the IJssel’) rhymes ‘stichting’ (edification/foundation) with ‘volksverlichting (‘enlightenment of the masses’), is typical for his active attitude toward life. He was one of the gentlemen who had woken, or wanted to wake, the countryside. His great strength was his zest for work, which was fed by his belief in the possibility of shaping or at least improving society and in the power of science. ‘Knowledge is the true magic’ was his motto as written down in 1865. At the same time it meant a confirmation of his belief in the divine nature which would allow itself to be uncovered by science. Nevertheless these discoveries needed to be translated to all layers of society if they were to benefit general prosperity.

Chapter 5, ‘ ‘Wegen te water en te land’ ’ (‘ ‘Roads in the water and on land’ ’), deals with the development of infrastructure, both locally and internationally, i.e. roads, waterways and railroads in the Netherlands and across the borders. How Sloet dealt with his ideas in these areas is examined here. What were his goals? Who were his allies and who his opponents in the borderland between public and private interests? What effects did his efforts achieve? Especially his activities in Overijssel, notably his desire to change its capital into a genuine seaport are emphasised here. Special attention is paid to his conspicuous efforts to make improvements on ‘the waterway between Zwolle and the sea’, the route via the ‘Zwarte Water’ and the ‘Zwolse Diep’. For this case caused political and personal polarization and shows a great deal of Sloet’s character and his political style. Besides, the perils around this ever so important part of Overijssel’s infrastructure led to a novelty in Dutch politics: the first full Parliamentary Inquiry in 1856.
At a time when Sloet exerted all his influence for the realization of the waterway from Zwolle to the sea and for the first railroads to and in Overijssel, shortly before the middle of the nineteenth century, he also pointed out the importance of ‘the footpaths of the nation’: the indispensable and undeniable winding paths in the countryside which were literally threatened to be buried by modern times. On the one hand he valued them because of their arcadian character, on the other also and the more so because of their economic value. The moral of the story being that modernization was useful and necessary but one should take care not to reject the good with the bad because old things also had their rights and served their purpose and should not be so easily dismissed. Sloet compared infrastructure to a blood circulation system in which each little vein served its purpose both for the entire body and for an individual body part. Without roads, however small they might be, there could be no trade and without trade there was no progress. This was the lesson he had learnt from Martinet and Adam Smith.
One victory was booked in 1860: just before he left the Second Chamber a Railway Act with national validity was passed, which also served the provinces, even though practice would show once again the West taking control over the initiative and the National Railways. Private initiative resulted in the completion of the ‘Zuiderzeelijn’ in 1864, a project in which Sloet had put a lot of effort, as far back as in the 1840s. At least his ideas and initiatives had contributed to the development of a coherent network of transport and communication lines, one of the necessary requirements for environmental integration.

Chapter 6, ‘Landbouw, landhuishoudkunde en landleven’ (‘Agriculture, rural economy and rural life’), deals with the role the agricultural sector played within and for Dutch national economy and how aspects such as knowledge, know-how and communication influenced this role according to Sloet. The chapter starts with a short description of agriculture in Overijssel in the nineteenth century.
The first question in this context is how Sloet valued the situation of agriculture in The Netherlands and its developments, especially in the province of Overijssel. Secondly, which arguments does he pose for the different views there are on this issue? A third question is what Sloet has contributed to the development of agriculture, both nationally and in Overijssel? Finally, can he be considered a representative of a certain group or did he occupy a special position within Dutch agriculture?
Sloet saw the agricultural sector as full of potential, some of which was also realised. Although this filled him with satisfaction and delight, it was no reason to sit back complacently, because new situations and developments also created new opportunities which needed to be utilized. The overall goal remained to explore and exploit the treasures of nature which became available through agriculture and, of course, otherwise. Farmers had a specific and important role in this process. For the eastern part of the Netherlands with its specific agrarian characteristics Sloet thought the best option was to develop the small family business. In a way and avant la lettre this manner of thinking fits within the later theory of Ester Boserup who speaks of ‘the relation between population growth in a certain ecological system and the changes in agriculture, more specifically the intensification of farming, which are a result of this growth’. Sloet considered ecology and economy to go hand in hand and according to him developments in the agricultural production process were determined by natural circumstances. But it was up to man to recognize these circumstances and to make use of them and improve them. Only then could the population grow. The necessary employment could amply be found in the countryside. Sloet considered investing on a small scale, such as providing seeds and simple sausage recipes better than introducing large farming equipment which would mostly benefit the big farmers. Modernization of agriculture should therefore aim at the small peasant family business. Rather than for mechanization Sloet opted for the use of human labour as a means to increase productivity.
Where the second question - of the different views on production development in agriculture- is concerned, Sloet simply does not provide us with the necessary statistics, despite his efforts. He did recognize, however, the rapid growth in population, the resulting pressure on the soil, the necessary intensification in agriculture and the just as necessary improvements of the infrastructure with, of course, the opportunities which these developments created. Van Zanden’s thesis, that up to about 1870 the influence of ‘institutions’, organizations and institutes on actual farming had been small, needs to be questioned. The existing agricultural societies before 1870 certainly made their contributions, especially Sloet’s Agronomic Congresses and, where Overijssel is concerned, ‘Welvaart’. Sloet was living proof that ‘people do make a difference’.
This also forms the beginning of the answer to the third research question, namely which contribution Sloet has made to Dutch agriculture, and especially that of Overijssel. By using his countless connections in politics, the Agronomic Congresses, among men of science and farmers, with his knowledge of national and international literature on the subject and last but not least on the basis of his own observation, he was the seemingly tireless stimulator behind small but indispensable little pulls at the lever of prosperity. To his great dismay and despite his efforts of many years he did not succeed in causing the tithes, a tax which he considered to be harmful to the development of agriculture, to be abolished.
The answer to the question as to what extent Sloet has taken up a position of his own in Dutch agriculture is closely connected with his descent and the region he grew up in. His childhood in Gelderland gave him direction and shaped him – as it had done his father and mother before him – into a tool of progress in the countryside and it made him an exponent of rural life. Not because he desired to play the role of ‘gentleman’, but for the love of his surroundings and the people with whom he felt connected. With his ‘physico-theological’ way of thinking as a liberal politician, economist, governor, man of letters and as a folklorist he is indissolubly connected with the agriculture and the countryside of The Netherlands and especially the countryside of the eastern part of The Netherlands or the ‘Saxon’ countryside, as he called it.
All together this creates a colourful and original person. In a sense Sloet was born in the wrong environment. He was different; he was a baron in clogs. However, if he had been a farmer in clogs he would not have been able to achieve the things he did by being the man he was.

Chapter 7, ‘Provincies overzee’ (‘Provinces overseas’), describes the way Sloet, together with baron Van Hoëvell, the militant ex-clergyman in the East Indies, initiated the discussion on colonial policy and launched ideas to emancipate the colonies in the East and the West and to make them more profitable. His actions are mainly highlighted by his role in the Second Chamber. Especially his interpellations on several issues and on a few particular items: a colonization project in Surinam, his proposal to sell land on Java, the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (cultivation system) and the Government Regulation for the Dutch East Indies which came into force in 1854. Moreover his attitude towards the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, in short ‘NHM’) and the issue of slavery, which he strongly condemned, are discussed here. The results of his actions should be regarded in the light of the question what his contribution has been towards the development of the political culture after 1848.
Where the issue of the ‘colonies’ was concerned, Sloet brought about a change of culture. He endured storms without being able to harvest but he opened up possibilities for others, especially with regard to the East. Several interpretations with regard to the abolishment of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ were congruent with his ideas on the topic. Firstly, as a classic liberal, he fought against forced labour and the monopoly of the colonial government, and especially the NHM. The amendments and changes which were attributed to criticism of left-wing liberals were mostly due to Sloet’s work. Already in 1849 Sloet started discussions in the Second Chamber on various matters, thereby uncovering abuses which were unheard of at that time. What is more, in doing so he specifically drew attention to the interests of the native people.
Secondly, he did not mind reforms made by civil servants in, as Fasseur states, removing or softening the aggravating burdens of the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ (Cultivation system). On the contrary, by making these changes (which could only be realised in a government system based on transparency) the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ could – according to Sloet - actually coexist with a system based on free labour and Western entrepreneurship. Finally, the interpretation that in the Dutch Indies there was a growing group of entrepreneurs with sufficient knowledge and capital to change the ‘Cultuurstelsel’ into a system based on free labour and Western enterprise, was very much in line with Sloet’s ideas. However, he also wanted to make it possible for new initiatives from the Netherlands and from the Western world in general to exploit the potential riches of the Dutch East Indies (including the Outer Provinces). If he thought fit Sloet looked not only across the regional, but also across the national borders. For him the general interest took precedence over the private interest.
In his perception of the colonies Sloet agreed with the French economist and colonial propagandist Paul Leroy-Beaulieu (1843-1916) who spoke of ‘colonisation moderne’ as exploitation based on free production and private capital. ‘Such colonization does not recognize a difference between colonials and the colonized, exploiters and the exploited, but is beneficial to both’. Proper colonial policy should not impoverish or deprive the indigenous people but should enrich them, and with that the colonial government. This was exactly the doctrine he had expounded in his ‘Grondtrekken van de Staathuishoudkunde’ (Characteristic Features of Political Economy) and this was congruent with the principles he attributed to christianity. According to him the colonies were also guided by the two invisible hands of political economy and of Christendom.
Most important however, was the fact that Sloet by his heavy criticism provided politics and political culture with a new form and substance in a time when colonial benefits had culminated.

The main research question in this study was posed in chapter 1, questioning whether individuals who were not considered to be among the ‘titans’ of nineteenth century politics could bring about any movement in the lever of prosperity. Focussing on Sloet’s person this was mostly about the development of the countryside in the eastern part of the Netherlands, Overijssel specifically, and about the Dutch colonies. There was also the question how much he has contributed to the political culture of his time.
The first conclusion in the final chapter 8, ‘Eén gezin, vastgesnoerd door broedermin’ (‘One family, tied together by brotherly love’), is that Sloet’s life and aspiration were permanently aimed at his ultimate goal: progress. This did not necessarily mean choosing new methods and techniques or enormous expansions. His perception of modernization was that of the definition as mentioned in chapter 1: ‘a complex of simultaneously occurring developments which strengthen each other into a certain direction’. The object of this direction was ahead of him, but where necessary and if there were things to be learned, he was not afraid of looking back either. In the same way his perspectives would change in his geographical orientation. The basic elements for the desired development he found first and foremost in his immediate surroundings. Most examples would come from his own sphere of work in the eastern part of the Netherlands, but they only served to provide substance for a model for Overijssel or Gelderland, The Netherlands, the Dutch colonies or for the world. On the other hand he was also in the habit of using the knowledge he acquired from his connections or through literature to the benefit of his immediate environment. Nevertheless he would always keep the natural situation in mind and would take care not to damage any other regions wherever these might be. As Martinet’s Katechismus der Natur (‘Nature’s Catechism’) had taught the young Sloet: that was not in accordance with God’s intentions.
In 1862, two years after he had been obliged to leave the Second Chamber -thereby practically ending his role in national politics- Sloet was both satisfied and dissatisfied. In his case this was inevitable. Of course, much had been achieved. He had had his share in the new and constantly changing world. He had been responsible for waking up the countryside of Overijssel not only by introducing new farming methods and new strains and crops but also by providing knowledge and insights and means to express them. He had contributed to the construction of roads, railways and canals. He had stirred the political debates with his critical, though sometimes rather thoughtless contributions. As a Multatuli avant la lettre he had spoken for the people of the Dutch East Indies. In his poetry he had focussed on the beauty and intrinsic value of nature. He had explored limits and most of all he had shown how far human effort could reach. Therefore he was all about progress, but he would not think twice about stopping a vehicle that was out of control either.
Sloet supported the late eighteenth century ideal of freedom, which revolved around the freedom of the citizen and which limited the powers of the state to the passing and upholding of laws necessary for a society to function. He even went one step further and would have preferred to reduce those laws as well, convinced as he was that they were not necessary, for in his eyes mankind was ‘one family, tied together by brotherly love’. In the end we can only come to the conclusion that Sloet may not have been a ‘titan’, but he certainly has set ‘the lever to prosperity’ going. He has explored and shifted boundaries and he has served as a model for the creed: ‘People do make a difference’.




Perspectieven van het agrocluster in Gelderland en Overijssel overwegend gunstig
Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2006
Agri-monitor 2006 (2006)juni. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 2
agrarische economie - agro-industriële sector - landbouwsector - oost-nederland - agricultural economics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural sector - east netherlands
Het agrocluster in de regio Oost heeft goede perspectieven, maar ook belangrijke uitdagingen. Het gebied profiteert van de nabijheid van de Duitse afzetmarkt, maar benut dit voordeel nog onvoldoende. Een versterking van de handelsfunctie en een vermindering van transporten naar handelcentra in het westen van het land is een belangrijk aandachtspunt voor de toekomst.
A cultural biography of the coversand landscapes in the Salland and Achterhoek Regions. The aims and methods of the Eastern Netherlands Project
Beek, R. van; Keunen, L.J. - \ 2006
In: Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek/Proceedings of the National Service for Archaeological Heritage in the Netherlands, nr. 46 / van Heeringen, R.M., Lauwerier, R.C.G.M., Amersfoort : Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten - p. 355 - 375.
landschap - archeologie - zandgronden - geomorfologie - landschapsbescherming - nederland - ruimtelijke ordening - salland - achterhoek - oost-nederland - landscape - archaeology - sandy soils - geomorphology - landscape conservation - netherlands - physical planning - east netherlands
In archaeological and historical geographical terms, the Salland and Achterhoek are among the least know areas of the Netherlands. Urbanisation, industrialisation, water management measures and nature development are rapidly beginning to take their toll on these coversand areas, and the buried history and landscape heritage they represent are coming under increasing pressure. An interdisciplinary project has been started to build a broad scientific base and to produce a biography of this coversand landscape from the late Palaeolithic to the beginning of the nineteenth century. By analysing existing databases and studying four areas in detail, and on an interdisciplinary basis an attempt will be made to understand the development of settlements and the layout and exploitation of lower-lying parts of the landscape, which will be the first comprehensive picture of the coversand landscape of the eastern Netherlands
Agrocluster Oost in beeld: Een onderzoek naar het belang van en de perspectieven voor het agrocluster in Gelderland en Overijssel
Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Wisman, J.H. ; Kuhlman, J.W. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9086150810 - 149
agrarische economie - landbouwsector - nederland - toegevoegde waarde - werkgelegenheid - agrarische structuur - economische ontwikkeling - oost-nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - value added - employment - agricultural structure - economic development - netherlands - east netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy
Dit rapport geeft een beeld van het agrocluster in de provincies Overijssel en Gelderland. Het economisch belang van het agrocluster en van de belangrijkste deelclusters is gekwantificeerd in termen van toegevoegde waarde en werkgelegenheid. Ook worden de structuur en de ontwikkelingen in de deelclusters geschetst. De uitkomsten zijn vergeleken met de perspectieven zoals ze in de nota Kiezen voor Landbouw geschetst zijn. Daaruit volgen een aantal opgaven voor de deelclusters om de perspectieven te realiseren. This report provides insight into the agricultural cluster in the Dutch provinces of Overijssel and Gelderland. The economic importance of the agricultural cluster and the major sub-clusters is quantified in terms of their added value and the employment they offer. In addition, the survey also outlines the structure of and developments in the sub-clusters. The findings are compared with the prospects as outlined in the nota Kiezen voor Landbouw ('Choosing Agriculture' policy document) published by the Dutch Government. This comparison indicates a number of challenges confronting the sub-clusters in achieving their potential prospects.
Regiodialoog Hamaland; atelier 15&16-12-2003
Schröder, R.R.G. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van; Chardon, P. ; Koning, P.C.G. de; Kwak, R.G.M. ; Smeets, P.J.A.M. ; Wintjes, A.L.W. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 938) - 65
regionale planning - grensoverschrijdend gebied - platteland - kennisoverdracht - samenwerking - oost-nederland - noordrijn-westfalen - regional planning - transboundaries - rural areas - knowledge transfer - cooperation - east netherlands - north rhine-westphalia
De regiodialoog Hamaland wil de grensoverschrijdende samenwerking in deze regio (het gebied tussen Enschede en Bocholt, Winterswijk en Borken) bevorderen. Doelgroepen zijn overheden, organisaties, bedrijven en kennisinstellingen. Doelstelling is verbetering van de leefbaarheid van het landelijkgebied en het realiseren van landschapelijke verbindingen. Veel lopende projecten houden op aan de grens. Het atelier (een tweedaagse workshop) is de initiatieffase voor een grensoverschrijdende, lerende programmaorganisatie ter uitvoering van projecten. De opgave is het verbinden (koppelen) van lopende activiteiten, het vernieuwen via nieuwe projecten en het verbeteren van organisatie en beleid.
Leefbaarheid in reconstructiebeleid: een vrouwenzaak? Een vergelijkende studie van het reconstructieproces in Gelderland en Overijssel
Bock, B.B. ; Derkzen, P.H.M. ; Joosse, S. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Europese Unie - ISBN 9073908167 - 92
vrouwen - participatie - platteland - nederland - regionale planning - plattelandsgemeenschappen - intensieve veehouderij - gelderland - overijssel - reconstructie - oost-nederland - women - participation - regional planning - rural communities - rural areas - intensive livestock farming - netherlands - reconstruction - east netherlands
Ontwikkelingen in het grondgebruik in Oost-Nederland en de West-Duitse grensregio: tijdreeksen grondgebruik van 1850 tot 1990
Knol, W.C. ; Kramer, H. ; Dorland, G.J. van - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 822) - 60
landgebruik - geschiedenis - cartografie - duitsland - databanken - geografische informatiesystemen - kaarten - gelderland - oost-nederland - achterhoek - grensoverschrijdend gebied - land use - history - mapping - databases - geographical information systems - germany - maps - east netherlands - transboundaries
Voor de periode 1850-1990 zijn voor de regio Midden- en Oost-Nederland en het grensgebied van Duitsland tijdreeksen met historisch grondgebruik ontwikkeld. De gegevens hiervoor zijn ontleend aan landsdekkende topografische kaarten die vanaf 1850 zijn verschenen. Er zijn 5 tijdstappen onderscheiden: 1850, 1900, 1930, 1960 en 1990. De Nederlandse en Duitse kaarten zijn gescand en geometrisch gecorrigeerd naar het RD-stelsel. Met een semi-automatische classificatie zijn van de gescande kaarten de kleuren omgezet naar 10 klassen met grondgebruik. Voor Duitsland zijn voor de periode 1900 en 1930 alleen zwart-wit kaarten beschikbaar. Deze zijn grotendeels handmatig bewerkt. De volgende vormen van grondgebruik zijn onderscheiden: grasland, akker/kale grond, heide en hoogveen, loofbos, naaldbos, bebouwd gebied en wegen, water, rietmoeras, stuifduinen en zandplaten en overig. Het resultaat is een tijdserie van GIS bestanden met dominant grondgebruik op basis van 50 meter grids. Validatie laat zien dat de nauwkeurigheid van de bestanden circa 95-99% bedraagt. De tijdreeks voor dit gebied is onderdeel van de ontwikkeling van een reeks landsdekkende databestanden met Historisch Grondgebruik vanaf 1800 op basis van 50 meter grids.
Natuurlijke Bondgenoten : Biologische bedrijven in de natuurgebieden van Oost-Nederland
Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 162) - ISBN 9789067545976 - 69
biologische landbouw - natuurbescherming - natuurreservaten - landbouw - natuurgebieden - overijssel - gelderland - oost-nederland - organic farming - nature conservation - nature reserves - agriculture - natural areas - east netherlands
Voor die groei en voor de speciale (extensieve) werkwijze van biologische boeren is grond nodig. Grond die deels uit de natuurgebieden kan komen. In dit onderzoek wordt gezocht naar de wederzijdse voordelen van de samenwerking tussen biologische landbouw en natuurbeschermingsorganisaties voor wat betreft het gebruik van natuurgrond door biologische boeren. De resultaten zijn verkregen door gesprekken te voeren met biologische boeren en natuurbeschermers.
Biologisch-dynamische landbouw in Oost-Nederland : knelpunten en perspectieven
Oostindie, H. - \ 1999
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 152) - ISBN 9789067545600 - 36
biologische landbouw - boeren - houding van boeren - nederland - rurale sociologie - biologisch-dynamische landbouw - gelderland - overijssel - oost-nederland - organic farming - farmers - farmers' attitudes - netherlands - rural sociology - biodynamic farming - east netherlands
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