Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Learning and corporate social responsibility : a study on the role of the learning organization, individual competencies, goal orientation and the learning climate in the CSR adaptation process
Osagie, Eghe Rice - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Vincent Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579774 - 166
learning - corporate social responsibility - competences - sustainability - change - organization - management - leren - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bevoegdheden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verandering - organisatie - bedrijfsvoering

People and other organisms depend on natural resources such as fresh water, land, clean air, wood, and food for critical life requirements and wellbeing. It is well documented that today’s Western way of living and the spread of capitalism is having a detrimental impact on societies and the natural environment. As one of the greatest users of natural and human recourses, many companies have started doing their part in the journey toward Earth’s sustainability and are actively working on translating the idea of sustainable development (SD) into reality. Companies often address SD through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. CSR refers to as a company’s continuing commitment to integrate ecological, social, and economic interests in company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders. This commitment is usually done on a voluntary basis (Dahlsrud, 2008).

This PhD thesis aims to provide a better understanding of how the CSR adaptation process in private companies can be supported, which is of particular importance and interest since the economic interests (i.e., business case logic) of private companies often clash with CSR objectives. Consequently, adapting to CSR principles can be quite challenging for these companies. Many scholars have attempted to identify factors that can facilitate the CSR adaptation process. However, though any large-scale organizational change requires employees to learn new ways of doing their jobs, the role of learning or human resource development in CSR adaption has remained largely unexplored in the CSR literature. This PhD thesis contributes to this line of research by answering the following research question: Which internal resources related to learning at the organizational and individual level contribute to the CSR adaptation process in private companies?

With respect to the organizational level, we found that certain learning organization characteristics can support the CSR adaptation process. We found that stimulating group learning, leadership that encourages learning, and connecting to the local communities are LO characteristics that can directly influence CSR adaptation in a positive way.

With respect to the individual level, we found that CSR managers, those managing the CSR adaptation process, need specific individual competencies in order to do their jobs effectively. We identified eight distinct individual competencies (e.g., Balancing personal ethical values and business objectives). We also found that CSR managers have different job roles in the CSR adaptation process. We identified six of these roles (e.g., strategizing role) and showed that the business case logic influences the relative perceived importance of specific individual competencies within each job role.

To conclude, the key message of this thesis, and the answer to the research question is two-fold. First, because CSR managers are the ones who actually manage the CSR adaptation process they can play a crucial role in the CSR adaptation process if they possess the right individual competencies. In order to develop these individual competencies, CSR managers should take ownership of their learning process and seek opportunities to learn with and from others.

Second, leadership and connecting with external parties are of particular importance to the CSR adaptation process. With respect to connecting with external parties: on the organizational level, having good relations with external parties improves CSR adaptation, because such relationships stimulate learning processes within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, relationships with external parties promote the development of the individual competencies of the CSR managers responsible for the adaptation process. With respect to leadership: on the organizational level, leadership for learning, referring to active support and stimulation of learning, indirectly affects CSR adaptation; it enhances employees’ learning behavior and therefore improve employees’ cognitive readiness and support for the changes needed to integrate CSR within the company. Furthermore, on the individual level, leadership competencies are essential for driving the changes needed in the CSR adaptation process.

This thesis contributes to the literature on the CSR adaptation process in several ways. First, this thesis addresses the issue of the CSR adaptation process from a learning or human resource development perspective and as such complements previous research employing the (human resource) management perspective on CSR. Second, it addresses learning from both the organizational and individual level, thereby providing valuable insights into if and how specific internal resources related to learning can contribute at different levels to the CSR adaptation process in private companies. Third, little is known about how factors on an individual level can support companies in their adaptation to CSR principles and their social performance at large (Aquinis & Glavas, 2012). This doctoral thesis is one of the first providing insights into this matter and demonstrates that learning-related influences on the individual level may be of value to the adaptation process. More specifically, this thesis adds to the literature by (1) identifying the job roles and individual competencies CSR managers need to effectively do their jobs within private companies; previous studies on CSR-related competencies often studied this topic from an educational point of view, thereby not fully addressing the complexity of the business context in which CSR managers operate; (2) by exploring how CSR managers can develop their competencies, which up till now remained unexplored in the CSR literature; and (3) by showing how certain organizational characteristics (i.e., learning climate) and personal characteristics (i.e., learning goal orientation) affect the development of CSR managers’ competencies.

There are several implications to be derived from our research with respect to learning (activities) for the benefit of CSR. For one, developing LO characteristics may help companies create favorable conditions for integrating CSR principles. By facilitating learning, companies provide employees with the opportunity to develop their “receptiveness to change”. As such, we suggest that companies experiment with employing LO characteristics to advance the integration of CSR principles. In particular, we suggest that company’s management show leadership for learning by endorsing learning behavior among their employees as this LO characteristic in particular seems to promote the integration of CSR principles. The management can stimulate such behavior by providing employees with continuous opportunities to learn (e.g., provide formal trainings and professional development opportunities), learn in groups (e.g., stimulate team work), and learn with and from external parties (e.g., stimulate stakeholder involvement).

Furthermore, it is important for companies to set up and structure a learning system within the company that enables customized learning, meaning a learning system that provides learning opportunities that fit’s the job and needs of individual workers. Companies can enable customized learning among CSR managers by, for example, providing them with flexible working hours and fixed budgets and hours that they can use for professional development. Such a learning system promotes meaningful learning and self-directed learning behavior among employees (Baars-van Moorsel, 2003), which, according to our research, can stimulate the development of CSR-related competencies.

To conclude, we hope that this thesis will encourage more research on the role of learning in the CSR adaptation process. Our research provides ample directions to further explore this topic. Furthermore, we hope that this research will inspire CSR professionals to start a dialogue with their employers about their competencies and professional development opportunities or that it inspires them to take control of their learning process and create their own learning network in order to develop their competencies, if needed. Moreover, we hope that by developing the relevant CSR-related competencies, CSR managers will effectively manage the CSR adaptation process and that higher CSR maturity levels are reached and more ambitious sustainability challenges are successfully addressed by private companies.

A social analysis of contested fishing practices in Lake Victoria
Medard, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; R. Mwaipopo. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462572478 - 278
visserij - gemeenschappen - productiviteit - hulpbronnen - ontwikkeling - sociologie - organisatie - visserijbeheer - ondernemerschap - meren - tanzania - fisheries - communities - productivity - resources - development - sociology - organization - fishery management - entrepreneurship - lakes

Thesis abstract

The thesis explored how the global market for Nile Perch fish has reconfigured the social and the natural in dramatic ways. The demand for Nile Perch and Dagaa played, willingly or unwillingly, an important role in converting its products into regionally and globally desired commodity. It has also simultaneously restructured the organisation of fisheries into a complex and aggressively managed sector. In fishing and fish trade, one needs to externalize costs and risks to the lower actors in the production and business hierarchy. From an historical point of view, power has shifted from many points of coordination and decision making into a few hands, those that own fishing camps and export processing factory. Moreover, illegal fishing and trading are continuous and corruption is rife to safe guard individual interest in turn shaping the local practices (governance) of Lake Victoria. Finally the debate about fisheries policies and fisheries regulation in L. Victoria does not address local realities and are largely irrelevant and that the real focus of power and driver of change is the international and regional markets for Nile Perch and Dagaa and global players with a lot of capital.

Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
Nieuwe wegen voor de veredeling van gewassen voor kleine markten : sleutelelementen voor vruchtbare samenwerking in de keten
Nuijten, H.A.C.P. ; Janmaat, L. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2012
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 2012-003 LbP) - 31
biologische plantenveredeling - plantenveredeling - biologische landbouw - financieren - organisatievormen - organisatie - veredelingsprogramma's - organic plant breeding - plant breeding - organic farming - financing - forms of organization - organization - breeding programmes
Voor het veredelingsbedrijfsleven is het nog beperkte biologische areaal een belangrijke bottleneck om te investeren in biologische selectie. Vanuit de biologische sector is er behoefte aan het vinden van innovatieve vormen van financiering of organisatie van veredeling om de vicieuze cirkel te doorbreken. Er zijn een aantal sleutelelementen geïdentificeerd die belangrijk zijn voor het succesvol opzetten van dergelijke initiatieven: erkenning van een probleem binnen de gehele keten, de complexiteit van de keten en haar geschiedenis, planteigenschappen, en ondersteuning voor ontwikkeling van nieuwe vormen van samenwerking. Mogelijke verbeterpunten qua organisatie zijn aanpassing van bestaande veredelingsstrategieën en betere afstemming tussen ketenpartners op Europees niveau. Dit laatste punt kan ook perspectief bieden op het gebied van financiering. Qua communicatie zijn kortere lijnen tussen telers en veredelaars belangrijk.
"En momentos difíciles nosotros somos un pueblo" Haciendo política en la mixteca de Oaxaca: un estudio sobre el ritual, la pasión y el poder
Curiel Covarrubias, L.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731067 - 281
sociologie - politiek - organisatie - gewoonterecht - mexico - vs - migratie - sociology - politics - organization - customary law - usa - migration

In this thesis I decided to explain the re-functionalization of a socio-political organization regimen in a municipality located in the mixteca highlands of Oaxaca. I identified a series of events and conflicts that have been occurring since at least 15 years, and are related to the particular ways of organizing the social and political local life, known as customary law (Sistema de Usos y Costumbres-SUC). This local context is been affected by the migration to the Mexican-North American border, the incoming of federal and state financial resources as an outcome of the decentralization process, the legal recognition of the customary law in the Oaxacan Constitution, and the weakening of the influence and power of the PRI in the state. All together had form a temporal juncture since the middle 1990’s that has testified the fragmentation of the local political field. To explain this process and the relations between the different phenomena, fields of relations, actors and events is my general concern in this thesis.

The present work goes by explaining how the re-functionalization of the SUC occurs because the local political field fragmented since new emergent actors organized the people in groups around particular interests and political activism, pushing changes in the local ‚traditional‛ customs. But they also achieved to reinterpreted them to mobilize the affections and passions of the population. Also, the uses of certain discourses, practices of organization and ritualized spaces and events have been their means to achieve their goals. This have provoked the appearance of a hectic environment –specially in electoral periods- that expresses the transformations that this regime has been experienced in relation to the effects of more broader phenomena. My intention is to explain a process of change of this regimen of customary law in which new and different ways of doing politics can be observed, as well as the constitution of new local subjectivities. This happens also re-functionalizing pre-existing forms of social organization.

What I observed is that in the last years this organization regimen it’s been rationalized by new actors –emerging or previously excluded- who use discourses and practices coming out of this system –manipulating them and reinterpreting them- to participate in the new disputes and competitions for the local power, the municipal administration and the possession of ‚la costumbre‛ (the custom). These disputes take place in a fragmented and divided political field, appealing to the ‚pueblo‛ (the people) as a social entity unified and legitimate. These competitions occur between new actors grouped around leaders from political parties and social organizations, who had the capacity of destabilise the former status quo and subvert the control of the elite linked to the PRI.

Taking into account this temporal juncture, the effects of broader phenomena and what I observed during my fieldwork, I grouped my doubts and interests in these research aspects:

 To expose the ways of doing politics within the process of re-functionalization of the SUC;

 To show that politics has been done through the use (political, moral, ideological) of ‚la costumbre‛;

 To expose the importance of the use of the discourse of ‚el pueblo‛ (as social entity) in the political struggles, and what it is expressing and meaning to who appeal to it;

 To show how these ways of doing politics manifest the construction of subjectivities in a socio-political organization regime in a process of transformation.

What I present in this thesis is an extended case study (Mitchell, 2006 [1956]). This is characterized by presenting fieldwork material organized in a time sequence (normally a long period of time) in which the same actor are involved in a series of situations and events in which their positions are redefine. Also is possible, through an extended case study, to illustrate how the ways of doing politics have been changed and how the actors involved have adapted the ideological dimension of the SUC in the context of competition, disputes and struggles for the local power. The choice of presenting the material in this way allows me to expose the analysis of a series of successive events in a period of 15 years.

I chose to do this through the analysis of discourses, practices and rituals spaces. I paid attention to the communal and public events such as assemblies and meetings but also I recur to many open and personalized interviews.

In the introduction of the thesis I expose the research problem and the way I constructed it. Also I draw on my theoretical approach, concepts and ideas about politics and the way I understand it for the purpose of this work. Also I explain the methodological path I constructed in order to develop my four main concerns.

In the second chapter I introduce the municipality of San Miguel Tlacotepec. I explain the history of the Customary Law system and its relation to Mexican politics (local and regional) and with the system of unique party. I include the particularities of this system in the ways of organized socially and politically the town. Also I explain the local institutions, its hierarchies and the role they play in the organization of the communitarian life in general. And the role domestic and international migration has been playing locally. The main goal of this chapter is to set the socio-historical context that prevails without to many and important changes for many years. Is in this context in which the firsts transformations were brewing.

I refer about these innovations in chapter 3. I illustrate the first important changes experienced in the field of the local politics. I explain how the fragmentation starts through the appearance of new actors that emerge from the experience of migration and return. They also participated in regional events that disrupt the regional politics, such as the developing of social organizations opponent to the PRI. In this context, the resources from the municipal decentralization program and the civil positions turned a coveted booty making the municipal elections the first big arena of confrontation and struggle between the new actors. I explain as well how the communal assemblies are consolidate as the legitimate organ of decision making and the new and different discourses start to emerge playing an important role in the disputes for the local power. As I expose this context from the middle of the 1990’s, I show how the trajectories of the actors developed and how new subjectivities appear in the process of reconfigure the local politics.

In chapter four I present an ethnography that show the importance of the antagonism among leaders y and organized groups as a central element to constitute the political field. I expose the kind of practices and discourses that participate –through the new leaders, activists, audience in the assemblies and confronted groups- in the dispute for ‚la costumbre‛ and how the idea of ‚el pueblo‛ was constituted -among the people who participate- and was used as a referent in the political conflict and also as a reaction to the fragmentation of the life in common. These changes also show the linkage –promote by the decentralization process- between the municipality and extra-communitarian institutions. This linkage is been reinforce through the influence the different actors have in those institutions and in the official decisions they take affecting the local dynamics of the municipality.

In chapter five the ethnography refers to the municipal election of 2007. I show the whole process of organization from the pre-electoral environment to the final resolution of the post-electoral conflict. This example is been used to demonstrate how the dispute, confrontation, personal interests and passions influenced the participation of the audience to that event. Is possible as well to observe how appealing to the customary law worked to promote personal interests, channelled the antagonism for this not to turn violence, and constitute an ideological resource that could keep the ‚pueblo‛ united in spite of division.

In chapter six I expose what apparently is a tense relation between the parish and the municipal authority. This relation occurs between the representatives of these local institutions and expresses, beyond the domestic affair, the kind of new relationship they have since the weakening of the local elite closed to the PRI and the rise of new actors who criticized the civil-religious relation. Through the ethnography of a disagreement about the use of the local chapel, my main interest is to show how the field of relationships and confrontations between these two institutions is an arena in which the representatives dispute the use of the discourse of ‚la costumbre‛ and its possession in order to win moral authority and prestige. This occurs through the strategic and instrumental use of certain rituals (from its organization to its accomplishment) and symbols, expressing the renew ways of doing politics in the changing context of the customary law system.

Chapter seven contains my final conclusions based on my findings, presented throughout these pages, and their relations to the ideas and notions that guided my reflections. This work deals with the new ways of doing politics in the light of a particular socio-political system of organization and the changes that migration, municipal decentralization, the legal recognition of the SUC and the reconfiguration of the regional political scenario brought to SMT’s politics. I show this process interpreting the re-functionalization of this system and its rationalization made by the actors who participate in the different spaces of the fragmented local political field. The observance of this process and the outcomes allow me to place this work in two different debates but related to each other: the effects of the transnational organizations en the origin communities and the possibility of the emerging of a democracy of ‚el pueblo‛ facing the ravages of a democratic unease that affects the Mexican politics in general.

To draw on the first of these debates, I argue how the transnational politics has been subordinate to the local and regional politics. In this case these two reinforce –through the leaders relations and influence- the links between the municipality and the extra-local institutions without promoting a transnational governance. The leaders arrived from the experience of transnational and domestic migration invested their experiences to reinforce their presence and influence in the local and regional political fields. This was achieved through the political used of different discourses, one of those completely new that brought the inhabitants of SMT around common concerns. This, I proposed, was expressed in a new way of politics –with the advent of a new kind of subjectivity- in which interests and concerns are shared, but also anxiety, unease and uncertainty. Even though there are some signs to discern a future panorama with place for the emergence and discussion of a ‚democracy of el pueblo‛.

Zelfsturing en Profit in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden : catalogus van inspirerende voorbeelden
Swagemakers, P. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Leerstoelgroep Rurale Sociologie - 25
werkgelegenheid - zelfbeheer - organisatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - regio's - economische ontwikkeling - samenwerking - friese wouden - employment - self management - organization - rural development - regional development - regions - economic development - cooperation
Als onderdeel van de verkenningsfase van het TransForum innovatieve praktijkproject in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden over zelfsturing en profit, wordt in deze bijdrage een aantal binnen- en buitenlandse voorbeelden gegeven die als inspiratiebron kunnen dienen voor toekomstige ontwikkelingen in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden.
The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya
Jansen, B.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858591 - 273
rampen - oorlog - vluchtelingen - noodgevallen - sociologie - agressief gedrag - organisatie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - economie - vn - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - kenya - afrika - disasters - war - refugees - emergencies - sociology - aggressive behaviour - organization - resettlement - economics - un - non-governmental organizations - local government - local population - africa

In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First,

the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of

space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions

of the camp as an abnormality. In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which refugees

settle down in the camp and inhabit the humanitarian space. From a physical

perspective, the camp has grown into a center of facilities in a wider region of

insecurity, war and marginalized pastoral lands in a semi-desert. Compared to the

region, the camp resembles a multicultural and cosmopolitan place, with various

connections to the wider world.

I have analyzed five domains in which social ordering takes place:

humanitarian governance, the camp as a warscape, the camp economy, third

country resettlement and repatriation. In all these domains, refugees seek to

organize themselves and their surroundings vis-à-vis the humanitarian agencies

and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

In chapter two, I describe how UNHCR de facto became the government of

the refugee camp on behalf of the Kenyan government. In this capacity it operates

in a confusion of roles; it is both implementer of aid and assistance in the general

administration of the camp, and monitor and guard of States’ obligations to

respect refugee rights. This makes that UNHCR and its implementing NGOs not

only offer, preach and teach entitlements, but are simultaneously for a large part

responsible in their delivery and for the decision of who is granted inclusion in the

camp’s services. I have recognized this in the notion of an entitlement arena,

which highlights how refugees maneuver in the grey area between UNHCR’s

camp governing and rights monitoring roles. The entitlements born out of refugee

and human rights then translate into expectations and promises that become part

of negotiations seeking to align, dodge or alter the camp’s organization. For a

large part, this negotiation takes places along the interfaces between UNHCR and

its implementing partners, and the refugees. By employing participation strategies

in the governing of the camp, UNHCR contributed to the creation of subauthorities,

which play an important role in the referral of refugees within the aid

system, but also in the identification of vulnerabilities.

In the domain of the warscape, I analyze how boundaries between refugee

leadership and rebel movements have blurred, adding and altering these subauthorities.

Apart from the camp having a function in the broader war tactics of

rebel movements in the past and in the present, the notion of the camp as a

warscape highlights how the politics of war and the dynamics of conflict reach

and partly order the camp. This warscape notion, instead of being problematic, is

analyzed from a perspective of place making, through which refugees claim

political agency and room to organize themselves vis-à-vis the refugee regime,

thereby reshaping the living arrangements of the camp and organizing where

people settle on the basis of ethnic and violent histories in the past and in the

camp. This authority transcends into everyday forms of power and governance,

largely because of an understanding of imminent and symbolic violence between

the different groups.

In a socio-economic domain, I describe how refugees build on the resource of

aid and create a diversity of livelihood strategies. Aid, more than just a handout or

a necessity, is comparable to a natural resource in the contours of the camp. For

refugees, once they are allowed inside the camp, aid is simply there. It is

something one can vie for, and can harvest, until it is depleted. I describe this as a

process of “digging aid,” comparable to subsistence farming. On the basis of this

aid, a camp economy has grown, with linkages to informal and formal regional

and international economies. The development of the camp economy has

stimulated socio-economic changes. The local community has found a resource in

the camp and “dropout pastoralists” have settled around the camp in a way that is

comparable to the ways urban migrants flock to cities. The camp represents a

cosmopolitan place where people of different backgrounds come together, meet

each other, and adapt to each other.

The fourth domain, described in chapter five, concerns the camp as a portal

for resettlement. The perspective of third country resettlement in Kakuma has

both been a reason for people to come to the camp, and a phenomenon that

greatly contributed to its development. Resettlement can thus be seen as both an

opportunity as a solution to which people seek access. With this, resettlement

became an organizing principle for people in the camp. The large volume of

resettlement from Kakuma contributes to the character of the camp as a transitory

space. Many informants came to Kakuma not so much to return “home” again,

but to move forward instead. Kakuma as a portal offers migratory routes to those

who manage to be considered eligible according to the agencies’ and receiving

countries’ qualifications. Although imagined as a measure to protect those most in

need, in reality, becoming eligible for resettlement involves a combination of

factors, including access to the agencies and a vulnerability or a fitting identity. It

is here that the warscape and the entitlement arena intertwine to become the

system of resettlement.

Chapter six shows how repatriation becomes subject to maneuvering. Over the

course of my fieldwork, peace broke out in Sudan and repatriation was initiated.

The prospect was complicated, however. In Sudan, public amenities such as

schools, health care, and water were scarce or lacking. Towns and urban centers

were still largely under Arabic influence. The result was that the humanitarian

government in the form of UNHCR and the NGOs sought to control return

movements, while refugees sought to strategize and organize return in their own

ways, and the Sudanese authorities in Sudan sought to keep the refugees in Kenya

until further notice.

The notion of the camp as an accidental city comes back in that the camp was

recognized for its facilities and weighed against the lack thereof in Sudan. New

arrivals similarly came for education, or for basic amenities and even food.

Refugees from other nationalities had concerns because of a possible closure of

Kakuma. Many of them had a rebel or military past, or feared being regarded as

rebels in their home countries, and thus saw limited opportunities to go home.

Also people from town were unsure of what would remain of Kakuma in the

event of the camp being closed.

This research contributes to earlier work in earlier stages of refugee hosting in

other camps, and covering specific subthemes. With the analogy to the city, I

bring together those subthemes in one common frame. The result can in part be

understood as a history of the specific camp of Kakuma. This nicely captures the

title of this research, for something that gains a history breaks free from the frame

of temporality, perhaps by accident. With this approach, this book is not only

relevant for social science or anthropology, but also as a historical record.

Protracted refugee camps constitute an experiment in humanitarian action, but

also in thinking about questions of governance and security in refugee hosting

contexts in developing countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nepal,

Thailand and other locations where the content of this book may be relevant.

Meervoudig landgebruik in Winterswijk : zelforganisatie voor een aantrekkelijk landschap
Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086152520 - 35
landgebruik - meervoudig landgebruik - meervoudig gebruik - landschap - regionale ontwikkeling - dienstensector - plattelandsontwikkeling - waarden - kosten - nederland - toekomst - organisatie - achterhoek - land use - multiple land use - multiple use - landscape - regional development - services - rural development - values - costs - netherlands - future - organization
Dit onderzoek komt voort uit een behoefte om in een proces van gebiedsontwikkeling vraag en aanbod van landschapdiensten op elkaar af te stemmen en te concretiseren. De relatie tussen ontwikkelingen en wensen in het gebied en ontwikkelingen op provinciaal en landelijk niveau is hierbij van belang. De vraag speelt in hoeverre een dergelijk proces kan worden ondersteund. Door samen te werken kunnen interne baten zoals kostenbesparingen bij het organiseren van activiteiten worden gerealiseerd. Meer concreet, gemeenschappelijke doelstellingen zouden kunnen worden ondersteund door het aanstellen van 1 of 2 personen gedurende een paar jaar om trekkracht te organiseren (het schrijven van projectvoorstellen), door met een aantal projecten de zichtbaarheid te vergroten en door het organiseren van een comité van aanbeveling. De verzilvering van externe baten kreeg tijdens het atelier de nodige aandacht door te kijken naar geld dat beschikbaar is voor landschap
De Bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland. Het openbaar bestuur en zijn omgeving in nationaal en internationaal perspectief
Breeman, G.E. ; Noort, W.J. van; Rutgers, M.R. - \ 2008
Bussum : Coutinho - ISBN 9789046901175 - 234
bestuur - overheidsbeleid - organisaties - instellingen - handboeken - regering - regionaal bestuur - rijksoverheid - plaatselijk bestuur - openbare instanties - samenleving - europese unie - nederland - europa - bestuurskunde - organisatie - staatsorganisatie - administration - government policy - organizations - institutions - handbooks - government - regional government - central government - local government - public agencies - society - european union - netherlands - europe - public administration - organization - state organization
Systeeminnovatie op het bedrijf
Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Lans, C.J.M. van der - \ 2007
kassen - teelt onder bescherming - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovaties - milieubeheersing - emissie - proefprojecten - glastuinbouw - zorgboerderijen - organisatie - multifunctionele landbouw - greenhouses - protected cultivation - farm management - innovations - environmental control - emission - pilot projects - greenhouse horticulture - social care farms - organization - multifunctional agriculture
De emissiearme kas en de sociale kas: een combinatie van teelt en zorg. Het opstellen van een stappenplan 'Opstart zorgglastuinbouwbedrijf' en oplossingen voor mogelijke knelpunten, aan de hand van opgedane ervaringen bij enkele pilotprojecten. De knelpunten liggen met name op het organisatorisch vlak
Zelforganisatie in het landelijke gebied: signalen uit de praktijk
Floor, L. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 79
platteland - samenwerking - boeren - landschap - milieubescherming - burgers - organisatie - governance - rural areas - cooperation - farmers - landscape - environmental protection - citizens - organization
Minder sturen, meer initiatief laten aan de samenleving, dat is het beoogde overheidsbeleid. Als reactie op de terugtredende overheid nemen mensen zelf initiatieven. Deze studie bevat voorbeelden van van zelforganisatie in het landelijk gebied. De onderzoekers zijn zeer uiteenlopende voorbeelden op het spoor gekomen. De studie maakt onderdeel uit van het Wagenings onderzoeksprogramma 'Boundaries of space' (met During en Aarts als projectleiders)
Selected papers from the 8th PhD Conference on Business Economics, Management and Organization Science
Batterink, M.H. ; Cijsouw, R. ; Ehrenhard, M. ; Moonen, H. ; Terlouw, P. - \ 2005
Enschede : Printpartners Ipskamp - ISBN 9036521912 - 114
bedrijfseconomie - bedrijfsvoering - organisatie - business economics - management - organization
Management, structuur en cultuur : over het gebruik van organisatietheorieën in Breda
Polling, J. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.C. van Dalen. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789058080967 - 251
overheidsorganisaties - organisatieontwikkeling - organisaties - theorie - verandering - bedrijfsvoering - overheid - plaatselijk bestuur - geschiedenis - nederland - noord-brabant - organisatie - government organizations - organizational development - organizations - theory - change - management - public authorities - local government - history - netherlands - organization

This book deals with organizational change in two different ways. One way is the historical description of several attempts to implement organizational change in one particular organization. That organization is the local civil service of Breda, a city in the southern part of the Netherlands with a history that goes back to the thirteenth century. This book covers the period of about thirty years from 1965 until 1996. In this period Breda had between 120.000 and 130.000 inhabitants and the civil service varied between 1200 and 1800 employees. The historical description focuses not only on the changes as such but also on the situation that existed when the attempts to change were undertaken (the environmental conditions). Main goal in this part of the study is to create a basis for an answer to the question: What factors or conditions were decisive for the claimed success of the changes that took place in 1992, where similar attempts at earlier dates seemed to have failed?

The other way to treat organizational change in this study is induced by the question: Which organization theory or theories were used in the reorganizations described in the historical part? In order to obtain an answer to this question it was necessary to go into the character of organizations theory - which is thought to be a body of knowledge - and into the relevancy of organizations theory for practical use - which is thought to be small. A theoretical model for research is proposed in part 2. This model is based upon three major assumptions.

guidelines and directions derived from organizations theory are insufficient to support organizational change in practice. This causes "changers" (those who initiate the desired change) to develop their own, "private" organization theory. An important part of this study is concerned with the reconstruction of those private theories.the private theories of changers are expressed one way or another in the documents used to realise the desired organizational change. In the addendum to this study quotes from the documents used are translated into "central concepts" of the changers. These central concepts are considered to be the framework of the private organization theories.organizational change is realised on one or more of three organizational dimensions: management, structure and culture. These dimensions are influenced strongly by environmental factors. Technologic possibilities available, the actual economic situation, prevailing social values and political and governmental conditions are considered to be the most important environmental conditions.

The last section of part 2 (chapter 6) gives a short analysis of the specific character of Dutch local government and public service. In the local civil service the position of the town clerk in most cities has evolved to that of city manager in the period considered.

The historical account in part 3 is subdivided into 5 chapters, the first being a short and global sketch of the history of the Netherlands since World War II in order to give a general background for the developments in Breda. Each of the other four give a description of one of the successive attempts to reorganize the civil service of Breda. In these chapters attention is also given to several problems of local policy that filled, for the most part, the political agenda.

In part 4, the model developed in part 2 is applied on documents used to realise the desired changes described in part 3. The private theories for each period are reconstructed and compared to the general organization theory existing at the time. An important aspect of this analysis is that private and general organization theory and the desired and realised organization are described in terms of the three dimensions (management, structure and culture) of the proposed referential model in part 2. Each chapter of part 4 closes with a summary of conclusions with respect to that period.

General conclusions derived from the whole study and a few suggestions for further research are gathered in part 5. The most important conclusions can be presented in the following statements.

Writers on organizations agree to a large extent on the fact that environmental conditions have a bearing on the structure and functioning of organizations. Many of them even agree on the fact that organizations theories are influenced by the economic and social forces of their time. Nevertheless proposed organization theories hardly ever try to specify the situation in which they are developed.An explanation for this lack of attention may be found in the emphasis on comparative analysis of organizational research. In comparing organizations in a specific historical period, technological economic, social and political conditions can be viewed as the same for all organizations at the time. In that case those environmental conditions have no bearing on the results of the research and need not be made explicit.Organizational change can be considered as change on the three dimensions: management, structure and culture. In the case observed in this study the same set of rather simple rules was used for creating change in each of the four successive periods on the dimensions management: (replace sitting managers) and structure (enhance line-staff relations, put together what belongs together; though criteria to do this differ from period to period; and decrease span of control).The most important motive to introduce large scale changes in the case observed, therefore, seems to be the need to change organizational culture. In the case considered, the organization started with a power oriented culture. The first attempt on change tried to implement a role oriented culture but failed for the most part as a result of the existing power structure.

The second attempt was accompanied by the wave of democratization of the late sixties and early seventies which undermined the power structure in the organization. The rather low pressure on reinforcing role relations, except for those belonging to project management, caused a major shift towards a task culture in which hardly anybody seemed to have authority. In this situation project management played a major role.

In the third attempt, under pressure of the economic recession, legitimate authority, the political power of mayor and aldermen, reinforced a strong role culture. As a result of this change the existing structural elements of project management were practically eliminated. The position of the chief executive level (the town clerk) was weak.

In the fourth attempt power shifted from the political to the chief executive level. This shift was enabled by the weak political position of mayor and aldermen and the authority bestowed on the town clerk.

Public tubewell irrigation in Uttar Pradesh, India : a case study of the Indo-Dutch tubewell project
Alberts, J.H. - \ 1998
Wageningen : International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (Special report / International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement ) - 61
welpijpen - irrigatie - grondwater - boeren - organisatie - tube wells - irrigation - groundwater - farmers - organization
Draagvlak voor natuur?; peiling bij het publiek en maatschappelijke organisaties
Bervaes, J.C.A.M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Filius, P. ; Volker, C.M. - \ 1997
Wageningen : IKC Natuurbeheer - 96
natuurbescherming - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - participatie - natuurreservaten - herstel - nederland - organisaties - instellingen - vragenlijsten - opinies - openbare mening - natuur - natuurtechniek - associaties - sociaal onderzoek - organisatie - nature conservation - policy - management - participation - nature reserves - rehabilitation - netherlands - organizations - institutions - questionnaires - opinions - public opinion - nature - ecological engineering - associations - social research - organization
Vier jaar kwalificatiestructuur: een tussenbalans.
Lazonder, A. - \ 1996
Agrarisch Onderwijs 38 (1996)19. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 16 - 17.
voortgezet onderwijs - agrarisch onderwijs - leerplan - scholen - onderwijsprogramma's - onderwijs - onderwijzen - participatie - beroepsopleiding - onderwijshervorming - onderwijsvernieuwing - onderwijsplanning - onderwijsbeleid - methodologie - evaluatie - grootte - duur - groepsgrootte - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - organisatie - studie - secondary education - agricultural education - curriculum - schools - education programmes - education - teaching - participation - vocational training - educational reform - educational innovation - educational planning - educational policy - methodology - evaluation - size - duration - group size - intermediate vocational training - organization - study
Aandacht voor doorstroommogelijkheden en rendementsverbetering
De veranderende rol van het management van aoc's.
Wassink, H. - \ 1996
Agrarisch Onderwijs 38 (1996)9. - ISSN 0925-837X - p. 18 - 19.
beroepsopleiding - agrarisch onderwijs - onderwijs - personeel - docenten - bedrijfsvoering - managers - leiderschap - organisatie - vocational training - agricultural education - education - personnel - teachers - management - leadership - organization
Het betreffende onderzoek is een van de eerste praktijkstudies over dit onderwijs. De uitkomsten ervan zijn op meerdere manieren bruikbaar
Monetarisering in de huishouding: een analyse van de huishoudvoering van relatief welgestelden.
Ophem, J. ; Hoog, K. de - \ 1995
Huishoudstudies 5 (1995)2. - p. 8 - 19.
automatisering - consumentengedrag - voedsel - voedselinkoop - voedingsmiddelen - huishoudkunde - huishoudens - huishoudelijk werk - inkomen - arbeid (werk) - levensstijl - bedrijfsvoering - mechanisatie - Nederland - prijzen - inkopen - dienstensector - theorie - handarbeid - organisatie - personen - automation - consumer behaviour - food - food purchasing - foods - home economics - households - housework - income - labour - lifestyle - management - mechanization - Netherlands - prices - purchasing - services - theory - manual work - organization - persons
Empirische data worden geanalyseerd op de vraag in hoeverre er onder relatief welgestelde Nederlanders sprake is van monetarisering en of dit een element van een levensstijl is
Monetarisering in de huishouding: een historiserende beschouwing.
Hoog, K. de; Ophem, J. van - \ 1995
Huishoudstudies 5 (1995)2. - p. 1 - 8.
automatisering - consumentengedrag - efficiëntie - voedsel - voedselinkoop - voedingsmiddelen - geschiedenis - huishoudkunde - huishoudens - huishoudelijk werk - arbeid (werk) - levensstijl - bedrijfsvoering - mechanisatie - prijzen - productiviteit - inkopen - dienstensector - theorie - handarbeid - organisatie - automation - consumer behaviour - efficiency - food - food purchasing - foods - history - home economics - households - housework - labour - lifestyle - management - mechanization - prices - productivity - purchasing - services - theory - manual work - organization
Verkennend en beschouwend artikel over monetarisering : vermindering van huishoudelijke taken/activiteiten door ingehuurde dienstverlening en door gebruik van huishoudelijke apparatuur en geprefabriceerd voedsel. Nagegaan wordt hoe deze strategie, gezien als element van een levensstijl, zich in de loop van de tijd ontwikkeld heeft
Duurzame verzorging als technologische uitdaging.
Terpstra, M.J. - \ 1994
Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 29
samenstelling - economische ontwikkeling - milieu - milieubeheer - milieubescherming - gezinnen - huishoudkunde - huishoudens - colleges (hoorcolleges) - bedrijfsvoering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bescherming - kwaliteit - herstel - hulpbronnengebruik - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - sociale voorzieningen - sociaal welzijn - structuur - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - technische vooruitgang - technologie - theorie - welzijnsvoorzieningen - milieuwetenschappen - natuurwetenschappen - organisatie - wetenschap - sociaal werk - composition - economic development - environment - environmental management - environmental protection - families - home economics - households - lectures - management - natural resources - protection - quality - rehabilitation - resource utilization - rural development - social development - social services - social welfare - structure - sustainability - technical progress - technology - theory - welfare services - environmental sciences - natural sciences - organization - science - social work
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