Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==organische koolstof
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How does urbanization affect spatial variability and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon in the Moscow region
Vasenev, V.I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575899 - 214
organische koolstof - organisch bodemmateriaal - urbanisatie - stadsomgeving - emissie - stedelijke ecologie - stadsgronden - rusland - organic carbon - soil organic matter - urbanization - urban environment - emission - urban ecology - urban soils - russia
Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change
Francischinelli Rittl, T. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; Ellis Hoffland; Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): E.H. Novotny. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573253 - 145
klimaatverandering - mitigatie - biochar - bodem - organische koolstof - vloeistofchromatografie - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - brazilië - climatic change - mitigation - soil - organic carbon - liquid chromatography - soil carbon sequestration - brazil

Summary

In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material obtained from the carbonization of biomass. The deliberate production and application to soil distinguishes biochar from other carbonized products, e.g. charcoal. Inspired by the aged charcoal found in the fertile Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE; also known as Terra Preta de Índio), the current application of biochar in soil is claimed to simultaneously address four global challenges: food production, climate change, energy supply and waste reduction (Chapter 1). Biochar is supposed to be an absorbent and stable material, which can be used to retain nutrients in the soil, increasing agricultural productivity, while sequestering carbon over extended periods of time. Therefore, biochar is claimed to be a means to mitigate global climate change. Furthermore, if biochar is produced in a modern pyrolysis plant, it also can co-produce bio-oil and syngas that could be used as energy. And if biochar is produced by carbonization of agricultural residue, biochar may reduce the quantity of solid waste that needs to be disposed of.

In Chapter 2, I analysed the policy arrangement related to biochar along the four dimensions of the policy arrangement approach, which are actors, discourse, power and rules. I focused on Brazil, which is an important player in the international biochar debate. My analysis shows that scientists in research institutions are the dominant players in the network, while policymakers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The cause for this reduction was the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions, such as: ‘climate change mitigation’, ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ have particularly prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse is not (yet) institutionalized into formal rules in Brazil.

As a consequence, the country lacks an established biochar policy field. Brazilian biochar practices focus on the carbonization of the available residues into biochar and on the application of biochar in soils to increase the SOC content and consequently the fertility of these soils. In this context, in Chapter 3 I tested in the field the potential of biochar produced in traditional kilns to increase the C contents of sandy savannah soils. My results show that biochar produced in traditional kilns is less thermally altered than that produced by industrial kilns and therefore rapidly decomposes. The decomposition rate of traditionally produced biochar was higher (decomposition constant k = 0.32-1.00 year-1) than generally assumed (k = 0.0005-0.005 year-1), and higher than the decomposition of native SOC (k = 0.22 year-1). In Chapter 4 I demonstrated in a short-term laboratory experiment that oilseed-derived biochar had a similar or higher decomposition rate than native SOC. My results show that all three tested oilseed biochars decelerate the decomposition of SOC in the biochar-amended soils, with biochar richer in aromatics having a stronger negative effect than biochar richer in aliphatics. Therefore, oilseed biochar directly increases soil C stocks and indirectly raises soil C sequestration in the short term through decreasing the decomposition of native SOC.

In my research, the decomposition studies were performed using 13C isotope analysis. However, the 13C isotope analysis cannot be used when the differences of 13C isotope abundance between biochar and soil are not sufficiently large. Therefore, its use can be limited. In Chapter 5, I aimed at improving the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. I re-designed the protocols of the BPCA method and found a better and faster way to quantify and characterize the BPCAs derived from biochar, compared to the previous protocols. The improved method was then successfully tested and implemented in a laboratory in Brazil.

Combining my findings with results of the literature, I conclude (Chapter 6) that there is no evidence that biochar is a reliable way for C sequestration in sandy soils under savannah environments. Biochar decomposition is highly variable, depending on charring conditions, soil and climate: (i) biochar produced by traditional kilns is less thermally degraded than those pyrolysed by industrial kilns; (ii) in sandy soils less biochar accumulates than in clay-silt soils; and (iii) warm-dry conditions raise the decomposition of biochar. These conclusions have a direct consequence for the development of policies on biochar, because we cannot ensure that biochar will sequester the same quantity of C for the same period at different geographical regions.

Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon
Straathof, A.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Comans; Ellis Hoffland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573277 - 146
organische koolstof - bodemmicrobiologie - bodem - microbiële ecologie - bodembiologie - bodemchemie - organic carbon - soil microbiology - soil - microbial ecology - soil biology - soil chemistry

Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon

Angela L. Straathof

June 17, 2015, Wageningen UR

ISBN 978-94-6257-327-7

Abstract

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture of C compounds which, as a substrate, may influence various processes of the soil microbial community. Microbial respiration and volatile production are two such processes. These have both been linked to general disease suppression (GDS), a phenomenon in agricultural soils which inhibits pathogenic infestation in crops. The underlying hypothesis of this thesis is that the quality of DOC, via regulation of microbial processes, may be an important indicator of soil functions, including GDS. Properties of DOC quality include proportions of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, and aromaticity. This thesis describes a high range in DOC fractions from various types of compost, which is often added to soil as an amendment to promote GDS. Differences in soil microbial respiration rates were attributed to differences in the composition of compost DOC added to soil in a laboratory incubation experiment. Compost DOC high in proportion of the hydrophilic (Hi) fraction promoted respiration rates. Depletion of the hydrophobic humic acid (HA) fraction was also observed. The relationship between DOC and microbial respiration was further explored in a survey of 50 arable soils. Both HA and Hi fractions of DOC that were found to be statistically, significantly related to respiration rates in these soils. Furthermore, in an assay measuring in vitro pathogen suppression by microbial volatile production, DOC concentration and microbial respiration were linked to growth suppression of Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pythium intermedium via multivariate regression modelling. This thesis provides evidence for the importance of DOC and DOC quality’s influence on microbial respiration and volatile production, thus supporting the hypothesis that DOC is a microbially-relevant soil chemical parameter, and potential indicator of general disease suppression in agricultural soils.

CO2-bemesting bij leliebroei weinig zinvol
Slootweg, G. ; Kok, B.J. - \ 2011
BloembollenVisie 2011 (2011)210. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 20.
lelies - bemesting - organische koolstof - kooldioxideverrijking - fotosynthese - effecten - lilies - fertilizer application - organic carbon - carbon dioxide enrichment - photosynthesis - effects
Bij veel tuinbouwgewassen onder glas wordt CO2-bemesting toegepast om de productie te verhogen. De waarde van CO2-bemesting bij de broei van lelies blijkt gering te zijn. In het onderzoek is weinig effect op teeltduur en kwaliteit waargenomen. De kleine kans op kwaliteitsverbetering zal de investeringskosten van een CO2-bemestingssysteem niet rechtvaardigen.
Inventory of P-Olsen data in the ISRIC-WISE soil database for use with QUEFTS
Batjes, N.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Report / ISRIC-World Soil Information 2010/06) - 25
bodemchemie - fosfor - bodem ph - organische koolstof - organische stikstof - bodemprofielen - databanken - tropen - soil chemistry - phosphorus - soil ph - organic carbon - organic nitrogen - soil profiles - databases - tropics
The carbon copy of human activities : how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales
Schulp, C.J.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): Peter Verburg. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854982 - 167
organisch bodemmateriaal - organische koolstof - koolstofcyclus - bosstrooisel - kooldioxide - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - kooldioxideverrijking - nederland - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - historisch grondgebruik - soil organic matter - organic carbon - carbon cycle - forest litter - carbon dioxide - land use - climatic change - carbon dioxide enrichment - netherlands - soil carbon sequestration - land use history
The carbon copy of human activities - how long-term land use explains spatial variability of soil organic carbon stocks at multiple scales.
CARBIS final report : detecting soil carbon and its spatial variability by imaging spectroscopy
Stevens, A. ; Wesemael, B. van; Bartholomeus, H. ; Rossilon, D. ; Tychon, B. ; Ben-Dor, E. - \ 2007
Louvain-la-Neuve : Belspo - 53
organische koolstof - grondanalyse - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - beeldvormende spectroscopie - organic carbon - soil analysis - soil carbon sequestration - imaging spectroscopy
Blad dicht bij komkommers houden
Dieleman, J.A. - \ 2007
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2007 (2007)11. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 20 - 21.
tuinbouw - assimilatie - bladeren - organische koolstof - cucumis - plantenfysiologie - gewasproductie - onderzoek - glastuinbouw - horticulture - assimilation - leaves - organic carbon - plant physiology - crop production - research - greenhouse horticulture
Aan een plant is niet te zien hoeveel elk blad bijdraagt aan de groei van die plant. Met 'gemerk CO2' werd in Wageningen duidelijk dat de meeste assimilaten naar de grootste komkommers aan een plant gaan. De assimilaten bewegen zich door de hele plant, maar voor een goede productie is het van belang bladeren en vruchten bij elkaar in de buurt te hebben. Een reportage over onderzoek naar assimilatie door bladeren en de groei van een gewas
Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Change at National Scale
Milne, E. ; Paustian, K. ; Williams, S.A. ; Killian, K. ; Swan, A. ; Sessay, M. ; Cerri, C.E.P. ; Cerri, C.C. ; Kamoni, P. ; Gicheru, P. ; Wokabi, S. ; Bhattacharyya, T. ; Pal, D.K. ; Gajbhiye, K.S. ; Al-Adamar, R. ; Shabbaz, M. ; Rawajfih, Z. ; Khresat, S. ; Powlson, D. ; Coleman, K. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Bernoux, M. ; Feller, C. ; Falloon, P. ; Gisher, G. ; Tubiello, F. - \ 2006
Reading : GEF, UNEP and Uniniversity of Reading (Technical Report of The Global Environment Facility Co-financed Project 274024381) - 171
organische koolstof - bodem - bodemchemie - koolstofcyclus - landgebruik - modellen - organic carbon - soil - soil chemistry - carbon cycle - land use - models
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