Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Pachtnormen 2016 : berekening hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor los land, agrarische bedrijfsgebouwenen agrarische woningen
Silvis, H.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-053) - 25 p.
pachtrecht - pachtstelsel - agrarische economie - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - landbouwondernemingen - landbouwgrond - grondprijzen - prijzen - nederland - landbouwbedrijven - boerderijen - tenants' rights - tenure systems - agricultural economics - farm buildings - farm enterprises - agricultural land - land prices - prices - netherlands - farms - farm dwellings
In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft LEI Wageningen UR de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor 2016 berekend conform de uitgangspunten van het Pachtprijzenbesluit 2007. In de meeste pachtprijsgebieden gaan de pachtnormen vrij sterk omhoog ten opzichte van de pachtnormen 2015. Dit wordt verklaard doordat de gemiddelde grondbeloning in de periode 2010- 2014 beduidend hoger is dan de gemiddelde grondbeloning over de periode 2009-2013.
Pachtnormen 2015 : berekening hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor los land, agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen en agrarische woningen
Silvis, H.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-021) - 28
pachtstelsel - grondprijzen - differentiaal- en integraalrekening - huur - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - akkerbouw- en tuinbouwbedrijven - tenure systems - land prices - calculus - rent - farm buildings - crop enterprises
Het ministerie van Economische Zaken stelt jaarlijks de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen vast voor akkerbouw- en grasland, tuinland, agrarische gebouwen en agrarische woningen. De nieuwe pachtnormen worden op 1 juli 2015 van kracht. LEI Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor 2015 berekend conform de uitgangspunten van het Pachtprijzenbesluit 2007. In deze nota zijn de nieuwe pachtnormen opgenomen, inclusief een toelichting op de verschillende stappen in de berekeningen.
Contesting control : land and forest in the struggle for Loita Maasai self-government in Kenya
Kronenburg García, A.J.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): S.W.J. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572720 - 311
landgebruik - autonomie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - grondrechten - bosbezit - bosbeheer - governance - leiderschap - pachtstelsel - regering - staat - interventie - kenya - land use - autonomy - rural communities - land rights - forest ownership - forest administration - leadership - tenure systems - government - state - intervention

Abstract

Contesting Control: Land and Forest in the Struggle for Loita Maasai Self-government in Kenya

Angela Kronenburg García

Contesting Control is about the Loita Maasai in Kenya who, faced with increasing outside interventions and pressure from neighbouring communities, the state and other agencies, have been struggling to maintain access and control over the land they inhabit and the forest they use. They have been on the losing side in territorial struggles with neighbouring Purko Maasai and (non-Maasai) Sonjo. However, with regard to the state, NGOs and environmental organizations, the Loita have successfully navigated policies and projects and retained access and control of their land and forest. Interventions have, nevertheless, changed the way people engage with the land and forest and with each other on these issues. This study investigates the (in)direct effects of interventions and how they have articulated with existing relations, practices, processes and struggles in Loita. It considers the state-led land adjudication programme of the 1960s that sought to convert Kenya’s pastoral lands into privately owned group ranches, the attempt by Narok County Council to turn the Naimina Enkiyio Forest into a nature reserve for tourism in the 1990s, and a forest co-management project carried out by IUCN in the early 2000s. This volume captures the process of property-in-the-making and socio-political change among the Loita Maasai as they struggle for autonomy and self-government.

Pachtnormen 2014 : berekening hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor los land, agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen en agrarische woningen
Silvis, H.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 14-045) - 27
pachtstelsel - huur - grondprijzen - differentiaal- en integraalrekening - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - tenure systems - rent - land prices - calculus - farm buildings
Het ministerie van Economische Zaken stelt jaarlijks de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen vast voor akkerbouw- en grasland, tuinland, agrarische gebouwen en agrarische woningen. De nieuwe pachtnormen worden op 1 juli 2014 van kracht. LEI Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijzen voor 2014 berekend conform de uitgangspunten van het Pachtprijzenbesluit 2007. In deze nota zijn de nieuwe pachtnormen opgenomen, inclusief een toelichting op de verschillende stappen in de berekeningen.
Does tenure security matter? : rural household responses to land tenure reforms in northwest China
Ma Xian lei, Xianlei - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; X. Shi; Nico Heerink; Justus Wesseler. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737632 - 195
agrarische economie - pachtstelsel - platteland - landbouwhuishoudens - landhervorming - grondeigendom - particuliere investering - eigendomsrechten - ruraal-urbane migratie - grondproductiviteit - conservering - china - noordwestelijk china - agricultural economics - tenure systems - rural areas - agricultural households - land reform - land ownership - private investment - property rights - rural urban migration - land productivity - conservation - north western china
Het hoofddoel van China’s landbouw- en plattelandsbeleid is behoud van voedselzekerheid in eigen land en bijdragen aan de voedselzekerheid in de wereld door duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen en verbetering van de landbouwproductiecapaciteit voor de lange termijn. In veel gebieden in China gaat de landbouwproductiecapaciteit op lange termijn echter achteruit door intensieve landbouw en de daarmee gepaard gaande degradatie van de hulpbronnen land en water. Het systeem van grondeigendom speelt, als fundamentele institutie die het gedrag van grondbezitters aanstuurt, een zeer belangrijke rol bij de landbouwproductie alsook bij het gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen, en heeft veel belangstelling genoten van onderzoekers in China en andere regio’s in de wereld. Sinds 1998 heeft de Chinese regering een reeks marktgeoriënteerde hervormingen in het grondeigendom ingevoerd die als doel hebben de eigendomszekerheid te verbeteren en de overdraagbaarheid van rurale grond te bevorderen. Relevante wetten behelzen de Wet Grondbeheer (Land Administration Law) uit 1998, de Wet Contracten Rurale Grond (Rural Land Contract Law) uit 2002, de Eigendomswet (Property Law) uit 2007, en de Wet Mediation en Arbitrage bij Geschillen inzake Contracten Rurale Grond (Mediation and Arbitration of Rural Land Contract Disputes Law) uit 2009. Ofschoon deze hervormingen bijgedragen hebben aan een verbeterde formele eigendomszekerheid, is het niet duidelijk in welke mate ze bijdragen aan landbouwproductie en duurzaam gebruik van de grond. In deze studie worden systematisch de relaties onderzocht tussen grondeigendomszekerheid, zoals die wordt beïnvloed door de recente marktgeoriënteerde eigendomshervormingen, en de landbouwproductie in China. Op basis van de bestaande literatuur worden er vier relaties onderzocht, namelijk de relaties tussen eigendomszekerheid en, respectievelijk, grondinvesteringen, marktontwikkelingen betreffende grondpacht, ruraal-urbane migratie, en landbouwproductiviteit en technische efficiëntie. De resultaten van de studie beogen een volledig beeld te verschaffen van de belangrijkste relaties tussen grondeigendomszekerheid, beslissingen op het niveau van huishoudingen, en de landbouwproductiviteit in China. Naar verwachting zullen de verkregen inzichten relevant zijn voor de voortgaande hervormingen van het rurale grondeigendomsysteem en voor gerelateerd landbouw- en plattelandsbeleid in China. Ze zouden tevens van nut kunnen blijken voor andere ontwikkelingslanden met vergelijkbare eigendomsystemen die als doel hebben om huishoudens op het platteland te voorzien van gewaarborgde formele landgebruiksrechten voor de lange termijn.
In the Shadow of Policy: Everyday Practices in South Africa’s Land and Agrarian Reform
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Cousins, B. - \ 2013
Johannesburg : Wits University press - ISBN 9781868147458 - 308
pachtstelsel - landhervorming - overheidsbeleid - eigendomsrechten - landgebruik - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw - zuid-afrika - tenure systems - land reform - government policy - property rights - land use - rural development - agriculture - south africa
Political ecology in the oil palm-based cropping system on the Adja plateau in Benin: connecting soil fertility and land tenure
Yemadje, H.R.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; R. Mongbo; D.K. Kossou, co-promotor(en): Todd Crane. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737557 - 111
teeltsystemen - oliepalmen - ecologie - politiek - bodemvruchtbaarheid - pachtstelsel - innovaties - landhervorming - sociale verandering - intensivering - agroforestry - benin - cropping systems - oil palms - ecology - politics - soil fertility - tenure systems - innovations - land reform - social change - intensification

Keywords: Innovation system, Soil fertility management, Land reform, Participatory technology development, Social change, Agroforestry, Land access rights, Fallow, Agricultural intensification, Africa

On the Adja plateau (West Benin), multiple actors are involved in an intercropping system with oil palm and food crops. This system is known as the oil palm-based cropping system (OPBCS). It contains two stages: a stage of small oil palms underneath which food crops are grown and a fallow stage with mature oil palm. Landowners grow oil palm mainly for the artisanal production of palm wine and sodabi, rather than for palm oil, for which the region is unsuitable for climatological reasons. The OPBCS has to be analysed not only from a technical and ecological perspective, but also from an institutional one. In the OPBCS there are competing claims between landowners and tenants for land use. Tenants access land under specific customary rules, grow food crops beneath oil palm and extend the cropping period by severely pruning palms because their right to grow food crops terminates when the palms reach a height of 2 m. Landowners claim that extended cropping reduces soil fertility and that long-duration oil palm fallows are necessary for soil fertility regeneration. Tenants state that long-duration fallow maintains land scarcity. In an attempt to remedy the competing claims, a land titling programme was implemented in some villages on the Adja plateau.

I analysed the system with a political ecology lens. I demonstrated the implications of the multiple institutions for land access and ownership, and therefore for the competing claims. Land titling initially created land insecurity for tenants, as they were thrown off the land by owners who wanted to demonstrate ownership. Subsequently, new rules related to land access by tenants were introduced. Both ownership and access by tenants relied on a different mix of formal and informal practices, as evidenced by formal contracts, petits papiers and a new paper contract. The new paper contract provides tenants the rights to rent the land for up to 25 years. The titling programme also enhanced on-going processes of intensification and commercialisation, as evidenced by increased use of mineral fertiliser and the regression of the OPBCS. The long-duration fallow periods did not improve biological and chemical soil fertility. Long-duration fallows are rather used as an expression of control over land. Mineral fertiliser and organic amendments (household waste) explain lack of effects of fallowing. Application of household waste and mineral fertiliser did not change soil organic matter content. Organic amendments increased maize yields more than mineral fertiliser. Household waste did not improve agronomic use efficiency of mineral fertiliser.

I suggest that formal and customary land tenure institutions can be blended to generate a hybrid system. Such a hybrid system might contribute to sustainable soil fertility management.

Forest fights in Haripur, Northwest Pakistan
Nizami, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734556 - 257
ontwikkelingsstudies - sociologie - politieke processen - acteurs - actor-network theorie - samenleving - natuur - bossen - bosbouw - staat - bosbranden - ecologie - vrouwen - pachtstelsel - pakistan - development studies - sociology - political processes - actors - actor-network theory - society - nature - forests - forestry - state - forest fires - ecology - women - tenure systems

This thesis is an inter-paradigmatic exchange between political ecology and post-structuralist interpretations of actor-structure relationships. The study is founded on multiple discourses where different interpretations of a particular phenomenon by various actors have been analysed. The thesis is meant to show that relationships between society and nature are dynamic, entail multi-sited struggles among many actors at several terrains and are deeply rooted in earlier history.The study transpires that the forest is shaped by a loosely knit network of actors that are linked together by a kaleidoscope of rights, claims and social relationships which seem to determine the fate of the forest in a village.

Chapter 2 elaborates the theoretical foundation and methodological trajectory of this thesis. The concept of arena is central and analytically useful for this study as it connotes and involves social actors, their social relationships, practices and struggles between them. The notion of social arena is a metaphor for the site or place where action takes place between social actors. These places are not limited by geographical, natural or administrative borders. Arenas are social locations in which contests over issues, resources, values and representations take place. These are either spaces in which contestation associated with different practices and values of different domains takes place; or they are spaces within a single domain where attempts are made to resolve discrepancies in value interpretation and incompatibilities between actor interests. I argue that the forest as a social arena stretches beyond its natural and physical borders.The arena as the site of the struggle is not just geographically confined within natural (e.g. forest) and/or administrative (e.g. political) boundaries but it stretches beyond the locality. These arenas are diverse, they overlap and co-exist, and the boundaries at a given time are defined by networks of relationships between forest users and consumers, relationships between the State, bureaucrats, forest owners, dwellers, and so on.

Chapter 3 gives a detailed account of history of Haripur and how forests were legally categorised and distributed. History helps understand the political alliances and the power struggles in the region, the district, and (sub district) Khanpur. The State, during British rule introduced a new management regime for natural resources which changed the entire social landscape of Khanpur by attaching private property rights to the trees as well as forest lands in the region. The government authorities, notably the Forest department have most often seen forest dwellers destructive for the forest, depleting its resources and interfering with nature. This premise lays foundation of mistrust between people and the government. Contrary to this, the initiatives to introduce people in forestry governance are based on the realisation that the ownership, or at least management control over forests, is critical to responsible management by the people.

Chapter 4 provides a detailed account of how the Forest department operates in relation to people and forest resources. There are multiple scales of articulation, alliances and struggles within and around the department and these positions are changeable from time to time with several internal and external factors. The case of Forest department manifests that the State is to be seen as a multifaceted organ and not as an individual actor. Structural changes were introduced in the department but the core on which the foundation of the department was laid, was never changed. Many women firmly believe that the department must continue to use authority to control local people who cause degradation. Each reform initiative taken in the name of participation ended up with basically continuing the same centralised system. Forests were never handed over to the community along with management responsibility (e.g. Guzara forests). Only joint management of forests was enacted – yet not implemented. Trust remained a major issue in all these struggles.

The subject of forest fire, which I perceive and have experienced as a strong manifestation of resistance and also as a tool to manipulate natural resources, has been dealt with in different places in this thesis, but particularly in Chapter 5. Burning forests is an old practice for clearing land for agriculture.Fire therefore had a significant role in defining farmers’ territories. Gradually these practices changed but grazers continued to light up forests to produce lush green grass for their livestock. This led to a persistent discourse based on appropriating every fire incident to the grazers’ practices. This study highlights that fire is now increasingly used as a management tool for manipulating the resource. Firewood collectors and big owners use fire for obtaining dry firewood or build the case for felling dead / dry trees which is allowed in the policy after ban on green felling. Even if fires may occur due to the will of the forest owner, the policy blindly holds grazersresponsible for their wasteful and damaging practices. The collectors of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), mostly women, are not happy with fire since their resources are burnt down due to the productive fire requirement of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii). There is an incline in the graph of forest fires, decreasing self initiative among people to control fires, along with the Forest department’s management bias towards Chir pine trees in fire control operations; these concerns echo in various voices from the field. The chapter also highlights a form of connivance between the owner and the occupants of lands (peasants / tenants) and also the owners and Forest department staff.

Chapters 6 deals with actors in their struggle to secure their rights to the forest through acquiring forest land title deeds. This initiative from the side of the new owners can be understood as a response to what is explained in Chapter 5. No forests have been handed over with management responsibilities to non owner forest users in nearly one and a half centuries. Non owners have resorted to buying forest lands in little parcels in creating private forests. This way, new meanings are given to the forest and new spaces are created through tactical networking among various actors. Field evidence and opinions from several actors suggest that Reserved forests are frequently being accessed by people for their needs in a de facto manner. Several new owners have acquired land entitlement comprising small pieces of lands which do not have a huge timber value in future. Followed by this, it is also visible that the nature of power in the contemporary society of Khanpur (and beyond) is changing. Power, which was once measured through landholding, is now measured through other symbols, such as political connectivity and affiliation.

Regular access to NTFP by non-right holders for the sake of earning an income (Chapter 7) is an illustration of their struggle, or more strongly put, an in-between expression of resistance. Poor women remain invisible in their daily practice to access NTFPs. They use spaces that are considered undesirable by other forest actors. These spaces cannot be completely separated within the social arena, but they are knitted into the day to day practices of people. State intrusion into women’s customary and de facto practices concerns them. They fear that this will only reduce their chances of earning a modest livelihood from the forest. However, the women are also highly creative in reshaping their practices and relationships with every change that takes place around them. Firewood collection is the most visible, uninterrupted and non-compromising activity for women. In their daily struggle to feed the family, they virtually manage and control the forest. Contrary to this, women are not part of any dialogue on forestry reform. They need to be part of the negotiation process in which their spaces remain secure. The most important challenge is to create the mechanisms for discussion, negotiation, and arbitration of gendered access regimes under a variety of circumstances.

Handbook of Land and Water Grabs in Africa; Foreign direct investment and food and water security
Allan, T. ; Keulertz, M. ; Sojamo, S. ; Warner, J.F. - \ 2012
London, New York : Routledge (Routledge international handbooks ) - ISBN 9781857436693 - 488
voedselzekerheid - waterzekerheid - pachtstelsel - landgebruik - kapitaal - activa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - afrika - food security - water security - tenure systems - land use - capital - assets - natural resources - africa
According to estimates by the International Land Coalition based at the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 57 million hectares of land have been leased to foreign investors since 2007. Current research has focused on human rights issues related to inward investment in land but has been ignorant of water resource issues and the challenges of managing scarce water. The geographical scope of this book will be the African continent, where land has attracted the attention of risk-taking investors because much land is under-utilised marginalized land, with associated water resources and rapidly growing domestic food markets. The successful implementation of investment strategies in African agriculture could determine the future of more than one billion people. An important factor to note is that sub-Saharan Africa will, of all the continents, be hit hardest by climate change, population growth and food insecurity. Sensible investment in agriculture is therefore needed, however, at what costs and at whose expense? The book will also address the livelihoods theme and provide a holistic analysis of land and water grabbing in sub-Saharan Africa. Four other themes will addressed: politics, economics, the environment and the history of land investments in sub-Saharan Africa.
Modernisering pachtnormen agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen
Luijt, J. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - 30
landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - pachtstelsel - huur - differentiaal- en integraalrekening - grondprijzen - farm buildings - tenure systems - rent - calculus - land prices
Een nieuwe methodiek voor de berekening van de hoogst toelaatbare pachtprijs voor agrarische bedrijfs-gebouwen wordt geïntroduceerd, waarbij nieuwe hectarenormen worden afgeleid van de kosten van de bedrijfsgebouwen van bedrijven in het Bedrijveninformatienet van het LEI die de bedrijfsgebouwen in eigendom hebben.
Forest rights : the micro-politics of decentralisation and forest tenure reform in tribal India
Bose, P. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Han van Dijk. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732736 - 185
bossen - pachtstelsel - eigendomsrechten - boswetgeving - stammen - inheemse volkeren - participatief management - decentralisatie - governance - india - forests - tenure systems - property rights - forestry law - tribes - indigenous people - participative management - decentralization

Forest rights are of utmost importance for the future of forest initiatives, be it for resource use, management, and conservation, or for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The growing trend towards acknowledging the relevance of the sustainable use and conservation of forests is intertwined with the recognition of the forest rights of people who have traditionally depended on the forests for sustenance – especially marginal indigenous and tribal people. Consequently, any decentralisation and forest tenure policy reform must include those who have been marginalised from their traditional forest rights. Forest tenure reform is arguably different from previous agrarian reform, but it has to some extent the same underlying rights-based approach. Given that decentralised forest tenure policy reform is relatively new, there is increasing need to study its implications for the individual and collective rights of forest-dependent people and to analyse concepts such as tenure, property, and access. The implications of forest tenure rights are extremely important, especially in those countries where forest-dependent people’s rights have not been recognised by the state. India’s changing forest tenure reform may have several implications for forest-dependent ethnic minority communities – the Scheduled Tribes – dwelling in and around forest lands.

This thesis takes an analytical as well as an empirical approach to show how decentralisation and forest tenure policy reform have created new forms of forest rights through new institutions and authority that have resulted in contrasting outcomes – individual and collective, including and excluding people, peaceful negotiations and conflicts, etc. – for forest-dependent Bhil tribal people. It encompasses the historical trajectory of the legislative and political mechanisms that contributed to the categorisations of the current day ‘forest land’ and ‘scheduled tribe’ (used interchangeably with ‘tribal people’). This thesis focuses primarily on the emerging – sometimes unintended – consequences of political decentralisation and new forest tenure legislation for marginalised tribal forest people in India. By analysing a variety of past and contemporary legislation on decentralisation and forest tenure reform in tribal India, such as Joint Forest Management, Panchayati Raj, and the Forest Rights Act, it initiates discussion on the consequences of these changes from the perspective of Bhil tribal people at different levels: the gram panchayat, the household, and the individual.

In Chapter 1, I introduce the research topics – decentralisation and forest tenure reform – central to this thesis. I elaborate on the research problem and micro-politics as a conceptual framework to analyse the four key research questions that guide the individual chapters. I discuss the main contributions in the literature around the concepts of the micro-politics framework – governmentality, institutional pluralism, authority, citizenship, and access – to show what the chapters contribute analytically. In addition, I set out the methodology of this research, explaining the background of the forest-dependent Bhil tribal people from semi-arid western India, and the data used for individual chapters, along with the different outputs emanating from this research. Specifically, four key questions guide the research: How has the history of forest legislation shaped the current decentralisation process and forest tenure reform in tribal India (chapter 2)? To what extent does the new formal tenure arrangement add value to, contradict, or dominate existing local authority in collective forest management (chapter 3)? In what way does forest tenure reform influence tribal households’ perspectives on individual forest tenure claims and their idea of citizenship (chapter 4)? How are tribal women’s forest-related rights determined by the new decentralised forest tenure reform (chapter 5)?

History plays a significant role in providing an in-depth understanding of the current state of affairs regarding decentralisation and forest governance. India’s British colonial past continues to linger in post-colonial modern society. Forestry is one such area that cannot be understood without reflecting on why British India established scientific forestry and how it continues to influence the current institutions governing India’s forests. Chapter 2 studies the process of governmentality behind the control over forest rights in tribal India. It analyses the historical influence of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and forests in tribal areas. In doing so, it takes the micro-politics concept of Foucault’s notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’ subjectification and the related history of forest demarcation are indispensable for understanding the current politics of decentralised forest management in India. Within this micro-politics notion of ‘forest governmentality,’ the discussion focuses on three dimensions, namely, the history of categorisation, the politics of social identity, and the technologies of forest governance. These three dimensions allow us to show how recent efforts to politicise forest tenure rights have reinforced political control to appropriate and legalise forest and the tribal people through new forms of authority, inclusion, and exclusion. The process of forest governmentality is overt, but I argue that Bhil people internalise their ethnic identity. By internalising their political tribal identity, they are able to create countervailing power and room to manoeuvre within the current forest governance regime.

Forest tenure recognition may originate from the top down or from the bottom up, each shaping different forms of collective rights. Chapter 3 examines the current forest tenure reform from the micro level of village-level committees. I use two relevant concepts for micro-politics analysis, namely, institutional pluralism and authority. Institutional pluralism has become a characteristic of local-level forest management in India’s twenty-first century tribal villages. Historically, the traditional forest rights of tribal people were denied. Recent attempts at decentralisation and forest tenure reforms to formalise and transfer traditional rights to forest people have created new institutions and new forms of authority. However, uncertainty about local institutions’ recognition, accountability, and representativeness, and the legitimisation of authority among multiple institutions, may hinder formalisation of forest rights. In this chapter, I show some unintended consequences of institutional pluralism and authority relations on tribal people’s struggle for forest rights. For example, multiple authority fragments the local forest management institutions and collective forest rights. Empirical evidence further indicates that institutional pluralism restricts Bhil people’s collective forest rights and democratic decentralisation, and in turn gives the elite and line ministries more discretionary authority to control forests.

The forest tenure policy reform in tribal India provides a great opportunity to unravel the nature of individual tenure rights. Chapter 4 explains how the Forest Rights Act shapes tribal households’ claims to forest land rights. I analyse the micro-politics of this forest tenure reform using three dimensions, namely, individual tenure rights, citizenship, and conflict, to discuss the contested nature of household-level tenure rights to forest land. I illustrate how forest tenure reform has promoted the individualisation of forest right claims, which has had a direct influence on Bhil tribal inter-household conflicts. Negative consequences of the conflicts are explained, but I also explore how claiming individual tenure rights is justified by the Bhil primarily in terms of seeking formal recognition of their citizenship rights. The analytical debate in relation to citizenship in this chapter focuses on ‘belonging’ from both the customary and the current legal perspective. I argue that different forms of belonging to forest land create complexities in understanding rights and entitlements. I specifically examine why and how choices about specific forest tenure rights are made by tribal households. In what ways do tribal households’ notions of forest rights relate to citizenship? How do conflicts prompt and/or suppress households’ forest tenure and citizenship claims? I demonstrate that knowledge about the tribal people’s perceptions can help us understand individual households’ socio-political struggle for individual forest land tenure.

Forestry is considered to be male biased, and this hinders the access rights of tribal women. The identity of a tribal woman is invisible within a community and within a household, mainly because she is dependent on her male relative or colleague to enact her rights, including forest rights. Chapter 5 focuses on the struggles of individual Bhil tribal women for their rights to access forest land and forest resources. The micro-political dynamics of women’s access rights as a consequence of changing individual and collective forest rights are illustrated. I argue that the identity-based categories promoted by the forest tenure reform have negative consequences for the marginal tribal women because their identity as tribal women is used to exclude them from forest committees. The current trend in forest tenure reform promotes identity-based categories on the assumption that this provides better access to forest resources for marginalised groups. This chapter shows that there is an interaction between the politics of individual and collective access to forest land and the political representation of Bhil tribal women. A rights-based access approach was used to analyse outcomes of forest tenure reform on tribal women’s access to forest land, and inclusion in, and/or exclusion from, collective decision making about forest land management. With empirical evidence, I demonstrate that the new identity-based forest tenure reform is mere tokenism and hinders rather than promotes tribal women’s political empowerment and access to forest-based resources.

Finally, chapter 6 provides a synthesis and general discussion based on the findings discussed in the preceding chapters. The first part of the chapter discusses the four key research questions proposed at the start of this book, with emphasis on the key findings as well as their mutual relationships in the preceding chapters. Also, the central argument of this research as conducted from the micro-politics analytical perspective is presented. The final part makes an overall argument based on the chapters as well as on experiences from other outputs of this research: an international conference, a documentary film, and an infobrief. Taking into account lessons learnt, I propose the way forward towards decentralised forest tenure reform. Also, I highlight a number of research areas that were beyond the scope of this current research and discuss how they might be addressed.

Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya
Lengoiboni, M.N. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt; P. van der Molen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858669
grondrechten - pastoralisme - kadasters - toegangsrecht - pachtstelsel - seizoensmigratie - kenya - registratie - land rights - pastoralism - cadastres - right of access - tenure systems - seasonal migration - registration

This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal

system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration

corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their

customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when’ they require access to the

land, and second, aligning both the ‘when’ and the ‘where’ within the

legal framework for property rights and land administration. This

approach may facilitate the legal recognition of pastoralists’ seasonal

mobility and access to required resources in the formal system. Legal

empowerment also gives pastoralists the ability to use the formal law to

enforce their land rights, thereby securing their access to required

seasonal resources.

The main objective of this thesis is to assess how pastoralists’ seasonal

land rights could be accommodated within the legal framework for

property rights in land administration. Focusing on Northern Kenya, the

main objective was divided into four sub-objectives:

1. Investigate whether pastoralism is still active in Northern Kenya and

how formal rights can meet the requirements of the pastoralists’

seasonal land use.

2. Understand how non-pastoralist land use actors manage seasonal

encounters with migrating pastoralists.

3. Describe how seasonal migrations and access rights could be aligned

and secured as rights that overlap with private rights, within the legal

framework for property rights and land administration.

4. Assess what tenure options are potentially suitable for securing

seasonal migrations and access rights within the legal framework for

land administration.

Each of these sub-objectives are analysed in Chapters 2 to 5. The

chapters are based on a series of papers published in, or submitted to

international peer-reviewed journals.

Chapter 2 assesses how the existing land laws supporting property rights

are able to serve the requirements of pastoralists’ seasonal land use. This

chapter forms the basis for the thesis. Data on the degree of livestock

dependency among pastoralist communities, the spatial extent and

patterns of their dry season migrations, the resulting encounters between

pastoralists and non-pastoralist land use actors, and the perceptions of

land rights held by actors were collected through a variety of methods

and analysed. The results show that pastoralism is still active. The

migration corridors reveal that herders maintain extensive dry season

mobility, even though some of the corridors currently overlap with areas

where land is privately owned by non-pastoralist land use actors.

Moreover, the results show that most non-pastoralist land use actors have

their land rights registered, but seasonal encounters with migrating

pastoralists persist as pastoralists continue to exercise customary rights of

communal use. This chapter concludes that existing land laws and

property rights in land administration are suitable for sedentary land use,

but do not address how to serve pastoralists land rights in time and space.

Also, the map of the pastoralist’s migration routes obtained indicated that

it is possible to predict where pastoralists will be at a given time/drought

period. This information could be used by decision makers as a

foundation for including pastoralists’ spatiotemporal land rights in land

administration.

Chapter 3 looks at the consequences for migrating pastoralists of the

adjudication to non-pastoralist land users of exclusive real property rights

during the process of setting up a cadastre in a land administration. It

examines how non-pastoralist land use actors manage encounters with

migrating pastoralists who need to enter their land to follow their

traditional migration routes. The results of empirical research show that

only a small percentage of non-pastoralist land users are willing to

negotiate access contracts with the pastoralists; further, the majority are

unwilling to have access arrangements formalized in the process of Land

Administration. As land is continuously being adjudicated, surveyed and

allocated for private purposes, the imposition of statutory rights on

pastoralists’ areas, including migration corridors, permanently cuts out

and extinguishes pastoralists’ rights to mobility and their access to

required resources. The concluding argument in this chapter is that land

adjudication should identify and confer all existing land rights to all users

in order to avoid obstruction or renegotiation of pastoralists’ access

rights.

Chapter 4 explored how pastoral seasonal land rights could be secured

through registration as overlapping rights. An opinion survey of experts

on pastoral land rights revealed the view that seasonal migrations can be

supported, but that access to grazing should be subject to negotiation

with landowners. This chapter argues against making access subject to

personal agreements, stressing the risk of negotiations failing, mainly

because negotiated agreements are only binding on the parties involved.

To avoid the risk of failure to acquire access through negotiation,

registration is proposed as a legal tool to ensure security of access. The

adjudication process for conferring private rights on land should view

pastoral rights as being dynamic, because they apply across different

areas at different times. The chapter discusses the attributes of pastoral

rights within the framework of managing property rights, restrictions and

responsibilities (RRRs), and describes how spatiotemporal rights could

be aligned and included in the legal system through registration.

Chapter 5 explores the tenure options potentially suitable for securing

and protecting migration corridors within the legal framework for

property rights. It focuses on the various tenure options that allow access

to and use of land in Kenya: statutory (ownership and non-ownership

rights), government land, customary rights, open access and negotiations.

The opinion survey of land professionals led to the conclusion that

spatiotemporal land rights can be secured within the legal framework for

property rights and that government land reserved for pastoral purposes

is a promising tenure option for securing spatiotemporal land rights.

Where customary rights have not already been extinguished, migration

corridors could be secured as public roads (government land) and dry

season grazing areas could be secured as reserved land for the purpose of

seasonal grazing. This would give pastoralists limited rights of use on the

government lands. Through registration, the limited rights are

enforceable within the statutory system of land administration. Where

customary rights have already been extinguished, realignment of

migration corridors or the establishment of new corridors and grazing

areas might be necessary to avoid pastoralists’ seasonal land rights

overlapping with private tenures or other land uses.

The last chapter reflects on the main outcomes of the thesis. It argues that

legal provisions need to be provided to cater for pastoralists’ seasonal

land rights on migration corridors and dry season grazing areas. This

chapter emphasizes that registration of the seasonal land rights gives

pastoralists legal protection of their land rights and thus security of

access to seasonal use of the land.

Van bedreigingen naar kansen op Landgoed Scherpenzeel
Kortstee, H.J.M. - \ 2008
Agri-monitor 2008 (2008)augustus. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 2
regionale ontwikkeling - landgoederen - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pachtovereenkomsten - pachtstelsel - innovaties - gebiedsontwikkeling - multifunctionele landbouw - regional development - estates - farm development - farm management - farm leases - tenure systems - innovations - area development - multifunctional agriculture
Op het Landgoed Scherpenzeel vinden een aantal ontwikkelingen plaats, zoals pachtprijsverhogingen, reconstructie, recreatiedruk, en natuur- en landschapsplannen. Dit artikel beschrijft een aanpak voor het faciliteren van gebiedsprocessen om te komen tot oplossingsrichtingen voor bedrijfs- en gebiedsontwikkeling. Een betere communicatie tussen pachters en verpachter speelt hierbij een belangrijke rol.
The homogenization effect of land titling on investment incentives: evidence from Peru
Fort Meyer, R.A. - \ 2008
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 325 - 343.
investering - stimulansen - traditioneel pachtstelsel - pachtstelsel - eigendomsverkrijging - investeringsbeslissingen - investment - incentives - traditional tenure systems - tenure systems - acquisition of ownership - investment decisions - sub-saharan africa - property-rights - impact
Land titling programmes have been widely promoted as a necessary condition for enhancing farmer¿s incentives to invest in their land. The justification for public intervention of this type is increasingly questioned on the grounds of its limitation to replace or improve the effect of informal or customary rights already in place. If the main aim of the programme is to formalize previous land rights and its procedure is based on the recognition of informal documents and reliance on community rules, it could in fact contribute to increased farmer¿s tenure security and therefore boost land investments. We explored this relationship for a sample of Peruvian farmers who were part of a state-led land titling programme that shared the aforementioned characteristics. Using retrospective information on the type of informal documents that parcels had before the start of the programme we were able to categorize the parcels at two levels of initial tenure security. The effect of titling on investments was then analysed for these two groups, using a difference-in-differences estimation technique. The results show that there is a positive effect of titling on the probability of making investments as well as on the value of investments for both groups of parcels, but also prove that the impact of titling is greater for parcels with previously low levels of tenure security. This effect could be almost entirely attributed to changes in farmer¿s willingness to invest and not to better access to credit.
Regiotransitie in het veelzijdig platteland : case: van bedreigingen naar kansen in een landgoed
Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Uenk, H.C. ; Hoop, D.W. de - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport veelzijdig platteland ) - 43
regionale ontwikkeling - landgoederen - zandgronden - pachtstelsel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovaties - multifunctionele landbouw - reconstructie - gelderse vallei - regional development - estates - sandy soils - tenure systems - farm management - innovations - multifunctional agriculture - reconstruction
Het Landgoed Scherpenzeel ziet in haar regio allerlei ontwikkelingen op zich afkomen. Zoals het Reconstructieplan, recreatiedruk, en een toenemend aantal natuur- en landschapsplannen. Stichting Vernieuwing Gelderse Vallei ziet als doel kansen waarnemen en kansen benutten. Tijdens een verkenningsexcursie bij de pachters en rentmeester van Landgoed Twickel viel op dat de pachters op Landgoed Scherpenzeel zelf geen pachtercommissie hadden. Daarmee is de openheid tussen de pachters onderling en tussen de pachters en verpachter in het geding. Het nemen van eigen initiatief als pachter(s) kan leiden tot ongekende mogelijkheden voor rendementsverbetering, zowel voor de pachter en verpachter / het landgoed
Ontwikkeling van het pachtareaal en pachtprijzen
Voskuilen, M.J. ; Luijt, J. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)september. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
landgebruik - landbouwgrond - pachtstelsel - pachtovereenkomsten - pachtrecht - wetgeving - gebruik van ruimte - oppervlakte (areaal) - Nederland - land use - agricultural land - tenure systems - farm leases - tenants' rights - legislation - space utilization - acreage - Netherlands
Terwijl het reguliere pachtareaal al jaren daalt, is het areaal grijze pacht in de laatste 10 jaar juist toegenomen. Ook is de prijs per hectare van grijze pacht hoger dan voor reguliere pacht. Het Pachtnormenbesluit van 2001 wordt dit jaar vernieuwd, zowel qua berekeningsmethode als qua hoogte van de normen.
Land tenure and substainable soil fertility management in central Benin: towards the establishment of a cooperation space among stakeholders
Saidou, A. ; Tossou, R. ; Kossou, D. ; Sambieni, S. ; Richards, P. ; Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2007
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5 (2007)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 195 - 212.
pachtstelsel - benin - rurale migratie - bodemkwaliteit - tenure systems - rural rural migration - soil quality
Tenure arrangements were studied in central Benin, with special attention to factors diminishing or enhancing mutual trust between landowners and migrant farmers. Two contrasting tenure arrangement systems occur. The first is found in Ouoghi village, where landowners and villagers are organized around the Association de Développement Economique et Social du Village de Ouoghi (ADESVO). The second is found in the Boubouhou area, where land tenure is managed by landowner lineages. In both systems migrants are not allowed to grow trees, for fear that this will strengthen migrants' ownership rights. Originally, migrant farmers were incorporated through a land-for-labour transaction. Nowadays, this practice has irretrievably changed due to the increasing importance of monetary transactions in agriculture and the presence of economic opportunities outside agriculture, which constrain labour availability. The problem to be overcome is how to change mutual perceptions of tree planting as a covert claim to land ownership, since agroforestry is a potential key to soil fertility maintenance. We facilitated alternative formal written-down land use rules, including adoption of agroforestry and improved soil management practices. Negotiation proved to be more complicated with landowners in Boubouhou because they did not want the existing bilateral relationships with migrants to be changed. But in Ouoghi migrants and owners had already created an institution for collective management of land, which allowed for better interaction and communication among the stakeholders. Here, it was easier to integrate technology components into formal tenurial arrangements. An attempt was made to build soil quality monitoring by scientists into the negotiation process.
Exploring diversity among farmers for orienting inter-disciplinairy action research on cropping system management in Wenchi, Ghana: the significance of time horizons
Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Giller, K.E. ; Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2007
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5 (2007)2-3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 176 - 194.
bodemvruchtbaarheid - etniciteit - pachtstelsel - ghana - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vermogensverdeling - soil fertility - ethnicity - tenure systems - gender - livelihood strategies - wealth distribution
This article examines different types of diversity among farm households in Wenchi, Ghana, and their relevance and implications for orienting action research aimed at combating soil fertility decline. Previously reported research suggested that cropping systems and indigenous practices affecting soil fertility differed significantly between and among the native population and migrants. These differences were associated with prevailing land tenure arrangements. This paper refines the native/migrant classification by exploring how it is intertwined with aspects such as ethnicity, gender and wealth. The study revealed that historical, ethnic and gender dimensions of diversity provide additional insights into livelihood patterns and soil fertility management which are relevant for fine-tuning technical and social action research agendas. It is argued that relevant differences between farm households result from the interplay between structural conditions and the strategies of active agents. The implication of the study is that action research efforts to design new technology and social arrangements for addressing soil fertility decline must be re-oriented and tailored further to meet the needs and aspirations of particular sub-groups of migrants and natives. Most significantly, it appears that the feasibility of negotiating alternative land tenure arrangements differs among different groups of migrants depending on whether they regard their stay as permanent or temporal.
Leaving two thirds out of development: Female headed households and common property resources in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia
Howard, P. ; Smith, E. - \ 2006
Rome : FAO (LSP working paper 40) - 94
huishoudens - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - landbouw - landbouwhuishoudens - landbouwgrond - landgebruik - pachtstelsel - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - ethiopië - oost-afrika - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - geslacht (gender) - households - female labour - women - gender relations - agriculture - agricultural households - agricultural land - land use - tenure systems - common lands - natural resources - ethiopia - east africa - livelihood strategies - gender
Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya
Kabubo-Mariara, J. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Kruseman, G. ; Atieno, R. ; Mwabu, G. - \ 2006
Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit; Institute for Environmental Studies (PREM working paper PREM 06/06)
hulpbronnenbehoud - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieu - armoede - landbouwhuishoudens - pachtstelsel - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - dorpen - ontwikkelingsbeleid - kenya - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - ontwikkelingseconomie - resource conservation - resource management - environment - poverty - agricultural households - tenure systems - soil conservation - water conservation - villages - development policy - africa south of sahara - development economics
In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated by the paucity of literature on the poverty-environment nexus in Kenya, since poverty, agricultural stagnation and environmental degradation are issues of policy interest in the country¿s development strategy. The paper builds on the few existing studies from Kenya and explores the impact of household, farm and village characteristics as well as the development domain dimensions on household welfare and investment in soil and water conservation. The results show that strengthening the tenure security improves household welfare. Further, soil quality, topography and investments in soil and water conservation affect household welfare. Agroecological potential, which is related to environmental conservation, is also a key correlate of poverty. Results for investment in water and soil conservation confirm the importance of tenure security in determining adoption and also the intensity of SWC investments. We also find that household assets, farm characteristics, presence of village institutions and development domain dimensions are important determinants of adoption and intensity of soil and water conservation investments. The results for both poverty and investment in soil and water conservation suggest the existence of a strong poverty-environment link in our sample. The results also suggest that rural poverty can be alleviated by policies that improve environmental conservation and strengthen land tenure security. The study also underscores the importance of village institutions in both investment adoption of soil and water conservation and in improving household welfare.
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