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Monitoring spring phenology with high temporal resolution terrestrial LiDAR measurements
Calders, K. ; Schenkels, T. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Armston, J. ; Verbesselt, J. ; Herold, M. - \ 2015
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 203 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 158 - 168.
leaf-area index - pulsed-laser systems - canopy gap fraction - temperate forest - deciduous forest - climate-change - part i - profiles - environments - photography
Vegetation phenology studies the timing of recurring seasonal dynamics and can be monitored through estimates of plant area index (PAI). Shifts in spring phenology are a key indicator for the effect of climate change, in particular the start of the growing season of forests. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also referred to as terrestrial LiDAR, is an active remote sensing technique and measures the forest structure with high spatial detail and accuracy. TLS provides information about the 3D distribution of canopy constituents and vertical plant profiles can be derived from these data. Vertical plant profiles describe the plant area per unit volume as a function of height, and can be used to used to monitor seasonal dynamics through PAI. Here, we present a TLS time series based on 48 measurement days of four sampling locations in a deciduous forest in the Netherlands. Vertical plant profiles are derived for each measurement and allow us to quantify not only total canopy integrated PAI, but also monitor PAI at specific horizontal layers. Sigmoidal models show a good fit to the derived total canopy integrated PAI time series (CV(RMSE) 0.99). The start of season (SOS) based on these models occurs between March 29 and April 3, 2014, depending on the species composition. The SOS derived from the TLS data corresponds well with field observations and occurs 7–12 days earlier compared to the SOS estimate from the MODIS NDVI time series. This is mainly caused by the lower relative standard deviation for TLS measurements in leaf-off conditions (0.72% compared to 2.87% for the MODIS NDVI data), which allows us to significantly detect small changes in phenology earlier. TLS allows us to monitor PAI at specific horizontal layers and we defined an understorey, intermediate and upper canopy layer. Even though our study area had only a sparse understorey, small differences are observed in the SOS between the different layers. We expect that these phenological differences will be more pronounced in multi-layered forests and TLS shows the potential to study seasonal dynamics not only as a function of time, but also as a function of canopy height.
Modelling the influence of urbanization on the 20th century temperature record of weather station De Bilt (The Netherlands)
Koopmans, S. ; Theeuwes, N.E. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Climatology 35 (2015)8. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 1732 - 1748.
surface air-temperature - anthropogenic heat emissions - boundary-layer diffusion - tokyo metropolitan-area - urban canopy model - numerical experiment - time-series - data set - land-use - part i
Many cities have expanded during the 20th century, and consequently some weather stations are currently located closer to cities than before. Due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, those weather stations may show a positive bias in their 2-m temperature record. In this study, we estimate the impact of urbanization on the temperature record of WMO station De Bilt (The Netherlands). This station has a long historical record, but the nearby city of Utrecht and its suburbs expanded during the 20th century. The temperature rise due to urbanization is estimated by conducting representative mesoscale model simulations for the land-use situation for the years 1900 and 2000. This is performed for 14 different episodes of a week, each representing a typical large-scale flow regime (Grosswettertypes) in both the winter and the summer season. Frequency distributions of these flow regimes are used to estimate an average temperature rise. We find that the model results with two rather different atmospheric boundary-layer schemes, robustly indicate that the urbanization during the 20th century has resulted in a temperature rise of 0.22¿±¿0.06¿K. This is more than a factor of 2 higher than a previously estimated temperature trend by using observed temperature records of stations close to De Bilt.
Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget
Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Stacke, T. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Lucas-Picher, P. - \ 2014
Journal of Hydrometeorology 15 (2014)3. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1028 - 1050.
soil-moisture - part i - precipitation - climate - monsoon - scheme - models - cycle - parameterization - representation
The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation was represented by adding water to the soil moisture to keep it at 90% of the maximum soil moisture storage capacity, regardless of water availability. For two focus regions, the seasonal cycle of irrigation matched that of the reference dataset, but irrigation application varied between the models by up to 0.8 mm day(-1). Because of the irrigation, evaporation increased in all models, but precipitation decreased because of a strong decrease in atmospheric moisture convergence. A moisture tracking scheme was used to track individual evaporated moisture parcels through the atmosphere to determine where these lead to precipitation. Up to 35% of the evaporation moisture from the Ganges basin is recycling within the river basin. However, because of a decreased moisture convergence into the river basin, the total amount of precipitation in the Ganges basin decreases. Although a significant fraction of the evaporation moisture recycles within the river basin, the changes in large-scale wind patterns due to irrigation shift the precipitation from the eastern parts of India and Nepal to the northern and western parts of India and Pakistan. In these areas where precipitation increases, the relative precipitation increase is larger than the relative decrease in the areas where precipitation decreases. It is concluded 1) that the direct effects of irrigation on precipitation are small and are not uniform across the models; 2) that a fraction of up to 35% of any marginal evaporation increase (for example, due to irrigation) will recycle within the river basin; and 3) that when irrigation is applied on a large scale, the dominant effect will be a change in large-scale atmospheric flow that decreases precipitation in eastern India and increases it in western and northern India.
Urban agriculture in Portugal: Availability of potentially toxic elements for plant uptake
Cruz, N. ; Rodriguez, S.M. ; Coelho, C. ; Carvalho, L. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Pereira, E. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2014
Applied Geochemistry 44 (2014). - ISSN 0883-2927 - p. 27 - 37.
halimione-portulacoides - contaminated soils - european cities - trace-elements - lolium-perenne - heavy-metals - part i - vegetables - cadmium - mercury
Soils from urban areas often contain enhanced pseudo-total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Considering the expanding tendency of urban agricultural practices it is necessary to understand if these contaminants are available for plant uptake and if they pose risks to animal and human health. This study showed that estimates of Daily Intakes (DIs) of Cu, Pb and Zn for grazing animals were above animal Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) at specific sites under the influence of an airport, an oil refinery and near highways with high traffic rates in the "Grande Porto" urban area (Portugal). These results suggest that there is a potential for dietary transfer of contaminants associated with the ingestion of both contaminated soil and feed by cows and sheep at unacceptably high concentrations.Furthermore, results showed that 40% of variability of ryegrass shoot contents of Cu, Pb and Ni; 60% for Ba; 70% for Zn; and 80% for Cd can be significantly (p
Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas
Rodrigues, S.M. ; Coelho, C. ; Cruz, N. ; Monteiro, R.J.R. ; Henriques, B. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Pereira, E. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 496 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 649 - 661.
atomic-absorption-spectrometry - potentially toxic elements - chloralkali plant - inorganic mercury - part i - contaminated soils - asturias spain - speciation - sediments - portugal
The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining, urban and industrial areas was fractionated in organometallic forms; mobile; semi-mobile; and non-mobile forms as well as HCl-extractable Hg. The in vitro bioaccessibility of Hg was obtained by extracting soils with (1) a simulated human gastric fluid (pH 1.5), and (2) a simulated human lung fluid (pH 7.4). Total soil Hg concentrations ranged from 0.72 to 1.8 mg kg- 1 (urban areas), 0.28 to 94 mg kg- 1 (industrial area) and 0.92 to 37 mg kg- 1 (mining areas). Both organometallic Hg as well as 0.1 M HCl extractable Hg were lower (<0.5% of total Hg) than Hg extracted by gastric fluid (up to 1.8% of total Hg) and lung fluid (up to 12% of total Hg). In addition, Hg extracted by lung fluid was significantly higher in urban and industrial soils (average 5.0–6.6% of total Hg) compared to mining soils. Such differences were related to levels of mobile Hg species in urban and industrial soils compared to mining soils. These results strengthen the need to measure site-specific Hg fractionation when determining Hg bioaccessibility. Results also show that ingestion and/or inhalation of Hg from soil particles can contribute up to 8% of adult total Hg intake when compared to total Hg intake via consumption of contaminated fish and animal products from contaminated areas.
Role of the residual layer and large-scale subsidence on the development and evolution of the convective boundary layer
Blay-Carreras, E. ; Pino, D. ; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Boer, A. van de; Coster, O. de; Darbieu, C. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Lohou, F. ; Lothon, M. ; Pietersen, H.P. - \ 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 (2014). - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 4515 - 4530.
large-eddy-simulation - morning transition - carbon-dioxide - mixed-layer - water-vapor - order-jump - part i - turbulence - entrainment - inversion
Observations, mixed-layer theory and the Dutch Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radio soundings, and measurements done by remotely piloted aircraft systems and two manned aircrafts probed the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer during the campaign. The initial vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind, and the temporal evolution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes prescribed in the models runs are inspired by some of these observations. The research focuses on the role played by the residual layer during the morning transition and by the large-scale subsidence on the evolution of the boundary layer. By using DALES, we show the importance of the dynamics of the boundary layer during the previous night in the development of the boundary layer at the morning. DALES numerical experiments including the residual layer are capable of modeling the observed sudden increase of the boundary-layer depth during the morning transition and the subsequent evolution of the boundary layer. These simulations show a large increase of the entrainment buoyancy flux when the residual layer is incorporated into the mixed layer. We also examine how the inclusion of the residual layer above a shallow convective boundary layer modifies the turbulent kinetic energy budget. Large-scale subsidence mainly acts when the boundary layer is fully developed, and, for the studied day, it is necessary to be considered to reproduce the afternoon observations. Finally, we also investigate how carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio stored the previous night in the residual layer plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the CO2 mixing ratio during the following day.
Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up
Kleczek, M.A. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 152 (2014)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 213 - 243.
nonlocal closure-model - low-level jets - wrf model - part i - vertical diffusion - diurnal cycles - sea-ice - turbulence - sensitivity - parameterization
We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study (GABLS3) one-dimensional model intercomparison. The WRF model (version 3.4.1) contains 12 different PBL parametrizations, most of which have been only partially evaluated. The GABLS3 case offers a clear opportunity to evaluate model performance, focusing on time series of near-surface weather variables, radiation and surface flux budgets, vertical structure and the nighttime inertial oscillation. The model results revealed substantial differences between the PBL schemes. Generally, non-local schemes tend to produce higher temperatures and higher wind speeds than local schemes, in particular, for nighttime. The WRF model underestimates the 2-m temperature during daytime (about TeX K) and substantially underestimates it at night (about TeX K), in contrast to the previous studies where modelled 2-m temperature was overestimated. Considering the 10-m wind speed, during the night turbulent kinetic energy based schemes tend to produce lower wind speeds than other schemes. In all simulations the sensible and latent heat fluxes were well reproduced. For the net radiation and the soil heat flux we found good agreement with daytime observations but underestimations at night. Concerning the vertical profiles, the selected non-local PBL schemes underestimate the PBL depth and the low-level jet altitude at night by about 50 m, although with the correct wind speed. The latter contradicts most previous studies and can be attributed to the revised stability function in the Yonsei University PBL scheme. The local, turbulent kinetic energy based PBL schemes estimated the low-level jet altitude and strength more accurately. Compared to the observations, all model simulations show a similar structure for the potential temperature, with a consistent cold bias (TeX2 K) in the upper PBL. In addition to the sensitivity to the PBL schemes, we studied the sensitivity to technical features such as horizontal resolution and domain size. We found a substantial difference in the model performance for a range of 12, 18 and 24 h spin-up times, longer spin-up time decreased the modelled wind speed bias, but it strengthened the negative temperature bias. The sensitivity of the model to the vertical resolution of the input and boundary conditions on the model performance is confirmed, and its influence appeared most significant for the non-local PBL parametrizations
Subcloud-Layer Feedbacks Driven by the Mass Flux of Shallow Cumulus Convection over Land
Stratum, B.J.H. van; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Ouwersloot, H.G. - \ 2014
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 71 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-4928 - p. 881 - 895.
large-eddy simulation - capped boundary-layer - topped mixed layers - relative-humidity - daytime evolution - soil-moisture - part i - cloud - model - equilibrium
The processes and feedbacks associated with the mass flux of shallow cumulus clouds over land are studied by analyzing the results from large-eddy simulations and a mixed-layer model. The primary focus is to study the development of the (well mixed) subcloud layer and understand the four primary feedbacks between the subcloud-layer dynamics and cumulus mass flux. Guided by numerical experiments in large-eddy simulations that show the transition from clear to cloudy boundary layers at midlatitudes over land, the feedbacks introduced by shallow cumuli are first conceptually described. To study the complex interplay between the subcloud and cloud layer, a mixed-layer model is proposed and validated with large-eddy simulations for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains case. The mixed-layer model is shown to identify and reproduce the most relevant feedbacks in the transition from clear to cloudy boundary layers: a reduced mixed-layer growth and drying of the subcloud layer by enhanced entrainment and mass flux transport of moisture to the cloud layer. To complete the study, the strength of the different feedbacks is further quantified by an analysis of the individual contributions to the tendency of the relative humidity at the top of the mixed layer.
Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling
Locatelli, R. ; Bousquet, P. ; Chevallier, F. ; Fortems-Cheney, A. ; Szopa, S. ; Saunois, M. ; Agusti-Panareda, A. ; Bergmann, D. ; Bian, H. ; Cameron-Smith, P. ; Chipperfield, M.P. ; Gloor, E. ; Houweling, S. ; Kawa, S.R. ; Krol, M.C. ; Patra, P.K. ; Prinn, R.G. ; Rigby, M. ; Saito, R. ; Wilson, C. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)19. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 9917 - 9937.
general-circulation model - atmospheric transport - tracer transport - co2 inversions - boundary-layer - vertical profiles - data assimilation - climate-change - growth-rate - part i
A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System) inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure) is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr(-1) at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr(-1) in North America to 7 Tg yr(-1) in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48 %, respectively). At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly question the consistency of transport model errors in current inverse systems. Future inversions should include more accurately prescribed observation covariances matrices in order to limit the impact of transport model errors on estimated methane fluxes.
Risks associated with the transfer of toxic organo-metallic mercury from soils into the terrestrial feed chain
Henriques, B. ; Rodrigues, S.M. ; Coelho, C. ; Cruz, N. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Pereira, E. - \ 2013
Environment International 59 (2013). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 408 - 417.
oryza-sativa-l. - atomic-absorption-spectrometry - inorganic mercury - heavy-metals - chloralkali plant - asturias spain - food-chain - part i - rice - methylmercury
Although the transfer of organo-metallic mercury (OrgHg) in aquatic foodwebs has long been studied, it has only been recently recognized that there is also accumulation in terrestrial systems. There is still however little information about the exposure of grazing animals to OrgHg from soils and fHenriqueseed as well as on risks of exposure to animal and humans. In this study we collected 78 soil samples and 40 plant samples (Lolium perenne and Brassica juncea) from agricultural fields near a contaminated industrial area and evaluated the soil-to-plant transfer of Hg as well as subsequent trophic transfer. Inorganic Hg (IHg) concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 210 mg kg-1 d.w. in soils, from0.010 to 84 mg kg-1 d.w. in roots and from0.020 to 6.9 mg kg-1 d.w. in shoots.OrgHg concentrations in soils varied between 0.20 and 130 µg kg-1 d.w. representing on average 0.13% of the total Hg (THg). In root and shoot samples OrgHg comprised on average 0.58% (roots) and 0.66% (shoots) of THg. Average bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for OrgHg in relation to soil concentrations were 3.3 (for roots) and 1.5 (for shoots). The daily intake (DI) of THg in 33 sampling sites exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of THg of both cows (ADI = 1.4 mg d-1) and sheep (ADI = 0.28 mg d-1), in view of food safety associated with THg in animal kidneys. Estimated DI of OrgHg for grazing animals were up to 220 µg d-1 (for cows) and up to 33 µg d-1 (for sheep). This study suggested that solely monitoring the levels of THg in soils and feedmay not allow to adequately taking into account accumulation of OrgHg in feed crops and properly address risks associatedwith OrgHg exposure for animals and humans. Hence, the inclusion of limits for OrgHg in feed quality and food safety legislation is advised.
The role of snow-surface coupling, radiation, and turbulent mixing in modeling a stable boundary layer over Arctic sea ice
Sterk, H.A.M. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)3. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 1199 - 1217.
regional climate models - land-surface - polar amplification - longwave radiation - atmospheric models - energy budget - closure-model - part i - sheba - feedback
To enhance the understanding of the impact of small-scale processes in the polar climate, this study focuses on the relative role of snow-surface coupling, radiation and turbulent mixing in an Arctic stable boundary layer. We extend the GABLS1 (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study 1) model intercomparison for turbulent mixing with the other relevant physical processes in the stable boundary layer over sea ice. We use the Single Column Model (SCM) version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model and run different combinations of boundary layer and radiation schemes, using a state-of-the art land surface scheme. With this intercomparison of schemes, we confirm a wide variety in the state of the atmosphere and the surface variables for the selected parameterization schemes. To understand this variety, a sensitivity analysis for one particular combination of parameterization schemes is performed, using a novel analysis method of process diagrams. The variation between the sensitivity runs indicates a relative orientation of model sensitivities to variations in each of the overning processes and these can explain the variety of model results obtained in the intercomparison of different parameterization schemes. Moreover, we apply the same method for several geostrophic wind speeds to represent a large range of synoptic conditions. Results indicate a shift in process significance for different wind regimes. For low wind regimes, the model sensitivity is larger for surface coupling and radiation, while for high wind speeds, the largest sensitivity is found for the turbulent mixing process. An interesting non-linear feature was found for turbulent mixing for frequently occurring wind speeds and low wind speed cases, where the 2m temperature increases for decreased amounts of mixing.
The Cessation of Continuous Turbulence as Precursor of the Very Stable Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Wiel, B.J.H. van de; Moene, A.F. ; Jonker, H.J.J. - \ 2012
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 69 (2012)1. - ISSN 0022-4928 - p. 3097 - 3115.
large-eddy simulations - temperature-fluctuation method - low-level jet - intermittent turbulence - atmospheric models - surface-layer - land-surface - part i - regimes - cases-99
The mechanism behind the collapse of turbulence in the evening as a precursor to the onset of the very stable boundary layer is investigated. To this end a cooled, pressure-driven flow is investigated by means of a local similarity model. Simulations reveal a temporary collapse of turbulence whenever the surface heat extraction, expressed in its nondimensional form h/L, exceeds a critical value. As any temporary reduction of turbulent friction is followed by flow acceleration, the long-term state is unconditionally turbulent. In contrast, the temporary cessation of turbulence, which may actually last for several hours in the nocturnal boundary layer, can be understood from the fact that the time scale for boundary layer diffusion is much smaller than the time scale for flow acceleration. This limits the available momentum that can be used for downward heat transport. In case the surface heat extraction exceeds the so-called maximum sustainable heat flux (MSHF), the near-surface inversion rapidly increases. Finally, turbulent activity is largely suppressed by the intense density stratification that supports the emergence of a different, calmer boundary layer regime.
The fate of evaporated water from the Ganges basin
Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2012
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012)D1. - ISSN 2169-897X
hydrologic-cycle - soil-moisture - global energy - part i - precipitation - irrigation - monsoon - model - validation - vapor
This research studies river basin moisture recycling rates in order to determine the atmospheric part of the water cycle and the influence of the land surface there on. For river basins in India (Ganges and Indus), the fraction of evaporation that falls again as precipitation in the same river basin (the moisture recycling) is determined. Furthermore, the seasonal variance of moisture recycling and the fraction of precipitation that originates from evaporation from the same river basin is quantified. Using a quasi-isentropic moisture tracking scheme, evaporation from land surfaces in India is tracked through the atmosphere until precipitation brings it back to the land surface. This scheme is forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data from 1990 to 2009. With the information about the atmospheric paths of water vapor, the distance between evaporation and precipitation location is determined. To get an approximation of the influence of land use on the atmospheric moisture budget, the atmospheric paths of water vapor from two bordering areas with different evaporative regimes are compared. Results show a strong annual cycle in the recycling ratio. For the Ganges basin, the recycling ranges from 5% during the winter months (November–March) to 60% during the June–July–August season. The comparison of two focus areas in the Ganges basin with a difference in March–August evaporation shows that during the premonsoon months (March–May), up to 70% of the evaporation difference between the two areas recycles within the Ganges basin. Analysis of the soil moisture nudging terms in ERA-Interim compared to independent irrigation data strongly suggest this evaporation difference can be attributed to large-scale irrigation. The importance of basin moisture recycling for precipitation shows an annual cycle as well. An annual average of 4.5% of Ganges precipitation originates from water evaporating in the Ganges basin. During the dry winter monsoon, any precipitation originates from sources outside the basin. During March–April–May and October–November, 10% of the precipitation originates from evaporation within the basin. During the summer monsoon season, the large influx of moisture from the Indian Ocean dominates the precipitation, and recycling is 5% of precipitation.
Diagnosis of Local Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in India
Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2011
Journal of Climate 24 (2011)1. - ISSN 0894-8755 - p. 251 - 266.
boundary layer interactions - moisture-rainfall feedback - asian summer monsoon - soil-moisture - part i - coupling experiment - precipitation - irrigation - surface - variability
Following the convective triggering potential (CTP)–humidity index (HIlow) framework by Findell and Eltahir, the sensitivity of atmospheric convection to soil moisture conditions is studied for India. Using the same slab model as Findell and Eltahir, atmospheric conditions in which the land surface state affects convective precipitation are determined. For India, CTP–HIlow thresholds for land surface–atmosphere feedbacks are shown to be slightly different than for the United States. Using atmospheric sounding data from 1975 to 2009, the seasonal and spatial variations in feedback strength have been assessed. The patterns of feedback strengths thus obtained have been analyzed in relation to the monsoon timing. During the monsoon season, atmospheric conditions where soil moisture positively influences precipitation are present about 25% of the time. During onset and retreat of the monsoon, the south and east of India show more potential for feedbacks than the north. These feedbacks suggest that large-scale irrigation in the south and east may increase local precipitation. To test this, precipitation data (from 1960 to 2004) for the period about three weeks just before the monsoon onset date have been studied. A positive trend in the precipitation just before the monsoon onset is found for irrigated stations. It is shown that for irrigated stations, the trend in the precipitation just before the monsoon onset is positive for the period 1960–2004. For nonirrigated stations, there is no such upward trend in this period. The precipitation trend for irrigated areas might be due to a positive trend in the extent of irrigated areas, with land–atmosphere feedbacks inducing increased precipitation.
Evaluation of the Diurnal Cycle in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Land as Represented by a Variety of Single-Column Models: The Second GABLS Experiment
Svensson, G. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Kumar, V. ; Mauritsen, T. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Angevine, W.M. ; Bazile, E. ; Beljaars, A. ; Bruijn, E.I.F. de; Cheng, A. - \ 2011
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 140 (2011)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 177 - 206.
turbulence closure scheme - large-eddy simulations - part i - contrasting nights - morning transition - parameterization - mesoscale - cases-99 - surface - system
We present the main results from the second model intercomparison within the GEWEX (Global Energy andWater cycle EXperiment) Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). The target is to examine the diurnal cycle over land in today’s numerical weather prediction and climate models for operational and research purposes. The set-up of the case is based on observations taken during the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99), which was held in Kansas, USA in the early autumn with a strong diurnal cycle with no clouds present. The models are forced with a constant geostrophic wind, prescribed surface temperature and large-scale divergence. Results from 30 different model simulations and one large-eddy simulation (LES) are analyzed and compared with observations. Even though the surface temperature is prescribed, the models give variable near-surface air temperatures. This, in turn, gives rise to differences in low-level stability affecting the turbulence and the turbulent heat fluxes. The increase in modelled upward sensible heat flux during the morning transition is typically too weak and the growth of the convective boundary layer before noon is too slow. This is related to weak modelled nearsurface winds during the morning hours. The agreement between the models, the LES and observations is the best during the late afternoon. From this intercomparison study, we find that modelling the diurnal cycle is still a big challenge. For the convective part of the diurnal cycle, some of the first-order schemes perform somewhat better while the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) schemes tend to be slightly better during nighttime conditions. Finer vertical resolution tends to improve results to some extent, but is certainly not the solution to all the deficiencies identified
Welfare of the minipig with special reference to use in regulatory toxicology studies
Ellegaard, L. ; Cunningham, A. ; Edwards, S. ; Grand, N. ; Nevalainen, T. ; Prescott, M. ; Schuurman, T. - \ 2010
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 62 (2010)3. - ISSN 1056-8719 - p. 167 - 183.
nonhuman-primates - animal-welfare - scientific procedures - gottingen minipigs - growing pigs - part i - farm - responses - behavior - consequences
This paper reviews the animal welfare challenges associated with the use of minipigs in toxicology testing, and compares these to published knowledge on the other widely used non-rodent species (dogs and non-human primates). Welfare challenges arise from housing and management of populations under laboratory conditions, and from the procedures carried out for product evaluation. Welfare assessment requires a multidisciplinary approach: cardiovascular parameters, adrenocortical hormones and behaviour are well known parameters. However, reliable non-invasive methods to assess welfare and species-specific benchmarks need further development in minipigs. Husbandry of minipigs (housing, diet, and socialisation needs) to promote good welfare is described in the revised Appendix A of the European Convention (ETS 123). This has been supplemented by knowledge of species biology and expert opinion from experienced minipig users. Challenges when using minipigs in toxicity testing have been reviewed in detail. Although deeper location of the peripheral blood vessels makes blood sampling more challenging, samples can be taken with minimal distress when staff members are well trained. Temporary and chronic vascular catheters can also be used for frequent sampling, and are likely to improve the welfare of the animals. Available training courses with a focus on stress free handling and dosing, as well as surgical placement of temporary and chronic vascular catheters, should be utilised to improve welfare during these procedures. Humane endpoints have been described, mainly based on current industry practices, but further scientific investigations are required. From an animal welfare perspective there are no basic restrictions to using minipigs in toxicity testing that are unique to this species. We conclude that it is easier to keep minipigs to a good standard of welfare under laboratory conditions than it is for dogs or non-human primates, since minipigs are not athletic (like dogs) or arboreal (like non-human primates).
Characterization of the Mineral Fraction Associated to Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) in Anaerobic Granular Sludges
Abzac, P. D'; Bordas, F. ; Joussein, E. ; Hullebusch, E. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Guibaud, G. - \ 2010
Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010)1. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 412 - 418.
waste-water - extraction methods - heavy-metals - part i - removal - sulfate - reactor - mechanisms - dynamics - sorption
The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from four anaerobic granular sludges contain an important mineral fraction (20-77% of the EPS dry weight). The composition of the mineral fraction of EPS depends strongly of the extraction method applied and to a lesser extend of the origin of the anaerobic sludge. Centrifugation, sonication, and heating extraction procedures yield a similar mineral composition. However, extraction using a cationic exchange resin (CER) leads to an increase of the Na+ content in the EPS extract because the CER promotes an exchange of divalent and trivalent inorganic elements in the EPS extracts toward Na+. Chemical extraction protocols were also shown to contaminate the EPS extracts by impurities or carry over of the extractant itself (e.g., ethanol). A part of the mineral fraction is bound to the EPS organic matter and structures the EPS matrix in the granules. Scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM-EDX) showed that in addition, solid particles such as CaCO3 and Ca5OH(PO4)(3) containing various metallic elements (i.e., Al, Fe, Cu, Mn...) are present in the EPS as well. This inorganic fraction, too often neglected in EPS studies, can influence the physicochemical properties of EPS.
Precipitation measurement at CESAR, the Netherlands
Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Beek, C.Z. van de; Overeem, A. ; Otto, T. ; Unal, C.M.H. ; Dufournet, Y. ; Russchenberg, H.W. ; Figueras i Ventura, J. ; Klein Baltink, H. ; Holleman, I. - \ 2010
Journal of Hydrometeorology 11 (2010)6. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1322 - 1329.
neerslag - meettechnieken - weersvoorspelling - data-assimilatie - nederland - precipitation - measurement techniques - weather forecasting - data assimilation - netherlands - polarization spectral-analysis - dual-frequency retrieval - x-band frequencies - radar measurements - rainfall measurements - part i - reflectivity - resolution - rates - doppler
The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) observatory hosts a unique collection of instruments related to precipitation measurement. The data collected by these instruments are stored in a database that is freely accessible through a Web interface. The instruments present at the CESAR site include three disdrometers (two on the ground and one at 200 mabove ground level), a dense network of rain gauges, three profiling radars (1.3, 3.3, and 35 GHz), and an X-band Doppler polarimetric scanning radar. In addition to these instruments, operational weather radar data from the nearby (;25 km) De Bilt C-band Doppler radar are also available. The richness of the datasets available is illustrated for a rainfall event, where the synergy of the different instruments provides insight into precipitation at multiple spatial and temporal scales. These datasets, which are freely available to the scientific community, can contribute greatly to our understanding of precipitation-related atmospheric and hydrologic processes.
Evaluation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in anaerobic granular sludges
Simon, S. ; Pairo, B. ; Villain, M. ; Abzac, P. D'; Hullebusch, E. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Guibaud, G. - \ 2009
Bioresource Technology 100 (2009)24. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 6258 - 6268.
activated-sludge - extraction methods - part i - exopolymers - biofilms - polysaccharides - complexation - separation - protocols - hplc
The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from three granular and one flocculant anaerobic sludges were characterised by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using two serially linked chromatographic columns in order to obtain more detailed chromatograms. A Superdex peptide 10/300 GL (0.1-7 kDa) and Superdex 20010/300GL (10-600 kDa) from Amersham Biosciences were used in series with a mobile phase at pH 7 with an ionic strength of 0.223 M (phosphate buffer 50 mM and NaCl 150 mM). A part of the EPS molecules displays hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions with the column packing. Interactions could be modified by changing the mobile phase ionic strength or polarity (addition of acetonitrile). The detection wavelength (210 or 280 nm) affects strongly the EPS chromatogram. For a sludge originating from the same type of biofilms (i.e., anaerobic granules), the differences in EPS fingerprints are mainly due to differences in the absorbance of the chromatographic peaks, linked to EPS molecules content and composition. The EPS fingerprint changes significantly when the EPS originate from another type of anaerobic sludges. In addition, EPS fingerprints were affected by the extraction method used (centrifugation only; heat and centrifugation or cationic exchange resin and centrifugation). This phenomenon was observed mainly for the largest and smallest molecules and molecules which display interactions with column packing.
Carbon flux bias estimation employing Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF)
Zupanski, D. ; Denning, A.S. ; Uliasz, M. ; Zupanski, M. ; Schuh, A.E. ; Rayner, P.J. ; Peters, W. ; Corbin, K.D. - \ 2007
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 112 (2007). - ISSN 2169-897X - p. D17107 - D17107.
data assimilation - kalman filter - variational analysis - theoretical aspects - atmospheric co2 - part i - model - transport
We evaluate the capability of an ensemble based data assimilation approach, referred to as Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF), to estimate biases in the CO2 photosynthesis and respiration fluxes. We employ an off-line Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), which is driven by the carbon fluxes, obtained from the Simple Biosphere - Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (SiB-RAMS). The SiB-RAMS carbon fluxes are assumed to have errors in the form of multiplicative biases. Our goal is to estimate and reduce these biases and also to assign reliable posterior uncertainties to the estimated biases. Experiments of this study are performed using simulated CO2 observations, which resemble real CO2 concentrations from the Ring of Towers in northern Wisconsin. We evaluate the MLEF results with respect to the 'truth' and the Kalman Filter (KF) solution. The KF solution is considered theoretically optimal for the problem of this study, which is a linear data assimilation problem involving Gaussian errors. We also evaluate the impact of forecast error covariance localization based on a new 'distance' defined in the space of information measures. Experimental results are encouraging, indicating that the MLEF can successfully estimate carbon flux biases and their uncertainties. As expected, the estimated biases are closer to the 'true' biases in the experiments with more ensemble members and more observations. The data assimilation algorithm has a stable performance and converges smoothly to the KF solution when the ensemble size approaches the size of the model state vector (i.e., the control variable of the data assimilation problem)