- J. Durga (3)
- J. Durga (1)
- R.H.M. Groot (2)
- C.P.G.M. Groot de (1)
- J. Jolles (3)
- M.B. Katan (1)
- R.P.C. Kessels (1)
- F.J. Kok (4)
- W.L.A.M. Kort de (1)
- O. Rest van de (2)
- O.J.G. Schiepers (2)
- E.G. Schouten (1)
- D.W. Swinkels (1)
- P. Verhoef (4)
- N.L. Zwaluw van der (1)
Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 36 (2014)5. - ISSN 1380-3395 - p. 517 - 527.
participants aged 24-81 - blood-glucose - normative data - older-adults - memory performance - diabetes-mellitus - subjective memory - enhancement - humans - carbohydrate
In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (–0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.
Genetic variation in folate metabolism is not associated with cognitive functioning or mood in healthy adults
Schiepers, O.J.G. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Groot, R.H.M. ; Jolles, J. ; Bekers, O. ; Kok, F.J. ; Verhoef, P. ; Durga, J. - \ 2011
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 35 (2011)7. - ISSN 0278-5846 - p. 1682 - 1688.
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene - serine hydroxymethyltransferase genes - mthfr c677t polymorphism - participants aged 24-81 - normative data - thymidylate synthase - alzheimers-disease - colorectal-cancer - common mutation - depression
The present study examined the associations between genetic variation in folate metabolism on the one hand and cognitive functioning and mood on the other in healthy individuals. Two independent population-based samples were used, including 777 participants, aged 24-82 years, from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS): and 818 participants, aged 50-70 years, from the Folic Acid and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (FACIT) study. Thymidylate synthase (75.) 2R -> 3R and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1) 1420C -> J polymorphisms were determined in both populations. In addition, the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C -> T polymorphism was determined in the MAAS population. Cognitive performance was assessed in both populations using a neuropsychological test battery. In the MAAS population only, cognitive performance was retested after 12 years of follow-up (n = 612), and mood was measured at baseline (n = 772) and 12-year follow-up (n = 565) by means of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that in both study populations, cognitive performance was not associated with TS 2R -> 3R or SHMT1 1420C -> T polymorphisms at baseline, after correction for age, sex, and level of education. The MTHFR 677C -> T polymorphism was not associated with cognitive performance in the MAAS population. None of the polymorphisms in the MAAS population were related to mood at baseline or over 12 years. In conclusion, our findings do not support the involvement of genetic variation in folate metabolism in cognitive performance or mood in healthy individuals.
Serum Iron Parameters, HFE C282Y Genotype, and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Results From the FACIT Study
Schiepers, O.J.G. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Groot, R.H.M. ; Jolles, J. ; Kort, W.L.A.M. de; Swinkels, D.W. ; Kok, F.J. ; Verhoef, P. ; Durga, J. - \ 2010
Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 65 (2010)12. - ISSN 1079-5006 - p. 1312 - 1321.
transferrin-bound iron - participants aged 24-81 - restless legs syndrome - normative data - alzheimers-disease - gene-mutations - neurodegenerative disorders - hereditary hemochromatosis - parkinsons-disease - physical-activity
Although iron homeostasis is essential for brain functioning, the effects of iron levels on cognitive performance in older individuals have scarcely been investigated. In the present study, serum iron parameters and hemochromatosis (HFE) C282Y genotype were determined in 818 older individuals who participated in a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial examining the effects of folic acid on carotid intima-media thickness. All participants had slightly elevated homocysteine levels and were vitamin B12 replete. Cognitive functioning was assessed at baseline and after 3 years by means of a neuropsychological test battery. At baseline, increased serum ferritin was associated with decreased sensorimotor speed, complex speed, and information-processing speed and increased serum iron was associated with decreased sensorimotor speed. Cognitive performance over 3 years was not associated with HFE C282Y genotype or iron parameters. In conclusion, serum iron parameters do not show a straightforward relationship with cognitive functioning, although elevated iron levels may decrease cognitive speed in older individuals susceptible to cognitive impairment.
N-3 Fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults 1-3
Dullemeijer, C. ; Durga, J. ; Brouwer, I.A. ; Rest, O. van de; Kok, F.J. ; Brummer, R.J. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Verhoef, P. - \ 2007
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2007). - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1479 - 1485.
serum cholesteryl esters - participants aged 24-81 - normative data - erythrocyte-membranes - elderly population - alzheimers-disease - education - decline - sex - men
Background: Very-long-chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n¿3 PUFAs) are suggested to be related to cognitive performance in older adults. However, limited data exist on the association between n¿3 PUFAs and performance in specific cognitive domains. Objective: We evaluated the association between plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance in 5 cognitive domains and determined whether plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions predict cognitive change over 3 y. Design: We used data from the FACIT trial, in which participants received folic acid or placebo capsules for 3 y. Fatty acid proportions in plasma cholesteryl esters at baseline were measured in 807 men and women aged 50¿70 y. Cognitive performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information-processing speed, and word fluency was assessed at baseline and after 3 y. The cross-sectional analyses were based on all 807 participants; the longitudinal analyses were based only on 404 participants in the placebo group. Results: Higher plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions predicted less decline in sensorimotor speed (multiple linear regression coefficient, z score = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.57) and complex speed (0.40; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.70) over 3 y. Plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions did not predict 3-y changes in memory, information-processing speed, or word fluency. The cross-sectional analyses showed no association between plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions and performance in any of the 5 cognitive domains. Conclusions: In this population, plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions were associated with less decline in the speed-related cognitive domains over 3 y. These results need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials.
Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial
Durga, J. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Schouten, E.G. ; Kok, F.J. ; Jolles, J. ; Katan, M.B. ; Verhoef, P. - \ 2007
The Lancet 369 (2007)9557. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 208 - 216.
participants aged 24-81 - normative data - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase - memory performance - alzheimers-disease - vascular-disease - elderly-patients - homocysteine - education - folate
Background Low folate and raised homocysteine concentrations in blood are associated with poor cognitive performance in the general population. As part of the FACIT trial to assess the effect of folic acid on markers of atherosclerosis in men and women aged 50-70 years with raised plasma total homocysteine and normal serum vitamin B-12 at screening, we report here the findings for the secondary endpoint: the effect of folic acid supplementation on cognitive performance. Methods Our randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study took place between November, 1999, and December, 2004, in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned 818 participants 800 mu g daily oral folic acid or placebo for 3 years. The effect on cognitive performance was measured as the difference between the two groups in the 3-year change in performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information processing speed, and word fluency. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov with trial number NCT00110604. Findings Serum folate concentrations increased by 576% (95% CI 539 to 614) and plasma total homocysteine concentrations decreased by 26% (24 to 28) in participants taking folic acid compared with those taking placebo. The 3-year change in memory (difference in Z scores 0.132, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.233), information processing speed (0.087, 0.016 to 0.158) and sensorimotor speed (0.064, -0.001 to 0.129) were significantly better in the folic acid group than in the placebo group. Interpretation Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age.