Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Fishing in the Amazonian Forest: A Gendered Social Network Puzzle
Díaz-Reviriego, I. ; Fernández-Llamazares, ; Howard, P.L. ; Molina, J.L. ; Reyes-García, V. - \ 2017
Society & Natural Resources 30 (2017)6. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 690 - 706.
Fishing expertise - gender relations - perceptions - social network analysis - social status - Tsimane’ Amerindians
LLCWe employ social network analysis (SNA) to describe the structure of subsistence fishing social networks and to explore the relation between fishers’ emic perceptions of fishing expertise and their position in networks. Participant observation and quantitative methods were employed among the Tsimane’ Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. A multiple-regression quadratic assignment procedure was used to explore the extent to which gender, kinship, and age homophilies influence the formation of fishing networks. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between fishers’ expertise, their sociodemographic identities, and network centrality. We found that fishing networks are gendered and that there is a positive association between fishers’ expertise and centrality in networks, an association that is more striking for women than for men. We propose that a social network perspective broadens understanding of the relations that shape the intracultural distribution of fishing expertise, as well as natural resource access and use.
Econets, landscape & people: Integrating people's values and cultural ecosystem services into the design of ecological networks and other landscape change proposals
Inwood, Hugh ; Fleming, A.H. ; Pungetti, G. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2015
Natural England Enquiry Service (Natural England Commissioned report NECR180) - ISBN 9781783541829 - 137 p.
Nature Improvement Areas (NIAs) - biodiversity - cultural values - ecological networks - ecosystem services - landscape change - landscapes - perceptions - social sciences
Natural England commission a range of reports from external contractors to provide evidence and advice to assist us in delivering our duties. The views in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Natural England.
Background
The Natural Environment White Paper – ‘The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature’ provides the policy context for protecting and improving England’s natural resources, wildlife and landscapes; and reconnecting people and nature. Specific recommendations include:
• Establishing greater ecological connectivity, through large-scale ecological networks.
• Connecting people with their landscapes.
• Greater public engagement in landscape planning.
The planning, design and establishment of ecological networks is primarily underpinned by natural science research and associated evidence and data. This is critical to understanding the appropriate scenarios and patterns for ecological connectivity, conserving habitats and planning for the movement of species.
However, the landscape and human/cultural dimension of ecological networks is often less considered as an underpinning part of the context and evidence and, as a consequence, not always fully integrated into their planning, design and implementation.
In late 2012, Natural England commissioned the study known as ‘EcoLaP’– Econets, Landscape and People to:
• Help understand how to capture the public’s perceptions of landscape change, aesthetic and cultural value.
• Demonstrate the practical ways and benefits of using this, often more qualitative, information to complement natural science data and mapping information when planning and designing ecological networks.
This report is part of the wider EcoLaP research and evidence and will be used to inform Natural England and others when planning and establishing ecological networks across England’s landscapes
That’s why I take my ONS. Means-end chain as a novel approach to elucidate the personally relevant factors driving ONS consumption in nutritionally frail elderly users
Uijl, L.C. den; Kremer, S. ; Jager, G. ; Stelt, Annelies van der; Graaf, C. de; Gibson, P. ; Godfrey, J. ; Lawlor, J.B. - \ 2015
Appetite 89 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 33 - 40.
sensory attributes - supplements - care - malnutrition - perceptions - prevalence - interview - consumers - motives - drinks
Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are a recommended form of nutritional intervention for older malnourished persons when a ‘food first’ approach and/or food fortification prove ineffective. The efficacy of ONS will depend on, amongst other factors, whether persons do, or do not, consume their prescribed amount. Factors influencing ONS consumption can be product, context, or person related. Whereas product and context have received some attention, little is known about the person factors driving ONS consumption. In addition, the relative importance of the product, context, and person factors to ONS consumption is not known. Using the means-end chain (MEC) method, the current study elucidated personally relevant factors (product, context, and person factors) related to ONS consumption in two groups of older nutritionally frail ONS users: community-dwelling persons and care home residents with mainly somatic disorders. To our knowledge, the current work is the first to apply the MEC method to study older nutritionally frail ONS users. Forty ONS users (n¿=¿20 per group) were recruited via healthcare professionals. The level of frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale. Both groups were interviewed for 30 to 45 minutes using the soft laddering technique. The laddering data were analysed using LadderUX software™. The MEC method appeared to work well in both groups. The majority of the participants took ONS on their doctor's or dietician's prescription as they trusted their advice. The community-dwelling group took ONS to prolong their independence, whereas the care home group reported values that related more to small improvements in quality of life. In addition, care home residents perceived themselves as dependent on their caregiver for their ONS arrangements, whereas this dependence was not reported by community-dwelling persons. Key insights from this work will enable doctors and dieticians to customize their nutritional interventions to ONS users' personal needs and thus positively impact health outcomes
Multiple benefits and values of trees in urban landscapes in two small towns in northern South Africa
Shackleton, S. ; Chinyimba, A. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Shackleton, C. ; Kaoma, H. - \ 2015
Landscape and Urban Planning 136 (2015). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 76 - 86.
public green space - ecology - inequality - key - opportunities - perceptions - environment - ecosystems - resources - forests
Cities and towns can be conceptualised as complex social-ecological systems or landscapes that are composed of different spatial elements. Trees in urban landscapes provide a variety of tangible and intangible benefits (ecosystem services) that may be valued differently across diverse households and individuals. Here, we consider how the benefits and values of trees to urban residents vary across public and private spaces in three low income neighbourhoods in two medium-sized towns in northern South Africa. We find that the most asset poor residents in informal settlements derive significant benefits from the provisioning services offered by trees in natural green spaces on the ‘urban periphery’; in particular they value supplies of wood for energy, whilst also recognising the importance of regulating services such as shade. Trees in such spaces help these immigrants cope with a lack of infrastructure, services and disposable income after their move to the city. In new, low-cost housing neighbourhoods, the importance of trees in providing shade and shelter in gardens is emphasised due to the hot and dusty nature of these settlements, while residents in older township neighbourhoods make more mention of the aesthetic value of trees in private spaces as well as the fruits they provide. In all neighbourhoods, attitudes towards trees in public spaces were mixed because of their perceived association with crime, although low income households did make extensive use of tree products from natural areas. The relevance of the results for urban planning and greening in low income areas is discussed.
Price strategies for sustainable food products
Ingenbleek, P.T.M. - \ 2015
British Food Journal 117 (2015)2. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 915 - 928.
perceptions - behavior
Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that minimize this efficiency disadvantage. Design/methodology/approach – The strategies and their determinants from the pricing environment are derived from an inductive sequential case study of certified food products, such as organic and fair trade products. Data are collected through desk research and interviews. Findings – The results reveal six different strategies that build on three basic mechanisms: cost-based pricing in combination with price fairness, increasing willingness to pay through perceptions of quality and/or price, and price stability in which costs are compensated for by scale and/or learning effects. Research limitations/implications – The framework can help companies that offer sustainable products strengthen their market positions and it can help policy makers that partly rely on markets to achieve sustainability objectives. Originality/value – The existing pricing literature on sustainability predominantly takes a consumer approach. This study breaks new ground by extending this work with a strategic marketing approach offering a choice set of strategies for managers.
Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in the Netherlands
Gebrezgabher, Solomie ; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Kruseman, G. ; Lakner, D. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Management 150 (2015). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 1 - 8.
agricultural innovations - farmers - management - perceptions - systems
Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.
Consumer liking, purchase intent, and willingness to pay for Lupinus mutabilis Sweet in relation to debittering treatments
Carvajal-Larenas, F.E. ; Koziol, M. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 40 (2015)part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 221 - 229.
quinolizidine alkaloids - satisfaction - quality - seed - perceptions - attributes - extraction - customers - equity
Interrelationships between food processing conditions, consumer liking, purchase intent and willingness to pay can be studied and modeled as exemplified by this paper on lupin (Lupinus mutabilis). Lupin was debittered by 12 different aqueous treatments and evaluated by 99 consumers. First they scored the products on the basis of liking. Next, they were informed about the price of the products and asked to rank their purchase intent in relation to their liking scores and product price. Treatments with more processing (i.e. longer agitation times and/or more frequent changes of water) increased the product price but diminished liking. Consumers did not choose between liking and price; the purchase intent was the combined effect of both variables. Willingness to pay was inferred from the purchase intent plot. For example, at a purchase intent of 2, consumers would accept an increase in price of 0.3 $/kg if liking increased from ‘‘like slightly’’ to ‘‘like moderately’’. In the studied range, the effect of processing on liking and expected price, as well as their effect on purchase intent, could be described by first order regression equations.
En route: Transport and embodiment in international medical travel journeys between Indonesia and Malaysia
Ormond, M.E. - \ 2015
Mobilities 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1745-0101 - p. 285 - 303.
passenger mobilities - tourism - health - patient - perspectives - facilitators - perceptions - people - growth - spaces
International medical travel is increasingly big business. Using Indonesian patient-consumers’transport experiences in the pursuit of private medical care in Malaysia, this paper explores howtransport operators and infrastructure are responding and adjusting to the embodied specificities of the growing market’s access and travel needs. In offering faster and more frequent linkages, theyhave both expanded the physical and geo-political scope and increased the immediacy of careprovision. This underscores the value of examining how the mobile spaces of transport common tointernational medical travel actively intersect with, blur and re-articulate diverse understandings of ill-health and impairment, care and subjectivity.
Fostering technological transition to sustainable land management through stakeholder collaboration in the western highlands of Kenya
Mutoko, M.C. ; Shisanya, C.A. ; Hein, L.G. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 110 - 120.
natural-resource management - agricultural input subsidy - soil fertility management - productivity - perceptions - experiences - knowledge
Application of sustainable land management (SLM) practices is essential to lessen the negative impacts of land degradation on rural welfare in sub-Saharan Africa. Scaling-up of SLM technologies requires collaboration of diverse stakeholders across multiple scales. We follow inter-disciplinary approaches to evaluate prospects for wider promotion of SLM practices in the western highlands of Kenya. Findings from this study reveal that only 10 per cent of farmers are properly implementing the available SLM practices. Agricultural productivity is low and there is high dependence on benefits extracted from the forest resource. A positive correlation (rho = 0.8) was found between stakeholder co-operation and success level of SLM projects. Results clearly show reasonable prospects such as some technology adoption activities and organisation of local actors that are necessary for triggering the transformation process to sustainable state of productivity. Nevertheless, technological transition could likely succeed if facilitated by enhanced stakeholder collaboration, a supportive policy environment and substantial resource mobilisation. We suggest the application of a context-specific transition management approach in this area in order to learn lessons on governance of transformative environmental programmes for similar socio-ecological systems in SSA. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adaptation to extreme weather: identifying different societal perspectives in the Netherlands
Vasileiadou, E. ; Hisschemoller, M. ; Petersen, A.C. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Betgen, C. ; Hoog, I. de; Min, E. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)1. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 91 - 101.
climate-change - stakeholder dialogue - united-states - perceptions - policy - environment - information - options - risk
The intensity and occurrence of extreme weather events are expected to change with climate change. This change necessitates adaptive responses to extreme events, which need to take into account different societal perspectives, in order to be robust. In this paper, we explore the perspectives of different social actors in the Netherlands with respect to extreme weather events and ways to adapt to these events. The paper reports on a set of 41 interviews, using the repertory grid technique. The results were analyzed, to identify (a) the perspectives that stakeholders hold as most important for adaptation to extreme weather events; (b) the determinants of differences in perspectives. We find six different perspectives, all of which prioritize different adaptive actions. Producing robust adaptive responses which include different perspectives is therefore not a straightforward matter and is likely to result in win-lose situations. Further, differences in perspectives were not closely related to different sectors the interviewees belonged to. Thus, the traditional approach of involving different sectors to discuss and produce adaptation measures may be too limiting and needs to be supplemented to involving actors with different perspectives. The level of concern and level of information influenced the ways interviewees perceive adaptation priorities for extreme weather events. Participation in information events does not always result in perceived need to prepare for extreme events, something that adaptation communication needs to take into account.
From Framework to Action: The DESIRE Approach to Combat Desertification
Hessel, R. ; Reed, M.S. ; Geeson, N. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Karavitis, C. ; Schwilch, G. ; Jetten, V. ; Dijck, S.J.E. van; Elsen, H.G.M. van den - \ 2014
Environmental Management 54 (2014)5. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 935 - 950.
sustainable land management - conservation measures - indigenous knowledge - decision-support - learning-process - degradation - science - debate - perceptions - drylands
It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through amulti-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual frameworkwas developed inwhich the factors and processes thatmay lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also bemade sitespecific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification.
Governing China’s food quality through transparency: A review
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2014
Food Control 43 (2014). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 49 - 56.
environmental governance - information age - safe food - consumers - systems - trust - perceptions - incidents - risks
In coping with food quality problems, China relies heavily on state institutions, such as laws and regulations, governmental standards and certification, and inspections and enforcement. Recently, transparency (or information disclosure) has been introduced in China’s governance framework to cope with its growing food quality and related sustainability problems. This article investigates to what extent and how China’s transparency institutions and practices regarding food production and products play a role in governing food quality and safety. Four forms of food chain transparency are distinguished and assessed: management transparency, regulatory transparency, consumer transparency and public transparency. It is concluded that in China food chain transparency is still in its infancy with respect to governing domestic food production and product quality and safety, and that only with respect to global (export) food chains transparency and accountability put some pressure on agro-food chain actors to improve their performance with respect to food quality and sustainability. By the same token furthering transparency on food quality is desperately needed as the state’s food management and control system alone proves not capable to provide safe food that is credible and trusted by domestic consumers.
The theoretical foundations of value-informed pricing in the service-dominant logic of marketing
Ingenbleek, P.T.M. - \ 2014
Management Decision 52 (2014)1. - ISSN 0025-1747 - p. 33 - 53.
resource-advantage theory - managerial practice - decision-making - competition - perceptions - perspective - strategies - framework - companies - quality
Purpose – In the mainstream normative pricing literature, value assessment is virtually non-existent. Although the resource-based literature recognizes that pricing is a competence, value-informed pricing practices are still weakly grounded in theory. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the theoretical grounds of such pricing practices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies the emerging service-dominant logic of marketing to pricing. More specifically, it apples the ten foundational premises of service-dominant logic to pricing and it places pricing in the frameworks of one of the major building blocks of service-dominant logic, namely the resource-advantage theory of competition. Findings – From a service-dominant perspective, price is the reward for the application of specialized knowledge and skills. Pricing is an operant resource, or competence, that assesses customer value, applies it in multi-dimensional price propositions, and implements it in processes of co-creating prices with customers. Value-informed pricing is the central pricing practice within such competences. Practical implications – Prices vary among others between “good” and “bad”, firms generate competitive advantage not only through value creation, but also through pricing. Learning is key to develop pricing competences. Originality/value – This paper is the first to ground value-informed pricing at high levels of abstraction in general marketing theory.
Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico
Ruiz Izaguirre, E. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Ortolani, A. ; Ortega-Pacheco, A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2014
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 154 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 57 - 65.
canis-familiaris - domestic dogs - population - bites - perceptions - attitudes - victims - disease - region - areas
In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and unfamiliar humans, (2) to compare body condition of dogs living in a village with a seasonal trade in international tourism (IT-village) with dogs living in a village located in the vicinity of a sea-turtle nesting site (STN-village), and (3) to identify whether dog characteristics influence dog behaviour and body condition. Two coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico, were selected as case study sites. Fifty-nine dogs were initially visited, 35 of which were repeatedly visited during the high and low seasons for international tourism and sea-turtle nesting. Caregivers were interviewed regarding human–dog interactions, and dogs were behaviourally tested and rated for body condition. Behavioural indicators were: (1) the dog's qualitative response to a caregiver's call and (2) the dog's willingness to approach an unfamiliar human. Additionally, a dog census per village was conducted to ascertain the dog population structure. Dogs were kept by over 60% of households in both villages. Body condition was optimal for 68% of the dogs. In the low season, dogs in the STN-village had better body condition than dogs in IT-village (P = 0.007). Dog characteristics that influenced behavioural responses were: sex, age, and whether the dog played with humans. The most common response to the caregiver's call was tail wagging, shown by 83% of male dogs and 50% of female dogs (P = 0.021). About 70% of the pups approached the unfamiliar human completely, whereas only 24% of the juveniles (P = 0.040) and 26% of the adults did so (P = 0.026). Human–dog play was reported to occur mainly with children (77%). The percentage of dogs that played with humans was higher in dogs responding with tail wagging (82%) than in dogs showing the rest of the response categories (withdrawal, baring teeth, and other) (50%) (P = 0.012). Human–dog play was reported for 85% of the male dogs compared to 55% of the female dogs (P = 0.036). This study showed that village dogs were socialised to familiar humans but were not attracted to unfamiliar humans. Village dogs maintained their body condition in the low season. Child–dog play may have a role in shaping village dog social behaviour towards humans.
Measuring the effect of risk attitude on marketing behavior
Franken, J.R.V. ; Pennings, J.M.E. ; Garcia, P. - \ 2014
Agricultural Economics 45 (2014)5. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 525 - 535.
farmers subjective probabilities - econometric estimation - production contracts - northern thailand - preference - aversion - perceptions - decisions - construct - india
Despite extensive study, researchers continue to search for consistent and reliable measures of risk preferences to explain market behavior. We find that a measure, combining experiments rooted in expected utility theory and measures derived from surveys, explains spot and contractual sales, but does not exhibit substantially greater explanatory power than its underlying components. Survey-based measures are generally more significant indicators of marketing choices, but experimental measures reveal how risk attitudes vary over a range of probable outcomes, which is important in light of increased commodity price volatility. Given recently identified limitations on the applicability of expected utility theory, we suggest that researchers include survey methods to obtain low-cost supplemental measures.
Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China
He, G. ; Zhang, L. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Wang, T. ; Lu, Y. - \ 2014
Environmental Pollution 185 (2014). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 158 - 167.
management - governance - participation - perceptions - enterprises - industries - pollution - smes
In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME’s environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation.
Are the mangroves in the Galle-Unawatuna area (Sri Lanka) at risk? A social-ecological approach involving local stakeholders for a better conservation policy
Satyanarayana, B. ; Mulder, S. ; Jayatissa, L.P. ; Dahdouh-Guebas, F. - \ 2013
Ocean & Coastal Management 71 (2013). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 225 - 237.
indian-ocean tsunami - coastal vegetation - environmental-change - socioeconomic data - natural disasters - human-populations - ecosystems - forest - protection - perceptions
Despite the known ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems, research is still lacking as to what extent local populations depends on various forest products, or how this might be related to their economic status (i.e. poor, middle and rich), age, or gender (male and female) relations. In the present study, the percentage of people depending on such resources in the Galle-Unawatuna area (Sri Lanka) for their subsistence needs was assessed through a survey. The results indicated that local people rely on mangroves to a greater extent for fishery products, fuelwood, and edible plants, than for house/boat construction material, medicinal and other non-timber forest products. All people under the poor, middle and rich categories use mangrove resources, although greater dependency of the poor is common. In relation to age, the mangrove resources utilization was high among old (>60 years) people. A gendered division of labor indicating the men involved in fishery-related activities and women in edible plant collection was observed. In addition, the use of mangrove resources is not necessarily poverty-driven: preference and tradition also play important roles. However, the physical infrastructure developments (i.e. construction of a cement factory, dam and road) have had several negative impacts ranging from water quality deterioration and dynamic shifts in mangrove vegetation to reduced fish production in the vicinity. Given our results, possible amendments to the existing rules governing forest conservation are recommended in order to provide long-term benefits for local livelihoods as well as ecosystem. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessing, mapping and quantifying cultural ecosystem services at community level
Plieninger, T. ; Dijks, S. ; Oteros Rozas, E. ; Bieling, C. - \ 2013
Land Use Policy 33 (2013). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 118 - 129.
land-use change - protected areas - social values - national-park - management - landscapes - conservation - perceptions - scales - stakeholders
Numerous studies underline the importance of immaterial benefits provided by ecosystems and especially by cultural landscapes, which are shaped by intimate human–nature interactions. However, due to methodological challenges, cultural ecosystem services are rarely fully considered in ecosystem services assessments. This study performs a spatially explicit participatory mapping of the complete range of cultural ecosystem services and several disservices perceived by people living in a cultural landscape in Eastern Germany. The results stem from a combination of mapping exercises and structured interviews with 93 persons that were analyzed with statistical and GIS-based techniques. The results show that respondents relate diverse cultural services and multiple local-level sites to their individual well-being. Most importantly, aesthetic values, social relations and educational values were reported. Underlining the holistic nature of cultural ecosystem services, the results reveal bundles of services as well as particular patterns in the perception of these bundles for respondent groups with different socio-demographic backgrounds. Cultural services are not scattered randomly across a landscape, but rather follow specific patterns in terms of the intensity, richness and diversity of their provision. Resulting hotspots and coldspots of ecosystem services provision are related to landscape features and land cover forms. We conclude that, despite remaining methodological challenges, cultural services mapping assessments should be pushed ahead as indispensable elements in the management and protection of cultural landscapes. Spatially explicit information on cultural ecosystem services that incorporates the differentiated perceptions of local populations provides a rich basis for the development of sustainable land management strategies. These could realign the agendas of biodiversity conservation and cultural heritage preservation, thereby fostering multifunctionality.
Veterinary herd health management programs on dairy farms in the Netherlands: Use, execution, and relations on farmers characteristics
Derks, M. ; Werven, T. van; Hogeveen, H. ; Kremer, W.D.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1623 - 1637.
simulation-model - attitudes - cattle - perceptions - prevention - welfare
Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs are of growing importance to the dairy industry; they support farmers in the shift from curative to preventive health management, caused by increased herd sizes and quality standards in dairy farming. Farmers participating in VHHM are visited every 4 to 6 wk by their veterinarian, who checks the animals and herd management to intervene in a proactive way with problems regarding animal health and animal welfare. At present, no good overview exists of how VHHM is executed on Dutch dairy farms, and whether different farmers require different types of VHHM. Aims of this study were to (1) map out how many farmers participate in VHHM, (2) describe how VHHM is executed on the farms, and (3) see whether certain farmer characteristics are related to farmers’ participation in VHHM. In 2011, a questionnaire was sent to 5,000 Dutch dairy farmers per e-mail. Part 1 of the questionnaire focused on participation in and execution of VHHM and part 2 focused on farmer characteristics regarding external information. Returned questionnaires (n = 1,013) were summarized and statistically analyzed. In this study 68.6% of the responding farmers participated in any form of VHHM. The most important activities were fertility checks and advice about fertility; the least important were housing and claw health. Relationships between farmer characteristics (use of and trust in information) and participation in VHHM were found.
Standing out in the crowd: The effect of information clutter on consumer attention for front-of-pack nutrition labels
Bialkova, S.E. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Food Policy 41 (2013). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 65 - 74.
qualified health claims - visual-search - eye-movements - spatial attention - identification - perceptions - displays - objects - task
Whether and how information density on front-of-pack design affects consumers’ attention for nutrition labels is explored. The main manipulation concerned the number and type of nutrition labels (directive-, semi-, and non-directive), chromaticity (monochrome vs. traffic light color-coded scheme); number and type of additional design elements; and the distance between the label and additional design elements. Attention was measured by performance in visual search task. Performance was slower with increasing number of additional design elements, and when the label appeared in a dense rather than non-dense area. These effects were modulated by label type and chromaticity. The results show that information density is a key factor for consumer attention to (nutrition) information. Implications for policy makers and food producers who want to optimize package design layout and thus help consumers easily to find nutrition information displayed front of the pack are discussed.
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