Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sorption of pymetrozine and dimethomorph to substrate materials
Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Matser, A.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2841) - 47
plant protection - pesticides - soilless culture - rockwool - sorption - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - cultuur zonder grond - steenwol - sorptie
Mobiele waterzuivering glastuinbouw
Ruijven, Jim van; Os, Erik van; Vermeulen, Peter - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1424) - 54
kassen - glastuinbouw - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - afvoer - zuiveren - waterzuivering - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - substraten - cultuur zonder grond - mobiele uitrusting - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - waste water treatment - waste water - water pollution - discharge - purification - water treatment - surface water - surface water quality - plant protection - pesticides - substrates - soilless culture - mobile equipment
Application of a mobile unit for discharge water purification is one of four options to apply to the purification obligation per 1-1-2018. Depending on the amount of discharge, future water strategy and investment options, mobile purification can be an interesting option. The amount of discharge water varies with crop, irrigation strategy and quality of the irrigation water and is between 122 and 3.340 m3/ha/year for surveyed companies. About 65% of greenhouse companies discharges
Including multistress in the risk assessment of plant protection products : current state of knowledge, based on a literature review and an evaluation of tank mixture applications in a spraying schedule for strawberries
Arts, G.H.P. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Vliet, P.J.M. van; Wipfler, E.L. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2793) - 51
pesticides - environmental impact - risk - exposure - drift - pesticiden - milieueffect - risico - blootstelling
Fluctuations of input and output prices are major reasons causing volatile gross margins in livestock production. There are large historic differences in the period 2001-2015 between the dairy sector and fattening pig sector in volatility. Relatively large fluctuations in gross margins were observed in the fattening pig sector (median coefficient of variation (CV) value of 32%). In the dairy sector gross margin between years was more smooth (median CV values of 12%), but projections are that after the gradual reduction of EU milk price support and following the abolishment of the EU milk quota system dairy farmers will become more exposed to the world market for dairy products and are becoming more vulnerable to (supply and demand) shocks affecting world dairy markets and prices.
Groundwater Atlas for pesticides in The Netherlands : user manual
Kruijne, R. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Roller, J.A. te; Kraalingen, D. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2786) - 65
groundwater quality - groundwater - pesticides - monitoring - ecotoxicology - netherlands - grondwaterkwaliteit - grondwater - pesticiden - ecotoxicologie - nederland
The Groundwater Atlas contains monitoring data on the presence of active substances and related metabolites of plant protection products.
Herkomstanalyse gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe : meetperiode 2002-2007
Kruijne, Roel ; Groenwold, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2815) - 41
pesticiden - grondwater - monitoring - uitspoelen - waterverontreiniging - drenthe - nederland - pesticides - groundwater - leaching - water pollution - netherlands
In 2008 heeft WEnR-Alterra een analyse gegeven van de mogelijke herkomst van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen die in de jaren 2002, 2004, 2006 en 2007 zijn aangetroffen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe. Ruim de helft van de geanalyseerde gewasbeschermingsmiddelen is niet (meer) toegelaten op de Nederlandse markt. Veel stoffen hebben een brede toepassing (gehad) in meerdere sectoren en daarnaast ook buiten de landbouw. De breedte van deze toepassingen en de wijzingen in de tijd beperken de mogelijkheid om het voorkomen van een stof in verband te brengen met een specifiek gebruik. Uit regionale berekeningen blijkt dat het grondwater in de Provincie Drenthe als geheel minder kwetsbaar is voor uitspoeling van stoffen dan het grondwater in Nederland. Uit berekeningen met lokale invoergegevens blijkt, dat de meest kwetsbare locaties voor uitspoeling van de stof bentazon zijn oververtegenwoordigd in de bemonstering.
Temperature in water and sediment in the pesticide model TOXSWA : implementation report
Beltman, W.H.J. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Mulder, H.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2794) - 67
pesticides - water - temperature - models - sediment - surface water - pesticiden - temperatuur - modellen - oppervlaktewater
TOXSWA simuleert het gedrag van stoffen in oppervlaktewater om blootstellingsconcentratie te berekenen voor organismen die in water of sediment leven, als onderdeel van de aquatische risicobeoordeling van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (GBM). Het vernieuwde concept voor de beschrijving van de temperatuur in het TOXSWA model werd getest aan de hand van een bestaande implementatie van het 1D bulk model.
The TOXSWA model version 3.3 for pesticide behaviour in small surface waters : description of processes
Horst, M.M.S. ter; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Berg, F. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 84) - 72
pesticides - surface water - models - modeling - aquatic ecosystems - drainage - runoff - pesticiden - oppervlaktewater - modellen - modelleren - aquatische ecosystemen - oppervlakkige afvoer
In the European Union (EU) the risk of plant protection products to aquatic organisms is assessed accordingto regulation 1107/2009. For this assessment the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios have been developed. TheTOXSWA model is included in the FOCUS Surface Water Software tools to calculate the exposureconcentration in the water systems defined in those scenarios. At the national level the TOXSWA model isused to assess the exposure concentration in the water system defined in national scenarios. In this report adescription is given of the hydrology in the Dutch and EU water body systems and the fate of pesticides andtheir metabolites in water and sediment. The pesticide can enter the system by spray drift and/or drainageand run-off. The transport in the water system is described by advection, dispersion and diffusion. Theexchange at the water-sediment interface is described based on advection/diffusion. Other processes aresorption, volatilisation at the water – air interface and transformation in both the water layer and thesediment. The formation and transformation of metabolites in both compartments are described. The reportpresents an outlook on the improvements in the next version as well as on future developments.
Calculation of exposure concentrations for NL standard scenarios by the TOXSWA model : use of FOCUS_TOXSWA 4.4.3 software for plant protection products and their metabolitesin Dutch risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems
Beltman, W.H.J. ; Vink, C. ; Poot, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 77) - 46
pesticides - models - exposure - exposure assessment - surface water - netherlands - pesticiden - modellen - blootstelling - blootstellingsbepaling - oppervlaktewater - nederland
TOXSWA calculates exposure concentrations of plant protection products in water and in sediment and is
used in risk assessment studies of aquatic organisms. Replacement of the TOXSWA 1.2 software by the more
recent FOCUS_TOXSWA software for use with the NL standard scenarios was investigated. The impact of the
replacement on the calculated exposure concentrations of parent compounds and of metabolites was
determined. For parent substances the calculated exposure concentrations of the two TOXSWA versions were
equivalent. Due to a different way to simulate metabolites, the differences in exposure concentrations
calculated by the two versions can be large. For the simulation of metabolite substances two approaches are
given to handle situations where the formation fraction is not known.
Evaluatie zuiveringstechniek voor verwijdering gewasbeschermingsmiddelen III
Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Staaij, M. van der; Os, E.A. van - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1414) - 30
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - glastuinbouw - kassen - cultuur zonder grond - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - ozon - verwijdering - filtratie - technieken - waste water treatment - water treatment - waste water - water pollution - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - soilless culture - plant protection - pesticides - ozone - removal - filtration - techniques
Dutch greenhouse horticulture has to treat all discharged water from soilless cultivations for the removal of plant protection products, to meet the new Dutch Directive Hoofdlijnenakkoord (2015). Building on previous research, (1) the life span of activated carbon filters, (2) the effect of increasing concentrations of plant protection products on the removal efficacy of ozone and the removal efficacy of (3) multimedia filtration and (4) ultrasonic water treatment have been investigated. It turned out to be difficult to design an active carbon based water treatment system capable of durable treatment of greenhouse discharge water: organic and mineral material in the water blocked the pores, thereby clogging the filter system and causing leakage by pressure build-up. Activated carbon filtration (granular activated carbon, 48 min contact time, 50 μm prefiltration with sand filter) achieved a removal efficacy of >95% for up to 430 bed volumes treated. Combination with advanced oxidation improved the removal efficacy, but the removal time of the filter could not be determined due to leakage. The removal efficacy of ozone oxidation remained >98%, even at increased concentrations (factor 10 and 100) of plant protection products in the untreated water. The multimedia filter removed 75% of the plant protection products by adsorption, biological breakdown within the filter was not determined. Treatment of the water with ultrasonic waves hardly had any effect (maximum 30% efficacy) on the breakdown.
Regionalisatie van gegevens over het landelijk gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen : een verkenning voor de EmissieRegistratie
Kruijne, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2763) - 61
pesticiden - gezamenlijke statistieken - landbouwstatistieken - emissie - nederland - pesticides - aggregate statistics - agricultural statistics - emission - netherlands
Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides : With courtesy of vegIMPACT a program financed by The Netherlands’ Government
Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Koomen, I. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-029 ) - 40 p.
pesticides - exposure - occupational health - safety at work - horticulture - farmers - training - handbooks - kenya - pesticiden - blootstelling - gezondheid op het werk - veiligheid op het werk - tuinbouw - boeren - opleiding - handboeken
Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and health risks, both for themselves as well as people living in the vicinity of places where pesticides are used. The Practical Training Centre Horticulture Kenya (PTC Horticulture) offers hands-on trainings to the horticultural sector. This manual is developed for PTC Horticulture and is about the safe and responsible use of pesticides – a guide for trainers who have to deliver trainings on ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ and ‘Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides’. This manual guides the trainers through the material, provides background and tips to the content and gives suggestions for practical assignments.
Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production
Mengistie, Belay - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579491 - 254
pesticides - policy - ethiopia - private sector - supply chain management - agriculture - vegetables - cut flowers - environmental protection - pesticiden - beleid - ethiopië - particuliere sector - ketenmanagement - landbouw - groenten - snijbloemen - milieubescherming

Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the world. This holds especially true for developing countries, including Ethiopia where good agricultural practices are often poorly implemented. To safeguard human health and the environment, a strict regulatory policy is essential. In line with this, Ethiopia has developed pesticide registration and control procedures, which are regulations and directives in which the country also included different international agreements related to agropesticides. Therefore, the overall policy with respect to pesticide plays a key role in improving the environment, the health of growers and the surrounding community and stimulates the economic performance of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. However, there was no clear answer to the question whether the policy on pesticide registration, distribution and use was implemented in an effective and sustainable way. Arguably, governance failures are the origin of many environmental and human health problems regarding pesticides in developing countries. This paper argues that the influence of state and non-state actors and the relative importance of their interactions are the major structural characteristics of pesticide governance. However, it is still important to ask what governing mechanisms and actors are available and what can be developed further to promote sustainable pesticide governance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the pesticide policy-and-practice nexus, which includes the roles of governmental actors, private actors(traders) and farmers, and to review the actual and potential contribution from various governance actors in changing the existing (unsafe) pesticide practices in vegetables and cut flowers sector in which pesticides are used intensively.I have to conclude that both state and private actors hardly contribute to significant improvements in achieving sound pesticide management in Ethiopia. The state regulatory system has revealed an inability in controlling proper registration, distribution and safe use. Pesticide registration systems are not well established. A major challenge in pesticide registration is the double/ triple registration of pesticides with the same active ingredient (ai) but under different commercial names. Importing unregistered pesticides (only with import permits) by most flower growers allowed them to use extremely harmful/chemicals toxic to the environment and workers for higher risks. The government’s political commitment in this regard has never been observed in the floriculture industries, where there is no supervision or monitoring at all. In addition, commercial pesticide traders prove unable/unwilling to comply with regulations prescribed by the government proclamation. Among other problems, importation of pesticides with the wrong labels, conflicts of interest between importers (registrants) and double/triple registration of pesticides with the same (ai) under different commercial names cause confusion for retailers and farmers. Moreover, importation without obtaining a prior import permit and requests to import unregistered pesticides have grown over time. At the same time, the responsibility for controlling the pesticide market (inspection) failed in terms of quality control in distribution and use. The retailing of pesticides has been handled by unqualified and unlicensed retailers in shops and open markets with other commodities. Finally, this challenge is particularly critical at farm (local) level. There is substantial overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides by end users, especially by smallholder farmers, due to lack of knowledge, technical support and training on hazards and risks associated with pesticides. Challenges to pesticide governance throughout the pesticide supply chain has resulted in negative policy outcomes for the environment and human health, particularly with the failure of state authorities to actively engage non-state actors in the complex pesticide registration, distribution and use system. Following the findings in this thesis, these situations call for the reshaping of the pesticide governance system throughout the country. To effectively address the human health and environmental impacts of pesticides requires a pesticide governance system that facilitates agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Vergelijking tussen gangbaar en emissieloos teeltsysteem : waterefficiënte Emissieloze Kas
Os, Erik van; Ruijven, Jim van; Janse, Jan ; Beerling, Ellen ; Staaij, Marieke van der; Kaarsemaker, Ruud - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1406) - 62
paprika's - capsicum annuum - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - emissiereductie - emissie - stikstof - fosfaat - voedingsstoffen - pesticiden - sweet peppers - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - emission reduction - emission - nitrogen - phosphate - nutrients - pesticides
Stricter legislation forces growers to decrease discharge of water with nitrogen, phosphate and plant protection products. A demonstration was set-up to compare emission free cultivation with a traditional growing method. Goal was to achieve a comparable yield and quality. Essential differences were disinfection of rainwater, ring pipes for drip irrigation, no discharge of first drain in cultivation, a filter without rinsing and weekly analysis of the nutrient solution. It appeared that production and quality were similar as were other climate parameters. Water use was higher in emission free crop, discharge was 4% in traditional crop realizing 152 kg N discharge per ha per year, which was more than the allowed 133 kg. Specific end cultivation strategy is useful to decrease nitrogen and phosphate stored in slabs and stock containers.
Pesticides in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) : a scoping study of current and future use, associated risks and identification of actions for risk mitigation
Lahr, Joost ; Buij, Ralph ; Katagira, Franciska ; Valk, Harold van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2760) - 71
pesticides - environmental management - risk - health - integrated pest management - extension - tanzania - pesticiden - milieubeheer - risico - gezondheid - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - voorlichting
SAGCOT, the ‘Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania’, is a coordinated initiative to boost agricultural output in southern Tanzania through public and private investment, to improve food security, reduce rural poverty and sustain the environment. The ‘Sustainability and Inclusion Strategy for Growth Corridors in Africa’ (SUSTAIN-Africa) programme by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) develops and demonstrates climate resilient solutions for water security and inclusive land resource and agricultural development in growth corridors and areas of intensive economic development in Africa. To develop an efficient, competitive and sustainable agricultural sector in SAGCOT, possible adverse effects of pesticide use need to be addressed and minimized. For this purpose a scoping study was conducted, consisting of a literature survey, a scoping mission and a stakeholder workshop. The study revealed that there are many issues related to pesticide management and pesticide risks that need attention when the SAGCOT is further developed and pesticide use increases. The most important recommendations of the study are (1) better implementation and enforcement of current rules and regulations for pesticides, (2) training and awareness creation for pesticide users, (3) creation of a multi-stakeholder platform for exchange on best pest and pesticide management practices in the SAGCOT, (4) a regulatory body at the local government authority level to enforce/monitor pesticide management and life cycle, and (5) development of a monitoring and evaluation framework on pesticides for the SAGCOT.
Effect van klimaatverandering en vergrijzing op waterkwaliteit en drinkwaterfunctie van Maas en Rijn
Sjerps, Rosa M.A. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Zwolsman, G.J. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)augustus.
climatic change - drinking water - water quality - surface water - pesticides - radiography - drug residues - water pollution - river meuse - river rhine - prognosis - klimaatverandering - drinkwater - waterkwaliteit - oppervlaktewater - pesticiden - radiografie - geneesmiddelenresiduen - waterverontreiniging - maas - rijn - prognose
Door de vergrijzing zal de emissie van geneesmiddelen en röntgencontrastmiddelen naar het oppervlaktewater toenemen. De effecten van toenemende emissies op de waterkwaliteit worden versterkt bij lage rivierafvoeren, die naar verwachting steeds vaker en langduriger zullen optreden in een veranderend klimaat. In deze studie zijn prognoses gemaakt van de toekomstige concentraties van een aantal relevante organische microverontreinigingen in de Rijn en Maas in het jaar 2050. De voorspelde concentraties van diverse geneesmiddelen en röntgencontrastmiddelen in de Rijn en de Maas overschrijden de ERM-streefwaarden voor oppervlaktewater als bron van drinkwater. Sporen van enkele organische microverontreinigingen kunnen doordringen in het drinkwater.
Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia : a case of surface water systems
Teklu, B.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Paul van den Brink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578104 - 152 p.
surface water - water systems - water pollution - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - pesticides - aquatic ecology - aquatic organisms - irrigation systems - ethiopia - oppervlaktewater - watersystemen - waterverontreiniging - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - pesticiden - aquatische ecologie - waterorganismen - irrigatiesystemen - ethiopië

The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently being used in Europe and elsewhere in the world is tailored to the Ethiopian situation to quantify the risks. Suitability of toxicity data used as an input for risk assessment usually taken from the temperate world was checked through simple toxicity testing of Ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates. Subsequent monitoring activities to see the actual residue levels of pesticides in rivers and temporary ponds adjacent to extensive farming activities was also done and results compared with model prediction values. Combining all this knowledge is believed to bring the current pesticide registration system in Ethiopia one step closer to be a more reliable method, protecting non-target organisms as well as the health of humans at risk.

'Standaard Water’ voor toetsing zuiveringstechnologie voor de glastuinbouw
Ruijven, Jim van; Blok, C. ; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Os, E.A. van - \ 2016
Wageningen UR - 3 p.
waterzuivering - pesticiden - glastuinbouw - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - water treatment - pesticides - greenhouse horticulture - water pollution - water quality
Het is noodzakelijk zuiveringstechnieken op een objectieve manier te toetsen op effectiviteit in de verwijdering van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen uit glastuinbouw lozingswater met water dat representatief is voor de glastuinbouw. Hiervoor is het in dit document beschreven ‘Standaard Water’ ontwikkeld. Dit water wordt gebruikt om op een gestandaardiseerde en reproduceerbare manier technologieën te beoordelen en heeft daarom een vastgestelde samenstelling. Het water dient als standaard voor lozingswater uit zowel substraat- als grondgebonden teelten en bevat nutriënten en sporenelementen, organische en minerale vervuiling en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen.
Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment : a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil
Yang, X. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; Violette Geissen, co-promotor(en): Hans Mol; Fei Wang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576759 - 152 p.
pesticides - risk assessment - pesticide residues - glyphosate - loess soils - soil pollution - erosion - china - pesticiden - risicoschatting - pesticidenresiduen - glyfosaat - lössgronden - bodemverontreiniging - erosie

Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil

Xiaomei Yang

Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. Taking into account the situation of intense farming, pesticide use and erosion in China, and in the loess area in particular, this study aims to further the science of pesticide risk assessment by increasing the understanding of the fate of glyphosate and its main metabolite AMPA while also assessing their risks related to soil erosion in Chinese loess soil. Four main objectives are conducted:

1) Assessment of farmers’ knowledge and awareness of pesticide use in the Wei River catchment

In this study, we presented the information for the knowledge and awareness of pesticide risks via face-to-face interview among farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned about the use and risk related to of pesticide use mainly by oral communication (p<0.01), rather than by introduction labelled on pesticide package bag/bottle and media tools (TV/newspaper/Internet/books). Protective measures were inadequate and washing hands (>70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene after spraying, comparing to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes. Regarding to dealing with the packages or containers of pesticide, farmers dumped them directly onto the land or into water, and over 85% of farmers claimed to use illegal pesticides. Compared to farmers, pesticide retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides. Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China.

2) Investigation of off-site transport of glyphosate and AMPA by runoff and erosion in Chinese loess soil

In this study, we assessed the short-term transport (1h duration, 1 mm min-1 rainfall) of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) related to erosion and runoff on bare loess soil with different slopes (10° and 20°)and application rates (3.6 kg ha-1 and 7.2 kg ha-1) in hydraulic flumes. Significant power and exponent function described a significantly negative relation between rainfall duration and the content of glyphosate and AMPA (p<0.01) in runoff and suspended load, respectively. The transport rate of glyphosate (including AMPA) by runoff and suspended load was approximately 4% and 10% of the applied amount, respectively indicating that it mainly underlies particulate transport. The glyphosate and AMPA content in the flume soil at the end of the experiment (after 1h) decreased significantly with depth (p<0.05), and 72, 2, and 3% of the applied glyphosate (including AMPA) remained in the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively. Thus, the risk of leaching was low. In view of loss of 14 % of the initially applied glyphosate after 1 h, “buffer zone”, referred as the protection area for ecosystem discharge between farming land and public rivers, is strongly recommended, especially in regions where rain-induced soil erosion is common.

3) Investigation of the on-site fate of glyphosate and AMPA formation in Chinese loess soil

In this study, we observed glyphosate decay, erosion and runoff related transport of glyphosate and AMPA at different slopes (10° and 20°) and application rates (3.6 kg ha-1 and 7.2 kg ha-1) under field condition during 35 d, September-October in 2012 (16.8±2.1°C with 35 mm rainfall in total) and July-August in 2013 (27 ± 2.3°C with 74 mm rainfall in total). The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d) in the upper 2 cm of soil following a first-order rate of decay. AMPA content in the 0-2 cm soil layer correspondingly peaked 3 d after glyphosate application and then gradually decreased. The residues of glyphosate and AMPA decreased significantly with soil depth (p<0.05) independently of the slope inclination and application rate. About 0.36% of the glyphosate initially applied was transported off-site plots after one erosive rain 2 days after the application. Glyphosate and AMPA concentration in runoff were low while the contents in the sediment was much higher than in the upper 2 cm of the soil. This suggested that even though the transported glyphosate is limited, the off-site risk of glyphosate and AMPA is high. Consequently, a realistic erosion-pesticide model should be developed that can simulate the particulate-facilitated transport of glyphosate and its off-site risks involving decay processes.

4) Off-site risk assessment of particle-facilitated pesticide transport related to erosion

In this study, we have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide displacement by runoff and erosion that explicitly accounts for water infiltration, erosion, runoff, and pesticide transport and degradation in soil. The conceptual framework was based on broadly accepted assumptions such as the convection-dispersion equation and lognormal distributions of soil properties associated with transport, sorption, degradation, and erosion. To illustrate the concept, a few assumptions are made with regard to runoff in relatively flat agricultural fields: dispersion is ignored and erosion is modelled by a functional relationship. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the total mass of pesticide associated with soil eroded by water scouring increased with slope, rain intensity, and water field capacity of the soil. The mass of transported pesticide decreased as the micro-topography of the soil surface became more distinct. The timing of pesticide spraying and rate of degradation before erosion negatively affected the total amount of transported pesticide. The mechanisms involved in pesticide displacement, such as runoff, infiltration, soil erosion, and pesticide transport and decay in the topsoil, were all explicitly accounted for, so the mathematical complexity of their description can be high, depending on the situation.

Overall, the outcome of this study indicates that it is urgent to improve farmers knowledge and awareness on pesticide use in order to reduce pesticide risks before they are applied in environmental system. The rapid decay of glyphosate to AMPA in loess soil suggests that on-site risks of glyphosate is mainly related to AMPA, especially under warmer climatic conditions. The off-site transport of glyphosate in our study was about 14% of the applied dose after 1 h of rainfall indicating that the off-site risks of glyphosate should be taken into account in regions highly prone to soil erosion. The concept of particulate transport elaborated in objective 4 should be incorporated in existing erosion models, such as LISEM, to predict off-site effects of glyphosate applications.

Adapting greenhouse climate for enhanced biocontrol and better performance of plant protection products
Vänninen, I. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse 12) - 2 p.
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - natural enemies - pesticides - environmental temperature - humidity - lighting - carbon dioxide - plant health - organic farming - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - natuurlijke vijanden - pesticiden - omgevingstemperatuur - vochtigheid - verlichting - kooldioxide - plantgezondheid - biologische landbouw
In greenhouse crop production, climatic parameters are often manipulated to optimize plant growth. Greenhouse climate has profound influences also on pests and their natural enemies used for biocontrol. The responses of arthropod pests, plant disease agents and natural enemies to constant temperatures and humidity are relatively well known, but many pertinent questions remain unsolved for pest and natural enemy biology and behaviour in conditions created by the newest greenhouse climate technologies and approaches. Greenhouse climate can be optimized also to benefit natural enemies and to work against pests and plant diseases, but we know less how to make this happen than we know how to manipulate plant growth through temperature, humidity, CO2 and light conditions.
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