Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions
Salmon, S.J. ; Vet, E. de; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Fennis, B.M. ; Veltkamp, M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 45 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 113 - 120.
limited-resource account - ego depletion - physical-activity - decision-making - strength model - united-states - food choices - behavior - consumption - motivation
Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a healthy product was associated with a social proof heuristic, referring to the tendency to adopt the option preferred by others. A healthy low-fat cheese was promoted with banners stating it was the most sold cheese in that supermarket. A state of low self-control was experimentally induced in the supermarket, and compared to a high self-control condition. Participants low in self-control were more likely to buy the low-fat cheese, when this product was associated with the social proof heuristic, compared to when it was not. This suggests that under low self-control conditions, presenting social proof cues may benefit healthy purchases.
Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review
Borg, S.J. ter; Verlaan, S. ; Mijnarends, D. ; Schols, J.M.G.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Luiking, Y.C. - \ 2015
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 66 (2015)4. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 242 - 255.
dietary-protein intake - dependent elderly population - nutritional-status - cognitive function - physical-activity - food-consumption - body-composition - energy-intake - people - health
Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy and macronutrient intakes and possible inadequacies in community-dwelling older adults. PubMed and EMBASE were screened up to December 2013; data from national nutrition surveys were added. Forty-six studies were included, following the PRISMA guideline. Key Messages: Mean daily energy intake was 8.9 MJ in men and 7.3 MJ in women. Mean daily carbohydrate and protein intakes were 46 and 15 En% in men and 47 and 16 En% in women, respectively. Mean daily total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acid intakes were respectively 34, 13, 13 and 5-6 En%. The carbohydrates and MUFA intakes are below the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR). Fat intake is relatively high, and SFA intake exceeds the upper-AMDR. Based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, 10-12% of older adults do not meet the EAR for protein. To interpret a possible energy imbalance additional information is needed on physical activity, energy expenditure and body weight changes. This systematic review indicates a suboptimal dietary macronutrient distribution and a large variation in nutrient intakes among community-dwelling older adults.
Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes
Campmans-Kuijpers, M.J.E. ; Sluijs, I. van der; Sluik, D. - \ 2015
Cardiovascular Diabetology 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2840 - 10 p.
randomized controlled-trial - glycemic load values - dietary-protein - european countries - physical-activity - body-weight - index - nutrition - cancer - fat
Background: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study included 6,107 diabetes patients from 15 European cohorts. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded. At recruitment, validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable adjusted linear regression was used to examine the associations between dietary carbohydrate substitution with protein and 5-year weight change, and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for (CVD) mortality. Results: Annual weight loss of patients with type 2 diabetes was 0.17 (SD 1.24) kg. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 (SD 2.3)y, 787 (13%) participants had died, of which 266 (4%) deaths were due to CVD. Substitution of 10 gram dietary carbohydrate with total (ß = 187 [75;299]g) and animal (ß = 196 [137;254]g) protein was associated with mean 5-year weight gain. Substitution for plant protein was not significantly associated with weight change (ß = 82 [-421;584]g). Substitution with plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.79 [0.64;0.97]), whereas substitution with total or animal protein was not associated with (CVD) mortality risk. Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein.
Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults
Swan, E.C. ; Bouwman, L.I. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Aarts, N. ; Koelen, M. - \ 2015
Appetite 89 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 122 - 130.
coronary-heart-disease - life-style choices - socioeconomic inequalities - physical-activity - dietary patterns - social support - public-health - food choice - weight-gain - us adults
Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n¿=¿703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p¿
There are no nonresponders to resistance-type exercise training in older men and women
Churchward-Venne, T.A. ; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Verdijk, L. ; Leenders, M. ; Dirks, M.L. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2015
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 16 (2015)5. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 400 - 411.
fiber contractile function - protein supplementation - myofiber hypertrophy - physical-activity - cluster-analysis - elderly-people - muscle size - sarcopenia - strength - humans
Objective To assess the proposed prevalence of unresponsiveness of older men and women to augment lean body mass, muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and/or physical function following prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Design/Setting/Participants A retrospective analysis of the adaptive response to 12 (n = 110) and 24 (n = 85) weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training in older (>65 years) men and women. Measurements Lean body mass (DXA), type I and type II muscle fiber size (biopsy), leg strength (1-RM on leg press and leg extension), and physical function (chair-rise time) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of resistance-type exercise training. Results Lean body mass increased by 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (range: -3.3 to +5.4 kg; P <.001) from 0 to 12 weeks of training. From 0 to 24 weeks, lean body mass increased by 1.1 ± 0.2 kg (range: -1.8 to +9.2 kg; P <.001). Type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 324 ± 137 µm2 (range: -4458 to +3386 µm2; P = .021), and 701 ± 137 µm2 (range: -4041 to +3904 µm2; P <.001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, type I and II muscle fiber size increased by 360 ± 157 µm2 (range: -3531 to +3426 µm2; P = .026) and 779 ± 161 µm2 (range: -2728 to +3815 µm2; P <.001). The 1-RM strength on the leg press and leg extension increased by 33 ± 2 kg (range: -36 to +87 kg; P <.001) and 20 ± 1 kg (range: -22 to +56 kg; P <.001) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, leg press and leg extension 1-RM increased by 50 ± 3 kg (range: -28 to +145 kg; P <.001) and 29 ± 2 kg (range: -19 to +60 kg; P <.001). Chair-rise time decreased by 1.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +21.6 to -12.5 seconds; P = .003) from 0 to 12 weeks. From 0 to 24 weeks, chair-rise time decreased by 2.3 ± 0.4 seconds (range: +10.5 to -23.0 seconds; P <.001). Nonresponsiveness was not apparent in any subject, as a positive adaptive response on at least one training outcome was apparent in every subject. Conclusions A large heterogeneity was apparent in the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training when changes in lean body mass, muscle fiber size, strength, and physical function were assessed in older men and women. The level of responsiveness was strongly affected by the duration of the exercise intervention, with more positive responses following more prolonged exercise training. We conclude that there are no nonresponders to the benefits of resistance-type exercise training on lean body mass, fiber size, strength, or function in the older population. Consequently, resistance-type exercise should be promoted without restriction to support healthy aging in the older population.
Adapting an effective lifestyle intervention towards individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins: the design of the MetSLIM study
Teuscher, D. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Meershoek, A. ; Renes, R.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Baak, M.A. van - \ 2015
BMC Public Health 15 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 10 p.
tolerance maastricht slim - to-height ratio - glucose-tolerance - risk-factors - cardiovascular-disease - physical-activity - health-promotion - screening tool - implementation - prevalence
Background People with low socioeconomic status (SES) and some ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in lifestyle programmes. Therefore, a lifestyle programme was developed especially targeting these groups. Developing this lifestyle programme and designing an intervention study to test the effectiveness of this programme was an informative process in which several obstacles were encountered and choices had to be made. Study protocols, however, rarely describe these obstacles encountered in the protocol design process, and it is not always clear why researchers made certain choices. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe both the final MetSLIM study protocol and the considerations and choices made in designing this study protocol. Methods/Design The developed MetSLIM study has a quasi-experimental design, targeting 30- to 70-year-old adults with an elevated waist circumference, living in deprived neighbourhoods, of Dutch, Turkish or Moroccan descent. The intervention group participates in a 12-month lifestyle programme consisting of individual dietary advice, four group sessions and weekly sports lessons. The control group receives written information about a healthy lifestyle and one group session provided by a dietician. The study contains an elaborate effect, process and economic evaluation. Outcome measures are, among other things, change in waist circumference and the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Discussion Matching the preferences of the target group, such as their preferred setting, has implications for the entire study protocol. The process evaluation of the MetSLIM study will provide insight into the consequences of the choices made in the MetSLIM study protocol in terms of reach, acceptability and delivery of the programme, and the effect and economic evaluation will provide insight into the (cost)effectiveness of the lifestyle programme in order to reduce waist circumference among individuals with low SES of different ethnic origins.
Dietary patterns, cognitive decline, and dementia: a systematic review
Rest, O. van de; Berendsen, A.M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2015
Advances in Nutrition 6 (2015). - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 154 - 168.
healthy eating index - mediterranean diet - alzheimers-disease - nutritional epidemiology - stop hypertension - physical-activity - randomized-trial - cluster-analysis - elderly-people - blood-pressure
Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline.
Consumption of fatty foods and incident type 2 diabetes in populations from eight European countries
Buijsse, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Drogan, D. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Amiano, P. ; The InterAct Consortium, A. - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 455 - 461.
coronary-heart-disease - dietary-fat - postprandial glycemia - insulin sensitivity - meat consumption - nut consumption - saturated fat - epic-interact - metabolic syndrome - physical-activity
Background/Objectives: Diets high in saturated and trans fat and low in unsaturated fat may increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but studies on foods high in fat per unit weight are sparse. We assessed whether the intake of vegetable oil, butter, margarine, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies is related to incident T2D. Subjects/Methods: A case-cohort study was conducted, nested within eight countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC), with 12¿403 incident T2D cases and a subcohort of 16¿835 people, identified from a cohort of 340¿234 people. Diet was assessed at baseline (1991–1999) by country-specific questionnaires. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) across four categories of fatty foods (nonconsumers and tertiles among consumers) were combined with random-effects meta-analysis. Results: After adjustment not including body mass index (BMI), nonconsumers of butter, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies were at higher T2D risk compared with the middle tertile of consumption. Among consumers, cakes and cookies were inversely related to T2D (HRs across increasing tertiles 1.14, 1.00 and 0.92, respectively; P-trend
Towards a behavioral vaccine: Exposure to accessible temptation when self-regulation is endorsed enhances future resistance to similar temptations in children
Boer, C. de; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Grubliauskiene, A. ; Dewitte, S. - \ 2015
Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 63 - 84.
approach motivation - physical-activity - vending machines - food-deprivation - obesity - delay - gratification - devaluation - consumption - environment
Background: Access to temptation is blamed for the rising prevalence of obesity in children. A popular way to counter this is to restrict physical access to temptation. As restrictions cannot be widely applied and may have adverse long-term effects, we examine whether accessible temptations in situations that endorse self-regulation train self-regulation. Specifically, we design a method that enhances children's self-regulatory skills in the long term. Method: In two studies, participants were exposed to temptation in phase one and their self-regulatory skills were measured in phase two. In Study 1, we endorsed self-regulation in the presence of accessible temptation for four consecutive days and measured consumption on the fifth day. In Study 2, we exposed children to temptation similarly and, in addition, manipulated temptation strength to show that being tempted is crucial for the skill to develop. Next, we measured saliva and preferences. Results: The findings suggest that exposure to temptation in a situation that supports self-regulation leads to better resistance to temptations in later contexts of accessible temptation in girls, but not boys. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that interventions aiming at strengthening children's self-regulatory skills through controlled exposure to temptation might be a productive long-term strategy to reduce consumption of unhealthy food.
Quality assessment of practice nurse communication with type 2 diabetes patients
Mulder, B.C. ; Belzen, M. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2015
Patient Education and Counseling 98 (2015)2. - ISSN 0738-3991 - p. 156 - 161.
primary-care - self-management - physical-activity - interventions - motivation - education - people - medicine - weight - advice
Objective Nurse self-management support for type 2 diabetes patients may benefit from applying theory-based behavior change counseling. The 5As Model was used to assess if, and how, nurses applied the five key elements of self-management support in standard care. Methods Seven practice nurses audio-recorded consultations with 66 patients. An existing instrument for assessing counseling quality was used to determine if the 5As were applied. Applied As were compared with quality criteria, to provide an in-depth assessment. Results In almost every consultation, nurses assessed health behaviors, and arranged a follow-up meeting. However, nurses advised behavior change in less than half of the consultations, while setting goals and assisting patients to overcome barriers were used even less. Comparing applied As with quality criteria revealed several issues that could be improved. Conclusion Nurses consistently discussed health behaviors with patients, but important elements of self-management support were not applied.
Effective Nurse Communication With Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Mulder, B.C. ; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Rutten, G.E.H.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2015
Western Journal of Nursing Research 37 (2015)8. - ISSN 0193-9459 - p. 1100 - 1131.
randomized controlled-trial - life-style change - primary-care - self-care - general-practice - centered care - physical-activity - management - behavior - people
Many type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have difficulties reaching optimal blood glucose control. With patients treated in primary care by nurses, nurse communication plays a pivotal role in supporting patient health. The twofold aim of the present review is to categorize common barriers to nurse–patient communication and to review potentially effective communication methods. Important communication barriers are lack of skills and self-efficacy, possibly because nurses work in a context where they have to perform biomedical examinations and then perform patient-centered counseling from a biopsychosocial approach. Training in patient-centered counseling does not seem helpful in overcoming this paradox. Rather, patient-centeredness should be regarded as a basic condition for counseling, whereby nurses and patients seek to cooperate and share responsibility based on trust. Nurses may be more successful when incorporating behavior change counseling based on psychological principles of self-regulation, for example, goal setting, incremental performance accomplishments, and action planning.
Quality of weight-loss counseling by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: an observational study
Dillen, S. van; Noordman, J. ; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 73 - 78.
nutrition communication styles - physical-activity - general-practice - guidance practices - health-care - intervention - obesity - life - barriers - consultations
Background/objective:To assess the quality of weight-loss counseling provided by Dutch primary care practice nurses (PNs) to overweight and obese patients including both PNs' compliance with the Five A's Model for behavioral counseling in primary care, and the use of different communication styles. In addition, relationships between PN/patient characteristics (including Five A's) and communication styles will be examined.Subjects/methods:In this observational study, 100 videotaped real-life consultations, collected in 2010/2011, were viewed using an observational checklist. Selection of consultations was based on PNs' registration of patient's complaint. The quality of weight-loss counseling was assessed by the Five A's Model (sequence of evidence-based practice behaviors that are effective for helping patients to change health behaviors) and by PNs' communication styles. Moreover, several PN and patient characteristics were registered. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were conducted with significance set at P
Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study
Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; Kromhout, D. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2014
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21 (2014)11. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 1367 - 1375.
cause-specific mortality - all-cause mortality - mediterranean diet - primary prevention - prospective cohort - myocardial-infarction - physical-activity - japanese men - women - metaanalysis
Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759 women aged 20-65 years, free of CVD at baseline. Methods Sufficient physical activity (3.5h/week cycling or sports), a healthy diet (Mediterranean Diet Score 5), (moderate) alcohol consumption (1 beverage/month), non-smoking, and sufficient sleep duration (7 hours) were assessed by self-administered questionnaires between 1994 and 1997. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were ascertained through linkage with national registers. Hazard ratios and preventable proportions were calculated adjusted for age, sex, and educational level. Results During 10-14 years of follow up, 607 composite CVD events (fatal CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) occurred, of which 129 were fatal. Those with the four traditional healthy lifestyle factors had a 57% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.31-0.59) and a 67% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.68) compared with those with none or one healthy lifestyle factor. Sleeping sufficiently in addition to the four traditional lifestyle factors resulted in a 65% lower risk of composite CVD (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.52), and an 83% lower risk of fatal CVD (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.43). Conclusions Sufficient sleep and adherence to all four traditional healthy lifestyle factors was associated with lower CVD risk. When sufficient sleep duration was added to the traditional lifestyle factors, the risk of CVD was further reduced.
Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices
Salmon, S.J. ; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
Health Psychology 33 (2014)2. - ISSN 0278-6133 - p. 103 - 109.
physical-activity - limited-resource - ego depletion - behavior - interventions - metaanalysis - adolescents - success
OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). METHOD: One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. RESULTS: In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. CONCLUSION: Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse.
Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamines A,C and E and the risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Leenders, M. ; Leufkens, A.M. ; Siersema, P.D. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Vrieling, A. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. - \ 2014
International Journal of Cancer 135 (2014)12. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2930 - 2939.
serum alpha-tocopherol - colorectal-cancer - oxidative stress - physical-activity - epic project - antioxidants - retinol - health - cohort - biomarkers
Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (alpha-, beta- and gamma-and delta-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of beta-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend = 0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend = 0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary beta-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties.
Smoking and long-term risk of type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Study in European populations
The InterAct Consortium, A. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; A, D.L. van der; Nilsson, P. ; Balkau, B. ; Beulens, J.W.J. ; Boeing, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kaaks, R. - \ 2014
Diabetes Care 37 (2014)12. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 3164 - 3171.
kora s4/f4 cohort - middle-aged men - cigarette-smoking - insulin-resistance - physical-activity - fat distribution - active smoking - mellitus - women - glucose
OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to investigate the association between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, accounting for a large number of potential confounding factors, and to explore potential effect modifiers and intermediate factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct is a prospective case-cohort study within eight European countries, including 12,403 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals. After exclusion of individuals with missing data, the analyses included 10,327 cases and 13,863 subcohort individuals. Smoking status was used (never, former, current), with never smokers as the reference. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and random-effects meta-analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes. RESULTS In men, the HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes were 1.40 (1.26, 1.55) for former smokers and 1.43 (1.27, 1.61) for current smokers, independent of age, education, center, physical activity, and alcohol, coffee, and meat consumption. In women, associations were weaker, with HRs (95% CI) of 1.18 (1.07, 1.30) and 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) for former and current smokers, respectively. There was some evidence of effect modification by BMI. The association tended to be slightly stronger in normal weight men compared with those with overall adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Former and current smoking was associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with never smoking in men and women, independent of educational level, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. Smoking may be regarded as a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes prevention.
Effects of ambient temperature, feather cover, and housing system on energy partitioning and performance in laying hens
Krimpen, M.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Anker, I. van den; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)11. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 5019 - 5031.
residual feed consumption - physical-activity - genetic-variation - egg-production - fowl - poultry - requirements - selection - patterns
Environmental factors, such as ambient temperature (T), feather cover (FC), and housing system (HS), probably affect energy requirements of laying hens. Using a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, interaction effects of T (11, 16, and 21°C), FC (100 and 50%), and HS (cage and floor housing) on energy partitioning and performance of laying hens were investigated. Six batches of 70 H&N Brown Nick laying hens, divided over 2 respiration chambers, were exposed to the T levels in three 2-wk periods. Heat production (HP) was determined by indirect calorimetry. The ME intake was calculated by subtracting energy in manure/litter from that in feed and wood shavings. The NE was calculated by subtracting HP from ME. The ME intake increased by 1% for each degree reduction in T. In hens with intact plumage, HP was not affected by T, whereas at decreasing T, HP increased in hens with 50% FC (P <0.01). At 21°C, HP was not affected by HS, whereas in the floor system, HP at 16 and 11°C was 5.8 and 3.0% higher, respectively, than in cages (P <0.05). The NE for production was 25.7% higher in cages compared to the floor system (P <0.05). In cages, 24.7% of NE for production was spent on body fat deposition, whereas in the floor system, 9.0% of NE for production was released from body fat reserves. The ME intake was predicted by the equation (R2 = 0.74) ME intake (kJ/d) = 612 BW0.75 – (8.54 × T) + (28.36 × ADG) + (10.43 × egg mass) – (0.972 × FC). Hen performances were not affected by treatments, indicating the adaptive capacity of young laying hens to a broad range of environmental conditions.
Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
Dutch children and parents’ views on active and non-active video gaming
Vet, E. de; Wesselman, M. ; Simons, M. - \ 2014
Health Promotion International 29 (2014)2. - ISSN 0957-4824 - p. 235 - 243.
physical-activity - sedentary behaviors - obesity - overweight - games - adolescents - youth
Active video games that require whole body movement to play the game may be an innovative health promotion tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to children's health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active by active gaming, opinions about active and non-active video games are explored among 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Six qualitative, semi-structured focus groups were held with 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 46) and four with their parents (n = 19) at three different primary schools in The Netherlands. The focus groups with children discussed game preferences, gaming context and perceived game-related parenting. The focus groups with parents addressed considerations in purchasing video games, perceived positive and negative consequences of gaming, and game-related parenting. Both children and their parents were very positive about active video games and preferred active games over non-active games. Active video games were considered more social than non-active video games, and active games were played more often together with friends and family than non-active video games. Parenting practices did not differ for active and non-active video games, although some parents were less strict regarding active games. Two conditions for practical implementation were met: children enjoyed active video games, and parents were willing to buy active video games. Active video games were preferred to non-active video games, illustrating that using active video games is a promising health promotion tool to reduce sedentary pastime in youth.
Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study
Kröger, J. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Romaguera, D. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
Diabetologia 57 (2014)2. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 321 - 333.
chronic disease - fatty-acids - mediterranean diet - insulin-resistance - physical-activity - quality index - risk-factors - dash diet - nutrition - cancer
Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in European populations. Methods - From among a case-cohort of 12,403 incident diabetes cases and 16,154 subcohort members nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used data on 9,682 cases and 12,595 subcohort participants from seven countries. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline with country-specific dietary questionnaires. Two diet-quality scores (alternative Healthy Eating Index [aHEI], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] score) and three reduced rank regression (RRR)-derived dietary-pattern scores were constructed. Country-specific HRs were calculated and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results - After multivariable adjustment, including body size, the aHEI and DASH scores were not significantly associated with diabetes, although for the aHEI there was a tendency towards an inverse association in countries with higher mean age. We observed inverse associations of the three RRR-derived dietary-pattern scores with diabetes: HRs (95% CIs) for a 1-SD difference were 0.91 (0.86, 0.96), 0.92 (0.84, 1.01) and 0.87 (0.82, 0.92). Random-effects meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between countries that was explainable by differences in the age of participants or the distribution of dietary intake. Conclusions/interpretation - Adherence to specific RRR-derived dietary patterns, commonly characterised by high intake of fruits or vegetables and low intake of processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and refined grains, may lower type 2 diabetes risk.
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