Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Comparing groups of Brazilian cattle farmers with different levels of intention to use improved natural grassland
Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
Livestock Science 178 (2015). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 296 - 305.
planned behavior - conservation practices - dairy farmers - water conservation - risk perception - adoption - management - decisions - attitudes - technologies
This study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to analyze the intention of Brazilian farmers to use improved natural grassland. The TPB hypothesizes that the adoption of an innovation is driven by the intention to use it, which in turn is determined by three socio-psychological constructs: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These constructs are derived from beliefs. The theoretical framework and model were applied to a sample of 214 Brazilian cattle farmers. Based on the socio-psychological constructs that influence intention, two groups of farmers were identified; farmers that were willing and farmers that were unwilling to use improved natural grassland. Results showed that compared to unwilling farmers, willing farmers evaluated the use of improved natural grassland on their farms more favorably (attitude), they felt a greater social pressure upon them to adopt this innovation (social norm), and they reported a higher capability (perceived behavioral control) to use improved natural grassland. Willing and unwilling farmers also differed in their behavioral beliefs concerning the outcomes of using improved natural grassland, their normative beliefs concerning important others, and their control beliefs concerning factors that could facilitate or inhibit the use of improved natural grassland. The two groups did not differ in most of their socioeconomic characteristics, but did differ in their goals and relative risk attitudes.
Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?
Verain, M.C.D. ; Dagevos, H. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2015
Appetite 91 (2015)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 375 - 384.
norm activation model - meat consumption - organic food - animal-welfare - australian consumers - planned behavior - green consumer - human health - fair trade - attitudes
Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.
Encouraging sustainability in the workplace: a survey on the pro-environmental behaviour of university employees
Blok, V. ; Wesselink, R. ; Studynka, O. ; Kemp, R.G.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 106 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 55 - 67.
planned behavior - proenvironmental behavior - life-styles - ecological behavior - situational factors - higher-education - values - attitudes - norms - determinants
In order to enhance more sustainable behaviour in households, recent research focuses on the identification of factors that have an impact on sustainable or pro-environmental behaviour. The aim of this study is to identify factors that could predict pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. While many studies focused on the behaviour of households, this study is one of the first that focuses exclusively on pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. Based on a comprehensive literature review, two groups of factors were identified which could predict pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace: internal factors and external factors. Next, the model was tested among employees of a green university in the Netherlands. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the theory of planned behaviour can explain pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. At the same time, the results show that there are clear differences between factors influencing pro-environmental behaviour in households and in the workplace. Furthermore, also other factors like leadership support and exemplary pro-environmental behaviour by leaders are at stake in case of pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace, and have a significant positive impact on employee's intention to act pro-environmentally. The findings of this study have various managerial implications for green companies and organizations in general and green universities in particular.
Collective agri-environment schemes: How can regionalenvironmental cooperatives enhance farmers’ intentions foragri-environment schemes?
Dijk, W.F.A. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Berendse, F. ; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2015
Land Use Policy 42 (2015). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 759 - 766.
perceived behavioral-control - planned behavior - agricultural landscapes - social identity - self-efficacy - group norms - biodiversity - conservation - management - england
The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecologically and socially sustainable. In the Netherlands, some AES are performed collectively by large regional groups of farmers called Environmental Cooperatives (EC). We hypothesise that these cooperatives enhance farmers’ intention to participate by facilitating the application of AES, but also by generating group pressure. In the study at hand, we used an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to investigate which factors are associated with farmers’ intention to participate in two kinds of collective AES (ditch bank management and the protection of meadow birds). Our results demonstrate that attitude and perceived personal ability to participate in these AES are associated with the intention of farmers to participate in ditch bank management. However, for the protection of meadow birds, social pressure, self-identity and facilitation by the EC also relate to the intention of farmers. We conclude that the facilitation undertaken by ECs positively relates to farmers’ intention to participate in collective AES.
The proof is in the eating: subjective peer norms are associated with adolescents’ eating behaviour
Stok, F.M. ; Vet, E. de; Wit, J.B.F. ; Luszczynska, A. ; Safron, M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)6. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1044 - 1051.
social norms - planned behavior - implementation intentions - health consequences - obesity - consumption - predictors - overweight - childhood - children
Objective To investigate associations of self-perceived eating-related peer norms (called ‘subjective peer norms’) with adolescents’ healthy eating intentions and intake of healthy and unhealthy food. Design Cross-sectional data were collected in a large international survey Setting Two types of subjective peer norms were assessed: perceived peer encouragement of healthy eating and perceived peer discouragement of unhealthy eating. Outcome variables were healthy eating intentions, intake of healthy food (fruits and vegetables) and intake of unhealthy food (snacks and soft drinks). Subjects Over 2500 European (pre-)adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years participated. Results Subjective peer norms were associated with all three outcome variables. While both perceived encouragement of healthy eating and perceived discouragement of unhealthy eating were related to intentions, only peer encouragement of healthy eating was related to intakes of both healthy and unhealthy food. Conclusions Subjective peer norms play a role in adolescent eating behaviour and as such are an important target for health promotion. Addressing norms that encourage healthy eating may be more promising in changing behaviour than norms that discourage unhealthy eating.
Psychosocial correlates of the motivation to abstain from sexual intercourse among Indonesian adolescents
Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Damayanti, R. ; Rijsdijk, E. ; Eiling, E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Kok, G. - \ 2014
Tropical Medicine and International Health 19 (2014)1. - ISSN 1360-2276 - p. 74 - 82.
planned behavior - hiv prevention - condom use - predictors - model - intentions - metaanalysis - attitudes - efficacy - students
ObjectivesAdolescents in Indonesia have limited access to sexuality education, resulting in increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies. This study aimed to understand psychosocial correlates of sexual abstinence intentions to inform future sexuality education. MethodsData were collected in 79 secondary schools among 2315 students, aged 14-20years, in Jambi, Lampung, Jakarta and Bali. A self-completed questionnaire measured attitudes, risk perception, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards sexual abstinence. ResultsSignificant associations with intention to abstain from sexual intercourse were found for experience with sexual intercourse, perceived behavioural control, attitude and subjective norms of peers and parents, explaining 31% of the variance in abstinence intention. ConclusionsTo promote adolescents' informed sexual decision-making, sexuality education programmes in Indonesia may benefit from addressing past sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control, subjective norms of peers and attitudes.
Environmentally friendly consumer choices: Cultural differences in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt
Onwezen, M.C. ; Bartels, J. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Psychology 40 (2014). - ISSN 0272-4944 - p. 239 - 248.
testing measurement invariance - public transportation - conscious emotions - planned behavior - organic food - shame - identity - norms - individualism - embarrassment
Anticipated self-conscious emotions, such as pride and guilt, help individuals to behave in line with their personal and social standards regarding the environment. We seek to explore whether ths self-regulatory role of anticipated pride and guilt functions similarly across individuals from different cultures (N = 3854). We show that there are no differences across countries in the selfregulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt within collectivistic and indivudualistic cultures but that there are differences between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. For example, for individuals from individualistic countries, anticipated emotions are more strongly affected by attitudes than they are for individuals from collectivistic countries. The results provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more social in nature for individuals from collectivistic than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal.
The self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt in a sustainable and healthy consumption context
Onwezen, M.C. ; Bartels, J. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2014
European Journal of Social Psychology 44 (2014)1. - ISSN 0046-2772 - p. 53 - 68.
food-frequency questionnaire - planned behavior - social norms - conscious emotions - positive emotions - organic food - environmental behavior - additional predictor - climate-change - public-health
Although individuals generally value health and sustainability, they do not always behave in a manner that is consistent with their standards. The current study examines whether attitudes and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) can evoke anticipted pride and guilt, which, in turn, guide behavioural intentions. This self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt is exajied int he theory of Planned Behaviours (TPB) extended with descriptive norms. Study 1 (N + 944) was a cross-sectional study in a sustainable (organic) behaviour context, and Study 2 (N = 990) was a study with a delayed outcome measure in a sustainable (fair trade) and a healthy (fruit consumption) behaviour context. We demonstrate that both negative and positive self-conscious emotions guide behaviour because they mediate the effects of both attitudes and social norms on intentions. Furthermore, the results show that the mediating effects of anticipated pride and guilt significantly improve the explanatory pwer of the extended TPB in all contexts; however, there are differences in the size of the effects, such that the mediating effect of emotions is larger in a sustainable compared to a healthy context. Theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.
Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries
Poinhos, R. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Rankin, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Bunting, B. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Stewart-Knox, B. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
protection motivation theory - food-related hazards - self-efficacy - planned behavior - cardiovascular-disease - health behavior - predictive-validity - perceived control - attitude-change - fear appeals
Objective To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict people’s intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants’ perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards personalised nutrition, and the greater their intention to adopt it. Higher levels of nutrition self-efficacy were related to more positive attitudes towards, and a greater expressed intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. Other constructs positively impacting attitudes towards personalised nutrition included more positive perceptions of the efficacy of regulatory control to protect consumers (e.g. in relation to personal data protection), higher self-reported internal health locus of control, and health commitment. Although higher perceived risk had a negative relationship with attitude and an inverse relationship with perceived benefit, its effects on attitude and intention to adopt personalised nutrition was less influential than perceived benefit. The model was stable across the different European countries, suggesting that psychological factors determining adoption of personalised nutrition have generic applicability across different European countries. Conclusion The results suggest that transparent provision of information about potential benefits, and protection of consumers’ personal data is important for adoption, delivery of public health benefits, and commercialisation of personalised nutrition.
Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention
Elsman, E.B.M. ; Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Beek, J. ter; Duijzer, G. ; Jansen, S.C. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458
life-style-intervention - primary-health-care - physical-activity intervention - randomized controlled-trials - impaired glucose-tolerance - real-world settings - term weight-loss - behavior-change - planned behavior - follow-up
Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. Methods The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. Results The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. Conclusions The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.
How Norms Work: Self-Identification, Attitude, and Self-Efficacy Mediate the Relation between Descriptive Social Norms and Vegetable Intake
Stok, F.M. ; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Wit, J.B.F. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 6 (2014)2. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 230 - 250.
planned behavior - identity - consumption - information - obesity - fruit - diet
Background: The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy). Methods: In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipulated (majority vs. minority norm). Study 1 investigated both the relation between baseline vegetable intake and self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy, as well as the effect of the norm manipulation on vegetable intake over a one-week period. Study 2 investigated potential mediation of the effect of the manipulation on vegetable intake intentions through self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Results: Study 1 showed that the proposed mediators were related to a baseline measure of vegetable intake. Moreover, in participants identifying strongly with the norm referent group, majority norms led to higher vegetable consumption than minority norms. Study 2 showed that the direct effect of the social norm manipulation on vegetable intake intentions was partly mediated by self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Conclusions: These studies shed first light on processes underlying the effect of descriptive social norms on health behavior. A norm describing the behavior of a salient social group leads people to identify more with, have more positive attitudes toward, and feel more self-efficacious regarding that behavior.
There is an I in nature: The crucial role of the self in nature conservation
Lokhorst, A.M. ; Hoon, C. ; Rutte, R.J.M. le; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 121 - 126.
pro-environmental behavior - planned behavior - place attachment - ecosystem services - social identity - group norms - farmers - connectedness - metaanalysis - connections
In this paper we analyze the social-psychological determinants of private nature conservation. As a theoretical framework we use the Theory of Planned Behavior, to which the concepts connectedness to nature, self-identity, and place attachment were added. 94 landowners participated in our survey. Results of this pilot study show that perceived behavioral control, self-identity and connectedness to nature are the key factors influencing the intention to conserve. The more farmers feel that they are capable of conserving nature on their farm, the more they see themselves as conservationists, and the more they feel connected to nature, the more likely they are to intend to conserve. An important finding is that self-identity mediates the relation between CNS and conservation intentions. This implies that with an increased connectedness to nature, people come to see themselves as conservationists and this in turn influences their intentions. Of course, these results need to be replicated and validated across different contexts. We discuss the implications of this study for future research and policy.
Influence of interpretation on conservation intentions of whale tourists
Jacobs, M.H. ; Harms, M. - \ 2014
Tourism Management 42 (2014). - ISSN 0261-5177 - p. 123 - 131.
willingness-to-pay - planned behavior - proenvironmental behavior - environmental attitudes - emotion - education - wildlife - values - model - consistency
The concept of interpretation denotes on-site education while people engage in a guided nature-based activity. The literature suggests that interpretation influences conservation intentions but does not reveal whether the effect is constituted by interpretation or by other aspects of the guided activity. This study examined the effect of interpretation on conservation intentions on top of a wildlife viewing tour without interpretation, and differentiated among interpretation contents. In a field experiment among whale watchers, four interpretation conditions were implemented: (1) no interpretation (control group), (2) knowledge content, (3) responsibility content, and (4) emotion content. Whale conservation intentions were measured before and after the whale watching experience. The results indicate that interpretation has an effect on whale conservation intentions. The effect of emotion interpretation was larger than were the effects of knowledge interpretation and responsibility interpretation. Incorporating emotional messages, then, could contribute to successful interpretation in terms of promoting conservation among tourists
A conceptual approach for a quantitative economic analysis of farmers’ decision-making regarding animal welfare
Gocsik, E. ; Saatkamp, H.W. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2014)2. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 287 - 308.
willingness-to-pay - multiattribute utility-theory - conjoint-analysis - production systems - planned behavior - attitudes - values - objectives - management - goals
Decisions related to animal welfare (AW) standards depend on farmer’s multiple goals and values and are constrained by a wide range of external and internal forces. The aim of this paper is twofold, i.e., (1) to develop a theoretical framework for farmers’ AW decisions that incorporates farmers’ goals, use and non-use values and (2) to present an approach to empirically implement the theoretical framework. The farmer as a head of the farm household makes choices regarding production to maximize the utility of the household. The overall utility of the farmer is determined by his multiple objectives. For the analysis of multi-objective problems, the multiple criteria decision-making paradigm provides an appropriate theoretical framework. However, theories from the field of social-psychology are needed to facilitate the identification of all relevant aspects in the decision making (i.e., factors that explain behavior). The practical use of the conceptual framework is demonstrated using a simple numerical application of a multi-objective programming model. Two workshops were devoted to examining the scientific consistency and the practical usefulness of the approach. Implementing this approach will increase knowledge of the main factors and barriers that determine farmers’ decisions with regard to AW standards. This knowledge is relevant during the development of new AW concepts that aims to supply products that comply with above-legal AW standards for middle-market segments.
Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya
Talsma, E.F. ; Boonstra, A. ; Kok, B.P.H. de; Mbera, G.N.K. ; Mwangi, A.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
health belief model - willingness-to-pay - planned behavior - consumer acceptability - replicated difference - rural mozambique - preference tests - maize products - sweet-potato - intention
Background: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Methods: Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Results: Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((beta = 0.29, P =
Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren
Abizari, A.R. ; Pilime, N. ; Armar-Klemesu, M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
health belief model - planned behavior - phytic acid - vigna-unguiculata - consumer preferences - iron bioavailability - temporal stability - young-women - molar ratio - consumption
Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9–8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7–4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477–1110 mg/100 g d.w) and polyphenol (327–1055 mg/100 g d.w). Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs = 0.72, P
The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in environmental behaviour
Onwezen, M.C. ; Antonides, G. ; Bartels, J. - \ 2013
Journal of Economic Psychology 39 (2013). - ISSN 0167-4870 - p. 141 - 153.
maximum-likelihood-estimation - self-conscious emotions - planned behavior - responsible behavior - decision-making - personal norms - intentions - choice - determinants - orientation
The Norm Activation Model (NAM; Schwartz, 1977) is a vested model that explains altruistic and environmentally friendly behaviour. Although research states that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with the NAM, these associations are not yet fully understood. The current study provides an overview of the literature that refers to anticipated pride and guilt within the NAM. Moreover, we aim to increase our understanding of these associations through theoretical arguments and a study conducted in the Netherlands. We hypothesised that anticipated pride and guilt cause individuals to behave themselves in a manner that is in line with personal norms. This proposition regarding the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt was confirmed by our study; anticipated emotions mediate the effects of personal norms on behaviour. These associations remained after including the Theory of Planned Behaviour in the NAM, although in the integrated NAM–TPB model, anticipated emotions affected behaviour via behavioural intentions. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.
Regulatory fit effects for injunctive versus descriptive social norms: Evidence from the promotion of sustainable products
Melnyk, V. ; Herpen, E. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Marketing Letters 24 (2013)2. - ISSN 0923-0645 - p. 191 - 203.
consumer-behavior - planned behavior - feeling right - focus - persuasion - metaanalysis - conformity
Consumers face marketing messages using social norms in many situations where different goals are dominant. This research examines moderating effects of regulatory focus for descriptive and injunctive norms in the promotion of sustainable products. More specifically, it shows that descriptive norms have a better fit with a promotion than prevention focus, while this is not the case for injunctive norms. Three experiments examine consequences for perceived message fluency, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Experiment 1 investigates regulatory focus when induced before a normative message, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 investigate regulatory elements ingrained in the message itself. Results show that messages with descriptive norms are perceived as more fluent and have a stronger impact on attitudes and intentions when promotion goals are salient than when prevention goals are salient. Unlike descriptive norms, injunctive norms are not affected by regulatory focus. Marketers using descriptive norms should develop message wording and context accordingly.
Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour
Verkooijen, K.T. ; Bruijn, G.J. de - \ 2013
Psychology, Health & Medicine 18 (2013)4. - ISSN 1354-8506 - p. 490 - 499.
vigorous physical-activity - planned behavior - reasoned action - metaanalysis - norms - variables
Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age¿=¿21.5, SD¿=¿3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between social comparison and exercise behaviour mediated by exercise self-identity and (2) a moderation model proposing an association between exercise behaviour and self-identity moderated by social comparison. Results of the mediation analyses revealed partial mediation of the social comparison – exercise behaviour relationship by self-identity in females. Results of the moderation analyses revealed in males a significant interaction of social comparison with exercise behaviour in the prediction of self-identity – the positive association between exercise behaviour and exercise self-identity showed only significant among male students who believed to exercise equally much or less than peers. Possible explanations and implications for exercise promotion are discussed.
Towards Effective Nature Conservation on Farmland: Making Farmers Matter
Snoo, G.R. de; Herzon, I. ; Staats, H. ; Burton, R.J.F. ; Schindler, S. ; Dijk, J. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Bullock, J.M. ; Lobley, M. ; Wrbka, T. ; Schwarz, G. ; Musters, C.J.M. - \ 2013
Conservation Letters 6 (2013)1. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 66 - 72.
agri-environment schemes - planned behavior - farming styles - personal norms - biodiversity - management - landscapes - diversity - policy - birds
Until now the main instrument to counteract the loss of biodiversity and landscape quality in the European countryside has been Agri-Environment Schemes (AES), which offer short term payments for performing prescribed environmental management behaviours. In our opinion this approach is, in its current set-up, not a sustainable way of enhancing biodiversity and landscape quality. Here we will argue that conservation in agricultural areas is also a social challenge. To change farmers’ behaviours towards more sustainable conservation of farmland biodiversity, instruments should aim to influence individual farmer's motivation and behaviour. We should aim to place farmland biodiversity ‘in the hands and minds of farmers’.
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